Skip to main content

Full text of "Toadstools, mushrooms, Fungi, edible and poisonous; one thousand American Fungi; how to select and cook the edible; how to distinguish and avoid the poisonous, with full botanic descriptions"

See other formats











Revised Throughout by CHARLES FREDERIC MILLSPAUGH, Curator 

of Botany, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, with 

Supplementary Chapter and Many 

New Illustrations 



Copyright 1900 

Copyright 1912 






General Index v 

Preface vii 

Introduction ix 

Instructions to Students xxiii 

Text 1 

Toadstool Poisoning and Its Treatment 621 

Recipes for Cooking and Preparing for the Table 635 

Raising Mushrooms at Home 650 

Abbreviations of Names of Authors of Species 656 

Names of the Principal Reporters of American Species 658 

Glossary 661 

Preface to Second Edition 703 

Preface to Third Edition 705 

Supplementary Text 707 

Index to Genera, Species and Illustrations 739 




Abbreviations of the Names of Au- 
thors, 656 
Agaricaceae. Family, xvii, 1 
Spore color chart, iv 
Tabular view of 

genera, iv 

Agarics. Progressive growth of, iii 

Graphic section of, vii 

Amanitine, 5 

Analysis, Agaricus campester, 

Coprinus atramentarius, 374 

Coprinus comatus, 371 

Cortinarius collinitus, 314 

Lycoperdon bovista, 590 

Marasmius oreades, 225 

Morchella esculenta, 543 

Pleurotus ostreatus, 137 

Anthony, Mrs. Emilia C., xxi 

Arnold, Prof. J. P., xxi 

Ascomycetes. Sub-Class, xviii, 534 

Auriculariese. Sub-Family, 526 

Author's and Publisher's Note, xxii 

Bake, A Camp, 649 

Baked Toadstools of any gilled kind, 648 

Basidiomycetes. Sub-Class, 1, 568 

Benson, Berry, xxi 

Boleti, 640 

To bake, 641 

To broil, 640 

To dry, 641 

To fry, 641 

To stew, 640 

To make B. edulis soup, 641 

Boston School of Natural History, xxi 

Briscoe, Frank D., xxi 

Britton, Prof. N. L., x, xx 

Brown, Hon. Addison, xx 

Cantharellus cibarius, 641 

To fry, 641 

To preserve for winter use, 642 

To roast, 641 

To stew, 641 

Carter, Prof. W. S., 
Clavaria. To cook, 

To pickle, 

Clavariaceae. Family, 
Clitocybe multiceps, 

To bake, 

With cheese, 

xiii, xxi, 621 

xviii, 1, 511 


Collins, Thomas J., xxi 

Cooking, Recipes for, 635 
Coprinus. To cook (Mrs. S. T. Ro- 

rer), 642 

Croquettes. Toadstool, 643 

Curtis, Rev. M. A., xiv 

Dacryomycetes. Sub-Family, 527 

Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., xx 

Dewey, Melvil, xxi 

Discomycetes. Cohort, 534 

Easton, Prof. Morton W., xx 

Ewing, Mrs. Emma P., xx 

Farlow, Prof. William G., xxi 

Fistulina Hepatica. To cook, 643 

Fistulina hepatica salad, 643 

Fungi. Class, 1 
Fungus. To broil any capped, 643 

Gastromycetes. Sub-Class, xvi, 568 

Gill shapes i 

Glossary, 661 

Harpel, Luther G., 
Harshberger, Dr. J. W., 
Helvellaceae. Family, 
Hydnacese. Family, 
Hydnei. To cook, 




xviii, 1, 492 

Hymenogastraceae. Family, 569 

Hymenomycetes. Cohort, xvi, xvii, 1 
Hypholomas, 644 

To bake, 645 

To stew, 644 

Index to Species, 
Instructions to Students, 

Lactarii. To cook, 
Langlois, Rev. A. B., 
Leucosporae. Chart of genera, 

Lloyd, C. G., 
Lycoperdacese. Family, 
Lycoperdons (Puff-balls), 

To fry, 

To stew, 

To make salad of, 









569, 577 

General Index 


Marasmius oreades. To cook, 645 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 


Melanosporae. Series, 368 

Mendel, Lafayette B., xiii 

Metrical Scale and Table of Meas- 
ures, xxv 
Miller, Henry Irving, xxi 
Morchella (the Morel). To cook, 645 
Morelles a 1'Italienne, 645 
Morgan, Prof. A. P., xv, 589 
Morgan, Laura V., x 
Mushrooms. To cook, 636 
Baked, on toast, 637 
Catchup (English method), 640 
Catchup (Mcllvaine), 639 
Crusts of, 637 
Fricassee of, 638 
Pickles (English method), 639 
Pickles (Mcllvaine), 638 
Sauce, canned (Mrs. E. P. Ew- 

ing), 640 

Sauce, fresh (Mrs. E. P. Ewing), 640 
Stewed, on toast, 638 

To dry (English method), 637 

To fry, 638 

Names of the principal American 
Reporters of Species, 658 

Pates. Toadstool, 646 

Peck, Prof. Charles H., x, xi 

Pezizae. Family, 552 

Phalloideae. Family, 569, 570 

Pleurotus ostreatus. To cook, 646 

In chafing dish, 646 

To fry, 646 

To stew, 646 

With cheese, 646 

Polyporaceae. Family, xviii, 1, 396 

Porphyrosporae (Pratelli). Series, 330 


Preparing for the table, 

Pyrenomycetes. Family, 


Recipes for cooking and preparing 

for the table, 635 

Rhodosporae (Hyporhodii). Series, 239 
Ring shapes and positions, ii 

Rorer, Mrs. Sarah Tyson, xx 

Schadle, Dr. J. E., xxi, 5 
Sclerodermaceas. Family, 569, 615 
Spore color chart, Agarics, iv 
Spore-prints, To make and pre- 
serve, xxiv 
Starnes, Val W., xxi 
Sterling, E. B., xxi 

Thelephoraceae. Family, 1, 506 

Toadstool poisoning and its treat- 
ment, 621 
Toadstools of any gilled kind, baked 648 
Toadstools deviled, 643 
Toadstools fried, 644 
Toadstool salads, 648 
Toadstool soups, 648 
Toadstools. To stew tougher kinds 

of, 647 

Toadstools with cheese, 648 

Toast. Hunter's, 644 

To test edibility of species, xxvii 

Tremellaceae. Family, 1, 526 

Tricholoma. To cook, 647 

Tricholoma personatum. To stew, 647 
Truffles, (Tuberaceae), 565 

Tuberaceae. Family, 565 

Tuckahoe, civ, 567 

Volva shapes, ii 

Weist, Dr. James R., xxi 



A SCORE of years ago (1880-1885) I was living in the mountains of 
West Virginia. While riding on horseback through the dense forests of 
that great unfenced state, I saw on every side luxuriant growths of fungi, 
so inviting in color, cleanliness and flesh that it occurred to me they 
ought to be eaten. I remembered having read a short time before this 
inspiration seized me a very interesting article in the Popular Science 
Monthly for May, 1877, written by Mr. Julius A. Palmer, Jr., entitled 
"Toadstool Eating." Hunting it up I studied it carefully, and soon 
found myself interested in a delightful study which was not without im- 
mediate reward. Up to this time I had been living, literally, on the 
fat of the land bacon; but my studies enabled me to supplement this, 
the staple dish of the state, with a vegetable luxury that centuries ago 
graced the dinners of the Caesars. So absorbing did the study become 
from gastronomic, culinary and scientific points of view, that I have con- 
tinued it ever since, with thorough intellectual enjoyment and much 
gratification of appetite as my reward. I hope to interest students in 
the study as I am myself interested. 

For twenty years my little friends the toadstools have been my 
constant companions. They have interested me, delighted me, fed me, 
and I have found much pleasure in making the public acquainted with 
their habits, structure, lusciousness and food value. 

My researches have been confined to the species large enough to ap- 
pease the appetite of a hungry naturalist if found in reasonable quantity ; 
and my work has been devoted to segregating the edible and innocuous 
from the tough, undesirable and poisonous kinds. To accomplish this, 
because of the persistent inaccuracy of the books upon the subject, it 
was necessary to personally test the edible qualities of hundreds of 
species about which mycologists have either written nothing or have 
followed one another in giving erroneous information. While often 
wishing I had not undertaken the work because of the unpleasant results 


from personally testing fungi which proved to be poisonous, my reward 
has been generous in the discovery of many delicacies among the more 
than seven hundred edible varieties I have found. 

For ten years I have planned to publish in book form what I know 
about toadstools ; each effort to compile my information has shown me 
how much more I ought to know before going into print. Even now 
my work is still unfinished. 

I am urged by my many toadstool friends (as I lovingly call those 
who, from all over the land, send me specimens for identification, and 
grow interested with me in the work), to publish what I already know 
upon the subject, that they, and others, may have a helpful book to 
guide them to a goodly portion of the edible species, and away from 
those that are inedible or poisonous. 

In this book I comply with these requests. I have selected over seven 
hundred of the most plentiful and best varieties for the table, from my 
toadstool bill of fare; and I describe and caution against several species, 
some of which are deadly in their effects, if eaten; others of which in- 
duce ill-effects more or less serious. One thousand species and varieties 
are named and described. 

Birds, flowers, insects, stones delight the observant. Why not toad- 
stools? A tramp after them is absorbing, study of them interesting, 
and eating of them health-giving and supremely satisfying. 


VI 11 


AMERICA is without a text-book of the American species of Fungi, 
among which the edible and poisonous varieties are found. Many 
excellent but expensive foreign volumes describe species common to 
both continents, and several special but widely scattered monographs 
have been published here. The need of the mycologist, mycophagist 
and amateur toadstool student is a book giving the genus, names and 
descriptions of the prominent American toadstools whose edibility has 
been tested, or whose poisonous qualities have been discovered. The 
absence of such a book, and the universal and rapidly-growing interest 
all over the United States in edible fungi, have led to the publication of 
the present work, which includes every species known to be esculent in 
North America. As a precautionary measure, full explications of all 
those known or suspected to be poisonous are included. 

Many species found in this country only have been described and 
named by various authors, from the time of Schweinitz (1822) to the 
present day. These have been published in the botanical magazines 
and in the papers of scientific societies and colleges. The greater num- 
ber have as author Professor Charles H. Peck, New York State Botanist, 
who has contributed an annual report each year from 1868. These 
appear in the reports of the State Museum of New York, and coming 
from the pen of our ablest mycologist are of great value to everyone 
interested in the study. The classifications and (in many instances) 
modified descriptions by such an eminent authority upon fungoid growth 
should therefore be the guides to American forms, that the confusion 
created by numerous descriptions of the same fungus by different ob- 
servers may be avoided. 

Professor N. L. Britton, editor of the Torrey Botanical Club, has 
courteously given permission to use the descriptions of new species 
given in its instructive Bulletins. 

Professor A. P. Morgan and Laura V. Morgan, with equal courtesy, 



grant the use of text and illustrations contained in the most complete 
monograph published upon the Lycoperdaceae (puff-balls, etc.) of 

While the scientific classifications and descriptions have been strictly 
followed, the language has been simplified with no sacrifice of scientific 
accuracy that this volume may be fully adapted to popular use. 

Professor Peck has given his valuable assistance in the identification 
of many species, all that were difficult or obscure having been submitted 
to him, and the writer is deeply indebted to him for many and long- 
continued courtesies, aiding in study and in the preparation of this work. 

Several new species have been found by the writer, the greater part 
of excellent food value. He preferred that these should be named, de- 
scribed and placed in their proper genus and section by Professor Peck, 
believing it to be best for the discoverers of new species to defer to one 
whose vast experience enables him to name and classify in accordance 
with the demands of American species. 

Where a species is vouched for as edible, it has been personally tested 
by the author and his willing undertasters up to eating full meals of it, 
or at least beyond all doubt as to its safety. Where others have eaten 
species which he has not had the opportunity to test, their names and 
opinions are given. When species heretofore under the ban of suspicion 
are in this volume, for the first time, announced to be edible (there are 
many of them), personal tests have not been considered sufficient, as 
idiosyncrasy might have affected the results. Others, at the writer's re- 
quest, have eaten of the species until their innocence was fully established. 
In some cases, where the reputation of the fungi eaten was especially bad, 
scientists of note have made elaborate and exhaustive physiological tests 
of their substances, and in every instance* confirmed the human testing. 

While species which contain deadly poisons are few, their individuals 
are produced in great number. Nicety in distinguishing their botanic 
variance from edible species closely resembling them is necessary. No 
charm will detect the poison. Eating toadstools before their certain 
identification as belonging to edible species, is neither bravery nor 
common sense. The amateur should go slow. 

The question often asked is : By what rule do you distinguish between 
edible and poisonous mushrooms? The answer usually surprises the 
questioner there is no general rule. All such rules which have been 
given are false and unreliable. The quality of each was learned, one at 



a time. Sweet and sour apples alike grow on large and small trees, may 
be red or green, large or small, oblong or globular, and no visible ap- 
pearance gives the least clue to the quality. 

In a few genera certain rules may be applied, as in Clavaria all not 
bitter or tough are edible. But such generalizations are each limited to 
its own genus. 

The toadstools containing deadly poisons are thought to be confined 
to one genus of the gilled kind Amanita, and to Helvella esculenta, 
now Gyromitra esculenta, to which are charged fatal results. The 
poisonous qualities of Gyromitra esculenta are not proven. Recent 
testings of this species prove it to be harmless and of good quality. By 
far the greater number of species contained in Amanita are notable for 
their tender substance and delicious flavor. By their stately beauty and 
unusual attractiveness both the poisonous and harmless kinds are seduc- 
tive. Any toadstool with white or lemon-yellow gills, casting white 
spores when laid gills downward upon a sheet of paper, having rem- 
nants of a fugitive skin in the shape of scabs or warts upon the upper 
surface of its cap, with a veil or ring, or remnants or stains of one, hav- 
ing at the base of its stem in the ground a loose, skin-like sheath sur- 
rounding it, or remnants of one, should never be eaten until the collector 
is thoroughly conversant with the technicalities of every such species, or 
has been taught by one whose autJiority is well known , that it is a harm- 
less species. This rule purposely includes the renowned Amanita Cas- 
saria, everywhere written as luscious. I regard it as the most dangerous 
of toadstools, because of its close resemblance to its sister plant the 
Amanita muscaria which is deadly. In the description of these spe- 
cies, other forcible reasons are given. 

Another deadly species the Amanita phalloides is frequently mis- 
taken by the inexperienced for the common mushroom. Safety lies in 
the strict observance of two rules : Never eat a toadstool found in the 
woods or shady places, believing it to be the common mushroom. 
Never eat a white- or yellow-gilled toadstool in the same belief. The 
common mushroom does not grow in the woods, and its gills are at first 
pink, then purplish-brown or black. 

If through carelessness, or by accident, a poisonous Amanita has 
been eaten, and sickness results, take an emetic at once, and send for a 
physician with instructions to bring hypodermic syringe and atropine 
sulphate. The dose is y^-g- of a grain, and doses should be continued 



heroically until the -$ of a grain is administered, or until, in the phy- 
sician's opinion, a proper quantity has been injected. Where the vic- 
tim is critically ill the -jV of a grain may be administered. 

In every case of toadstool poisoning, the physician must be guided 
by the symptoms exhibited. Professor W. S. Carter, by numerous 
exhaustive trials upon animals, has proved that atropine, while valuable 
as against the first, is not an antidote for the late effects of the greater 
toadstool poisons. (See his chapter on toadstool poisons, especially 
prepared for this work.) 

There are other species which contain minor poisons producing very 
undesirable effects. These are soon remedied by taking an emetic, 
then one or two doses of whisky and sweet oil; or vinegar may be 
substituted for the whisky. A few species of fungi are innocuous to 
the majority of persons and harmful to a few. So it is with many 
common foods strawberries, apples, tomatoes, celery, even potatoes. 
The beginner at toadstool eating usually expects commendation for 
bravery, and fearfully watches for hours the coming of something 
dreadful. Indigestion from any other cause is always laid to the tradi- 
tionary enemy, fright ensues, a physician is called, the scare spreads, 
and a pestilential story of " Severe Poisoning by Toadstools," gets into 
the newspapers. The writer has traced many such publications to im- 
prudences in eating, with which toadstools had nothing to do. 

The authoritative analysis of several common food species by La- 
fayette B. Mendel, of Sheffield Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, 
Yale University, is given, and will correct the popular error about the 
great nutritive value of fungi, arising from previous erroneous analyses. 

While species are reported as found in certain localities, it by no 
means follows that their growth is confined to these places. A species 
reported as found in the Adirondack mountains, unless belonging to the 
few peculiar to northern regions and high altitudes, is reasonably sure 
to be more plentiful in a like habitat south and west of them. South 
it will appear earlier and its season last longer . 

Size is largely dependent upon latitude and may vary greatly in the 
same group. Temperature, moisture, favorable nourishment are im- 
portant factors in growth. 

Each species has its favorite habitat, and will thrive best upon it. 
There are few things under the sun upon which fungi do not grow. 
Their mission is particularly directed toward converting decaying mat- 



ter, or matter which has accomplished its work in one direction, into 
usefulness in another. They are the wood-choppers, stewards, caterers 
of the forest, converters in the fields and chemists everywhere. They 
can not assimilate inorganic matter because of the absence of chlorophyl 
in their composition, but in organic matter they are omnivorous. When 
they feed on dead substances they are called saprophytes ; when their 
support is derived from living tissues, parasites. 

Scores of species of fungi were found in the forests, ravines and clear- 
ings of the West Virginia mountains from 1881 to 1885 inclusive, and 
eaten by the writer years before he had the opportunity to learn their 
names from books or obtain the friendly assistance of experts in identi- 
fying them. He knew the individuals without knowing their names, as 
one knows the bird song and plumage before formal introduction to the 
pretty creatures that charm him. 

After he was able to get European publications upon the subject, and 
by their aid trace the species he had eaten to their names, descriptions 
and qualities, he was surprised to read that many of them were warned 
against as deadly. As informed by these books, he properly ought to 
have died several times. It soon became evident that authors had fol- 
lowed one another in condemning species, some because they bore brill- 
iant hues, others because they were unpleasant when raw (just as is a 
potato), rather than investigate their qualities by testing them. Here 
was a realm of food-giving plants almost entirely unexplored. The 
writer determined to explore it. Instead of the one hundred and eleven 
species then recorded by the late Doctor Curtis as edible, my number 
of edible species now exceeds his by over six hundred.* 

Let us clear away the rubbish and superstition that have so long ob- 
scured the straight path to a knowledge of edible toadstools. Let us 
bear in mind that a mushroom is a toadstool and a toadstool is a mush- 
room the terms are interchangeable. If toads ever occupied the one- 
legged seat assigned them from time immemorial, they have learned in 

* This book contains one hundred and fifty pages more than were originally esti- 
mated and promised to the subscribers. That all known edible and poisonous species 
might be fully described and published within one volume, the author was compelled 
to cut fifly thousand words from his manuscript. The localities from which species 
have been reported and the names of the reporters have been taken out, excepting 
where it was desirable to show that foreign species have been found in the United 
States, and where tested species have been found by the author. The principal cut 
has been from the notes of the author and of enlarged descriptions. 



this enlightened age that the ground is much more reliable, and so squat 
upon it, except when exercising their constitutional right to hop. Snails, 
slugs, insects of many kinds, mice, squirrels and rabbits prey upon good 
and bad, each to its liking, notwithstanding oft-repeated assertion that 
snails and slugs infect noxious varieties only, or that animals select the 
innocuous only. We are warned against those which grow in the dark 
or damp ; the mushroom of commerce is grown by the ton in the sub- 
terranean quarries of France, and everywhere in vaults and cellars for 
domestic use. The valued truffle never sees the light until it is taken 
from darkness to be eaten, and other varieties of the best prefer seclu- 

The wiseacres tell us that they must have equal gills, must not have 
thin tops, must not turn yellow when sprinkled with salt, must not 
blacken a silver spoon, that we must not eat of those changing color 
when cut or broken, of those exuding milk, or those which are acrid, 
hot, or bitter, and give many other specifics for determining the good 
from the bad. These tests are all worse than worthless, for if confidence 
is placed in them they will not only lead us away from esculent and 
excellent varieties but directly into eating venomous ones. 

There are whole genera of fungi which are innocuous ; but in the 
Family of Agaricaceae, where the greatest variety of the edible and poison- 
ous species are found, it is necessary to master one by one the details 
of their construction and learn to distinguish their differences as one 
does those of the many kinds of roses, or pinks, or hundreds of bright- 
faced pansies, and in the mastery of them lies the only charm that will 
safely guide. 

Carefully remove the first toadstool found from whatever it is growing 
upon, and with it a portion of that from which it springs. If it is the 
earth a curious white network is discernible, fine as the delicate spin- 
ning of the spider, spreading its meshes throughout the mass. It will 
often remind of miniature vines climbing over miniature lattices. This 
is the mycelium from which the toadstool grew. In many instances it 
penetrates the earth to a considerable depth, and takes possession of 
large territory. It is often seen as the gardener turns up the soil or its 
fertilizer, and is perhaps taken for a mold. If the specimen is gathered 
from mat of wood leaves, the same white vine is observable slipping in 
between its layers. If taken from a tree, the decay ing wood is traversed 



by it. From wherever a toadstool is plucked, it is removed from its 

This mycelium is but a thread-like mass of simple cells joined 
together at their ends and interlacing in a way a thousand-fold more 
intricate than a Chinese puzzle. Nothing in its structure indicates what 
its special product will be. The fungus which, is plucked from it is in 
all its parts simply a mass of these threads cells strung together, in- 
terlacing and ramifying. 

When the season favors, the mycelium which has, winter and sum- 
mer and from year to year, lived its hidden life, or has sprung from a 
germinating spore develops a number of its cells in a minute knob, 
small as a pin head. At this point the cells make special growth 
efforts to bring themselves within the favoring influences of heat and 
moisture; this tiny knob labors within itself, producing cell after cell, 
which takes shape and function for the future toadstool. 

As it rapidly enlarges it pushes its way toward the surface of the 
ground, becomes more or less egg-shaped in this stage of its growth, 
and if cut in half longitudinally and examined, it will display what it is 
going to be when it grows up. 

Suppose that it belongs to the first of the two great sections into 
which fungi are divided under the classification of Fries, who modified 
that of Persoon. The first has the spores which represent the seeds 
in plants naked, and it is called sporifera or spore-bearing. The sec- 
ond, which has the spores enclosed in cells or cysts, is called sporidifera 
or sporidia-bearing. If the cap of a gill-bearing toadstool be laid, gills 
downward, on a watch crystal or piece of white paper for a few hours, 
or, in some instances, a few minutes, a complete representation of the 
spaces between the gills will be found deposited as an impalpable pow- 
der. These are the spores. 

The first section is divided into four cohorts. Two of these have 
hymeniums or spore-bearing surfaces more or less expanded. These 
are Hymenomycetes and Gastromycetes. In Hymenomycetes the 
hymenium is always exposed in matured plants, as with the common 
mushroom. When young, some plants are covered with a membrane. 
In Gastromycetes the hymenium is always concealed within a covering 
which bursts at maturity, as with the Lycoperdons or puff-balls. Cohort 
Coniomycetes includes rusts, smuts, etc., formed for the most part on 
living plants. There is no hymenium present. The spores are produced 



on the ends of inconspicuous threads, free or enclosed in a bottle-like 
receptacle called a perithecium. Cohort Hypomycetes is composed 
of those species of fungi commonly called molds. The spores are 
produced, naked, from the ends of inconspicuous threads. 

In the Agaricaceae the first family in Hymenomycetes the young 
plant is completely enveloped. (Plate III, fig. B, p. 2.) Its head is 
as yet undefined and its body may be classed as dumpy, but shut in 
and protected are a great quantity of knife-like plaits (Plate III, fig. C., 
p. 2), on the outer surface of which, when the plant matures, will be 
borne its spores. It therefore belongs to the Hymenomycetes, and to 
the Family Agaricaceae gill-bearing. 

If the ground becomes moist or there comes a heavy dew or a rain, 
the young plant, closely compacted and very solid, which has been 
under the surface for many days waiting its chance to get forth to light 
and air, rapidly swells, breaks through the moistened earth, goes 
rapidly to cell-making, ruptures its outside covering, the head expands 
and in so doing spreads out its gills or hymenium. (Plate III, figs. C, 
D, E, p. 2.) The membrane which covered the gills either vanishes, 
or gathers round the stem in the form of a ring or circular apron, or it 
may partially adhere to the edges of the top, cap or pileus and hang as 
a fringe from it ; the stem elongates ; the whole plant assumes the colors 
of its species and in a few hours or days at most it stands forth, a 
marvel of beauty, structure and workmanship. 

But little is known of how these spores reproduce themselves. The 
microscope fails to completely penetrate the mystery. A whole fungus 
is but a mass of cells, the spore is but one of them. That these simple 
cells do produce after their kind there is no doubt, but so minute is the 
germ and hidden its methods that science has failed to solve them. 

The first Family of Hymenomycetes is Agaricaceae. Its members 
always have gills or modifications of them. In some cases notably in 
Cantharellus the gills have the appearance of smooth, raised veins 
over which is the spore-bearing surface. The hymenium is but an 
extension of the fibers of the cap, folded up like the plaits and flutings 
of ruffles, and laundered with exquisite neatness. If it is carefully 
detached and spread out like a fan it will cover a large surface, many 
times the size of the cap from which it has been taken, and will show 
that what is a consumption of material in dress ornamentation is 
utilized by economical Dame Nature to increase the spore-bearing 

ii xvi 


surface within a small space and for purely business purposes spore- 
bearing. The color of these spores has much to do with the classifica- 
tion. The microscope with high light reveals the delicate shades of 
their coloring, but the main colors are readily distinguished by the 
naked eye when the spores are collected in a mass on glass or paper. 

The Polyporaceae have in place of gills closely packed tubes on the 
inside of which is the spore-bearing surface ; each has a mouth from 
which to eject the spores. 

The Hydnaceae bear their spores from spines or spicules of various 
length protruding from the external surface of the cap. Sometimes the 
spines mock in miniature the stalactites of the Caverns of Luray, some- 
times the shaggy mane of the lion, sometimes flowing locks of hair. 
These three Families belong to the Cohort Hymenomycetes, having 
their spore-bearing surface exposed early in life by the rupture of the 
universal veil. 

The Lycoperdons or Puff-balls have the hymenium enclosed within an 
outer case, just as the apple with its seeds is enclosed for a dumpling. 
When the spores are matured the sack is ruptured and they escape as 
the dusty powder so well known to all. The Puff-ball belongs to the 
Cohort Gastromycetes, because its spores are protected within the hy- 
menium until they are matured. 

There are other Families which contain edible species. The Clavar- 
iaceae branched or club-shaped often found in as beautiful forms as 
delight us in coral, includes a few. 

In Ascomycetes, of the covered spore division Sporidifera, there are 
several species which are excellent, and as they dry readily are much 
valued for flavoring purposes when winter forbids the growth of outdoor 
fungi. Of these the Morell has preference. The cap is covered with 
sinuosities and pits which bear the spores. There are several varieties 
of the Morell in the United States. They are known among the coun- 
try people who cook and pickle them, as Honey-comb mushrooms. 

The Tuberaceae are subterranean fungi. The common truffle so 
much prized by epicures is a good representative. It is found a foot or 
more under the surface of the earth, and of such value is it that in some 
countries pigs are trained to hunt it from its hiding place. It is one of 
the few foreign growths apparently not taking kindly to our country. 
Efforts have been made to import and cultivate it, but without success. 



It is possible, even probable, that it may yet be found in America by 
assiduous search. 

I have said that there is but one way to distinguish the edible from 
the non-edible fungi ; that is by mastering the characteristics of each 
species one by one. There are signs which point to the evil and those 
which point to the good, but they must be used as signals, not directors. 

A nauseous, fetid odor should condemn a species as non-edible at 
once. Those having the flavor of flour or fresh meal are generally 
accepted as worthy of trial. Slimy, water-soaked, partially decom- 
posed plants, or those impressing one as unpleasant in any way, should 
never find their place upon the table. Do not eat of any toadstool, 
unknown to the collector, beyond the careful and systematic testing 
required to determine whether it is edible or not. 

A few species have a serious charge remaining against them ; that of 
partiality. They unmistakably signify with whom they will agree and 
with whom they will not. These are notably Clitocybe illudens, Lepiota 
Morgani, Panaeolus papilionaceus, all specialized in their places in the 

Other species have hereditary taints upon their reputations. Most, 
if not all of them have stood present tests and relieved themselves of 
suspicion. But, alas that it should be so ! The stigma must rest upon 
them for yet a while and until their defenders are so numerous that their 
purity, without a smirch, is popularly proclaimed. 

Wherever wood grows and decays as it will, Polyporus, Panus, Len- 
zites, Schizophyllum and kindred genera stand prominently forth in 
countless numbers. The great majority of them are inedible because of 
their woody substance. A few are valued as food. Very many of them 
yield their soluble matter and flavor when boiled, and in this way make 
excellent soups and gravies, just as flax-seed and the bark of the slip- 
pery elm yield succulent matter. These, however, are not, with a few 
exceptions, mentioned in this book. Numbers of Clavarieae and Hyd- 
neae are in the same category. M. C. Cooke tersely says: "Fruits 
that are not peaches or apricots maybe very good plums." In the in- 
troductions to genera their attributes are given; under "Instructions to 
Students" every guide to identification and selection will be found. 

A Glossary, containing the botanic terms used in this book and, it is 
believed, all other terms used by mycologists in describing fungi, follows 
the descriptive text. It is strongly advised that it be carefully studied. 


The roots and derivatives of the botanic terms are fully and carefully 
given by Dr. John W. Harshberger, professor of botany, University of 
Pennsylvania, to whom the author is specially indebted. 

The excellent Glossary published by Dr. Edwin A. Daniels, Boston, 
has furnished many comprehensive definitions. It is the property of 
the Boston Mycological Club, and can be obtained from its secretary 
for twenty-five cents. 

The determination of the proper accentuation of the generic and spe- 
cific terms has been in many cases a difficult task, and, in some cases, 
owing to the dubious origin of the words in question, there is certainly 
room for difference of opinion. This task has been kindly and con- 
scientiously performed by Prof. M. W. Easton, professor of Compara- 
tive and English Philology, University of Pennsylvania. Thanks are 
due to the Hon. Addison Brown, president of the Torrey Botanical 
Club, and Dr. Nathaniel L. Britton, professor of Botany in Columbia 
College, authors of " Illustrated Flora," for the determination of the 
accentuation of non-classical words ending in imis. 

Three indexes are given : the first refers to the general contents, the 
second to the genera, the third to species and their genera, alphabetic- 
ally arranged. 

Mrs. Emma P. Ewing and Mrs. Sarah T. Rorer have kindly furnished 
some of their recipes for the preparation of several varieties of toad- 
stools. The best results of the author's long experience in cooking 
toadstools are given in the chapter ' ' Recipes for Cooking and Prepar- 
ing for the Table," together with others selected from many sources. 
The personal taste of the server must be guide to the choice. 

A child-friend of the writer, in telling him of her mother's cook, said : 
" She's a good cooker, but she has a bad temper." A good "cooker" 
will soon learn how to best display the individual flavor of each species. 
And be it known that each species of toadstool has a flavor of its own. 
These flavors vary as much as among meats and vegetables. No one 
species can be taken as standard of excellence. 

The greatest care has been taken to secure illustrations correct in 
every botanic detail. With few exceptions the colored figures were 
drawn and painted by the writer. To obtain this important feature the 
requirements of art have frequently been sacrificed. An artist can make 
a picture of a toadstool ; the mycologist must guide his brush or pencil 
in the making of a correct presentation. The happy combination of 


artist and mycologist occurs in Mr. Val. W. Starnes, Augusta, Ga., to 
whom this volume owes many of its illustrations. Mr. Frank D. Bris- 
coe, widely known as an artist of rare ability, has arranged and painted 
in groups the studies made by the writer from typical plants, and added 
to the illustrations many excellent drawings of his own. 

The unfailing reliability of the sun has been masterfully used by Dr. 
J. R. Weist, ex-Secretary of the American Society of Surgeons, Rich- 
mond, Ind. ; H. I. Miller, Superintendent Terre Haute and Indianapolis 
Railroad, Terre Haute, Ind., and Mr. Luther G. Harpel, Lebanon, Pa., 
in making the unexcelled photographs generously contributed by them. 
The author is most thankful to them and to Mr. C. G. Lloyd, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio a scientific gentleman devoting lavishly of his time and 
money to the spread of mycological knowledge for the privilege of 
selecting from his extensive collection of realistic photographs those 
adaptable to the species described herein. 

The author's thanks are gratefully given to the many who have by 
help and encouragement furthered his efforts in producing this, the 
first American text-book upon fungi. Space precludes the naming of 
the many, but the few named do not outrank them in their interest, help 
and the author's appreciation: 

Miss Lydia M. Patchen, President of the Westfield, N. Y., Toadstool 
Club (the first in America); Mrs. E. C. Anthony, Thomas J. Collins, 
E. B. Sterling, Berry Benson, Melvil Dewey, New York State Librarian; 
Dr. J. E. Schadle, Prof. J. P. Arnold, University of Pennsylvania; 
Prof. W. S. Carter, University of Texas; Boston School of Natural 
History; Massachusetts Horticultural Society; Prof. Wm. G. Farlow, 
University of Harvard. 

Thus aided the author believes that his own conscientious, patient, 
loved labor in the study of edible and non-edible fungi and the produc- 
tion of this volume will be far-reaching in its one object encouraging 
the study of toadstools. 

The time for writing a complete flora of the United States has not 
yet come ; a large part of the country remains as yet unexplored by 
mycologists ; new species are being constantly discovered in the districts 
best known. Every book on the subject must be necessarily incomplete. 

On the other hand, so far as concerns the known fungus-flora, there 
is imperative need of some guide to the student, which shall at least 
save him some part of the weary toil of hunting through the scattered 



literature in which alone, as things are at present, can be found the in- 
formation he seeks. In this book I have tried to meet this need. It is 
not complete, but I have tried to so arrange the matter that the student 
can always decide whether the particular specimen in hand is or is not 
included, and, at least for all of our more conspicuous fungi, determine 
the family and genus. If the student can do so much, the task of find- 
ing the specific name, even when not included in this book, becomes 
very much simpler. 

So much for the more scientific aspect of my book. But I have 
also kept in constant view the needs of the large and constantly growing 
number of persons who have no aim further than to learn to know the 
principal toadstools seen in their walks, just as they wish to know the 
principal trees and the more conspicuous birds. For such as these, the 
difficulty of deciding whether or no a particular individual fungus is 
described in the brief (sketching) manuals hitherto accessible is even 
more formidable than with the special student of botany. 

Finally, I have kept in view throughout the work the needs of the 
mycophagists. They are not pot-hunters; they care much less for the 
physical pleasure of the appetite than for the close study of Nature 
that their inclination leads them into. Some day the delights of a 
mushroom hunt along lush pastures and rich woodlands will take the 
rank of the gentlest craft among those of hunting, and may perchance 
find its own Izaak Walton. 


It is the intention of the author and the publisher to keep this book 
up to date. Recognizing that future testing will prove many more 
species of toadstools to be edible, and that scientists will have more 
exact knowledge of toadstool poisons and their antidotes, they announce 
that illustrated sheets publishing new edible species and current informa- 
tion upon fungi will be, from time to time, issued, conforming in shape 
and style to this volume and at an acceptable price. 

That the author and publishers may keep in touch with the owner of 
each volume, and be informed of new discoveries in species and of new 
experience, owners are requested to communicate their book numbers 
to Captain Charles Mcllvaine, or the Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis. 



To CATCH fish one must know more than the fish ; to find toadstools 
one must know their season and habitats. They are propagated by their 
spores and from their mycelium that web-like growth which is the re- 
sult of spore germination. 

The spores of ground-growing kinds, when shed upon the ground, 
are washed by rains along the natural drainage ; therefore, when a speci- 
men of one of these kinds is found, it is well to look up and down the 
natural water-shed, and follow it. Good reward will usually come of it. 
Few fungi are strictly solitary. 

Careful observation of the habitats of the various genera and species 
will enable the student to know what may and may not be expected in 
a particular locality, and will save many a hunt. 

When an unknown species is found, collect it carefully, examine it 
closely, note all its features. Determine to which division of fungi it 
belongs. If to the gilled family (Agaricaceae) obtain the color of the 
spores (see directions). Look at the chart "Tabular View of Genera 
of Agaricaceae," Plate I, p. 2 (after W. G. Smith, but enlarged, redrawn 
and emended). If the spores are white, it belongs to one of the genera 
in the first column Leucosporae; if pink, to one in the second column, 
and so on. It is often difficult to determine the spore color, because 
spores vary through many shades of the typical color. What are called 
white spores may be creamy, dirty, yellowish or brownish-white ; pink 
spores will vary from almost white to reddish and salmon-color ; brown 
spores from light-ochraceous through cinnamon to rusty ; purple spores 
from dark-violet to purplish-black. Experience alone will enable the 
student to decide which color series is present. The Genera Charts, pre- 
ceding the five different color series, show typical spore colors only. 
Again, authors describing the species frequently fail to see colors alike; 
if they do, their names for them frequently vary. For instance, few 
persons will agree upon a color expressed as " livid." 


Instructions to Students 

The color system principally used by botanists is Saccardo's "Chro- 
motaxia," costing fifty cents. It is decidedly inadequate. Ridgway's 
"Nomenclature of Colors for Naturalists" is far better, but it is out of 
print and obtainable only at the principal libraries. "The Prang Stand- 
ard of Color" is the most complete ever issued, but it is inapplicable to 
existing descriptions of fungi. 

Take, to print upon, sheets of Bristol-board or any stiff, hard-sur- 
T M , . faced white paper 6x9 inches or larger. Cut a round 
Preserve hole, four inches in diameter, in one of the sheets. Use 

this as a stencil. Lay it upon a print-sheet and where 
the opening occurs, paint with a weak solution of gum arabic H oz. 
(one teaspoonful) to one pint of water. Dry the print-sheets. 

When a spore-print is to be taken, select a fully-grown specimen, re- 
move the stem, place the spore-bearing surface upon the gummed 
paper, cover tightly with an inverted bowl or saucer, and allow to stand 
undisturbed for eight or ten hours. The moisture in the plant will 
soften the gummed surface ; the spores will be shed and will adhere to 
it, making a perfect, permanent print. When the print is plain, remove 
the specimen carefully and dry the print. Number the print-cards to 
correspond with the number of the specimen in the "Record of Fungi," 
and place them in a box or cover. Some genera shed their spores sooner 
and more freely than others. A surplus of spores is objectionable. In 
order to know when a print is plainly made, without disturbing the 
process, have either a specimen of the same age, or a piece of the one 
under the bowl, on another piece of gummed paper, covered in like 
manner. This can be examined and will give the desired information. 
A little experience will enable the student to obtain good and lasting 

The large black figures on some calendars, if cut with the white about 
them, are convenient as trial sheets for spore-printing. Lay the speci- 
men partly on the white, partly on the black. If the spores are light, 
they show best on black ground, and if colored, they show best on the 

Spore measurements, as given by different observers, vary to such a 
degree that they are of little value, excepting as determining a few 
species, but spore shapes and characteristics are of use as a last resort, 
in accurate determinations. A microscope of considerable power is 


Instructions to Students 

A metrical scale and table of measures is here given, that the student 
may have a present guide to such measurements as are given in myco- 
logical publications. 



2 3 



II 1 1 II 1 II 1 II 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 

1 1 1 M 1 1 II M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 





|l!| Illllll II 




1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 III 1 1 

3 1 

34 5 6 7 10 


i Metre (m) 39-371 Inches. 

I Decimetre (dm) 3-9371 Inches. 

i Centimetre (cm) 39371 Inch. 

i Millimetre (mm) 039371 Inch. 

i Line. 

T T 2 Inch. 

i Micron 


i Gramme 15-433 Grains Troy. 

I Decigramme 1 . 5433 Grains Troy. 

I Centigramme 15433 Grains Troy. 

i Milligramme 015433 Grains Troy. 

The spore color being determined, turn to the Genera Chart, showing 
Use of Charts spores of like color. Ascertain from the specimen whether 
of Genera. or no t j S ca p or hymenophore is distinct or easily sep- 

arable from the stem and the gills free from the stem; if they are, it 
may belong to one of the genera in the upper row of figures ; if the cap 
is not easily separable nor the gills free, look at the shape of the gills, 
and find on the chart a corresponding gill-shape. It is probable that 
the genus can thus be determined. Then turn to this genus in the text, 
read the heading, look over the "Analysis of Tribes," go to the tribe 
nearest in designating the properties of the specimen ; comparing the 
specimen with the descriptions of species given thereunder, will probably 
enable the seeker to decide upon its name. 

It should be remembered that the descriptions in the text are of the 


Instructions to Students 

specimen or specimens which the author of the species saw. What the 
author says fixes the type of the species. Specimens of the species 
may, and very frequently do, vary greatly from the type. If the first 
attempt to fix the genus is not satisfactory, try again, and keep on try- 
ing until reasonably sure. The amateur will find, however good an 
opinion may exist in his mind of the stock of patience on hand, that the 
territory of patience has just been reached. 

An excellent blank form for "Collectors' Notes" is published by the 
Maki , Boston Mycological Club, at one cent. It is desirable 

Preserving: that there should be uniformity in collectors' notes, and 

that they should be as full as possible. A form of this, or 

a similar kind, should be filled in and kept, and should also be used 
when specimens are sent to an expert for identification. Such specimens 
should be fresh, wrapped separately in tissue paper, numbered, and a 
few should be packed in a box that will not crush in the mail. The 
address of the sender should be upon the outside. The collector's 
notes should be sent in a letter, with a postage stamp for reply enclosed. 
If the specimens have to go a great distance, they should be partially 
dried in a slow, open oven, or they will be a rotten mass when they 
reach their destination. 

There is but one way by which to determine the edibility of a species. 
To Test ^ ^ ^^ s an d smells inviting, and its species can not be 

Edibility of determined, taste a very small piece. Do not swallow it. 


Note the effect on the tongue and mouth. But many 
species, delicious when cooked, are not inviting raw. Cook a small 
piece; do not season it. Taste again; if agreeable eat it (unless it is 
an Amanita). After several hours, no unpleasant effect arising, cook a 
larger piece, and increase the quantity until fully satisfied as to its 
qualities. Never vary from this system, no matter how much tempted. 
No possible danger can arise from adhering firmly to it. Recipes for 
preparing, cooking and serving are given in chapter on cooking. 

It is better for the student to first become familiar with the common 
species, one at a time, than to attempt tracing the rare or many. 
Worry, fatigue and uncertainty are plentiful in an indiscriminate gather- 
ing of fungi. One species a day, properly traced and named, means 
learning three hundred and sixty-five species a year. 


Instructions to Students 

Unfamiliar terms will be encountered in the descriptive text. The 

Glossary defines them ; and not only those in this book, 
The Glossary. . . . .. , , . , , 

but, it is believed, all those found in other books upon 

fungi. Where possible throughout the text, botanical terms have been 
anglicized. The meanings of those remaining unchanged should be 
memorized. It is quite as easy, and far better, to learn the botanical 
names of species and their characteristics, as to learn their common 
names; easier in fact, for the common names often vary with locality. 
The writer received a letter from an Alsatian living in St. Louis, telling 
him of favorite fungi he used to eat when in his own country. To all 
he gave local names, not one of which could be referred to the particu- 
lar species meant. 

Success and pleasure in the study of fungi will attend the student 
who observes carefully and who systematically records that which is 










2. GILLS BOUNDED IN FEONT (anteriorly.) 10. 

3. GILLS BOUNDED BEHIND (posteriorly.) 11. 














PLATE it. 




3. RING INFERIOR (low down). 











COHORT HTMENOMTCETES. Gr.-a membrane, a fruit-bearing sur- 
face; Gr. a mushroom. (So called from the hymenium or fruit-bearing surface.) 

UNGI composed of membranes, fleshy, woody or gelatin- 
ous, growing on wood or on the ground. The hymenium 
or spore-bearing surface exposed at an early stage. The 
spores are borne on basidia, spread over the surface. 
The common mushroom is typical of the family. All the 
members resemble it, more or less, in organization and reproductive 
organs. These latter, in the mushroom, are spread over lamella; or 
gills. The spores, after ripening and dissemination, germinate and 
produce a mycelium or thread-like vine, which in turn develops the 
spore-producing part of the plant. Hymenomycetes is divided into the 
following six Families: 


I. Spread over the surface of lamellae or gills AGARICACE^E. 

II. Lining the interior of tubes or pores POLYPORACE^E. 

III. Clothing the surface of spines or protuberances of various forms HYDNACE^E. 


IV. Horizontal and mostly on the under surface THELEPHORACE^:. 

V. Vertical and produced all over the surface CLAVARIACE^. 

VI. Superior, gelatinous fungi .TREMELLACE^E. 


In the Agaricaceae the hymenium is spread over lamellse or gills 
which radiate from a center or stem. The gills are composed of a 
double membrane, and are simple or branched. 

The parts of an Agaric may all be present as in Amanitae, or severally 
absent in other genera. When the young fungus is entirely enclosed in 
a wrapper or case, this case is called the universal veil. When this 
veil is ruptured by the growth of the stem, that part which remains 



attached to the base is called the volva. The membrane reaching from 
the stem to the margin of the cap is the partial veil ; when it ruptures 
by the expansion of the cap and all or a portion adheres to and about 
the stem it forms the annulus or ring. In some species one or both 
veils may be present, or one or both may be absent. 

The stem is central when supporting the cap at its center ; excentric 
when at one side of the center; lateral when it supports the cap from 
the side. If the stem is absent, the cap is said to be sessile; if the cap 
is horizontal and supported by a broad base it is dimidiate; if attached 
to its place of growth by its back it is rcsnpinate. 

Genera are largely distinguished by the manner in which the gills are 
attached to the stem. These distinguishing attachments are shown in 
the plates illustrating genera and in Plate IV. Gill-shapes. 

For convenience Agaricaceae is divided by the color of the spores into 
five series: white, pink, brown, purple, black. The last two, owing 
to the similarity of hue, are by some writers (preferably) included in 
the black-spored series. Spore color is a valuable assistant in deter- 
mining species. 

Series I. LEUCOSPOR-ffi. Or. white; Gr. seed. 

Spores white, rarely dingy or inclining to reddish. In the genus 
Russula the spores of some species are white, in some cream-color, and 
in several pale ochraceous. Variations from pure white are found in 
the spores of Tricholoma personatum and a few other species. Gill- 
color is not a guide \ to spore-color. Purple, yellow, brown, pinkish 
gills may produce white spores. 


(A name given to some esculent fungi by Galen, perhaps from 
Mount Amanus.) 

Amanita. Universal veil (volva), which is at first continuous (completely en- 
veloping the young plant), distinct from the skin of the cap. Hymen- 
ophore or cap, the part which bears the spore-bearing surface, distinct 
and easily separable from the stem, which leaves a socket in the flesh 
when it is removed. All growing upon the ground. Fries. 

Pileus somewhat fleshy, convex then expanded. Gills free. Uni- 
versal veil at first enclosing the entire plant, which as it grows bursts 





























MARASM iu s 














Xeiotu/s . 













(Plate VII.) 















through, generally carrying the upper part on the pileus, where it ap- Amanita. 
pears as patches or scales, the remainder enclosing the stem at the 
base as a volva, either in a cup-like 
form, closely adherent or friable 
and evanescent. The partial veil in 
youth extends from the stem to the 
margin of the pileus, enclosing the 
gills ; when ruptured it depends from 
the stem as a ring. Stem furnished 
with a ring, and different in sub- 
stance from that of the pileus. 
Spores white. 

On the ground. 

The nearest allied genus, Aman- 
itopsis, is separated by the absence 
of a ring, and Lepiota by its lack 
of a volva; Volvaria, Acetabula- 
ria and Chitonia, possessing volvas, 
are distinguished by the color of 
their spores. 

Amanitae are the most beautiful and conspicuous of fungi. While 
there are comparatively few species of them, the individual members 
are plentiful in appearing from spring until the coming of frost. They 
are solitary or gregarious in growth. Occasionally two or three are 
found together. They frequent woods, groves, copse, margins of woods 
and land recently cleared of trees. They are seldom found in open 
fields. A careful study of all their botanic points should be the first 
duty of the student of fungi. Familiarity with every characteristic of 
the Amanitae will insure against fatal toadstool poisoning, for it is the 
well-grounded belief of those who have made thorough investigation 
that, with the exception of Helvella esculenta, now Gyromitra escu- 
lenta, the Amanitae, alone, contain deadly poisons. 

No Amanita, or piece of one, should be eaten before its identity is fully 
established and its qualities ascertained by referring to the descriptions 
Jierein given or to the opinion of an expert. 

They are the aristocrats of fungi. Their noble bearing, their beauty, 
their power for good or evil, and above all their perfect structure, have 
placed them first in their realm ; and they proudly bear the three badges 



Amanita. of their clan and rank the volva or sheath from which they spring, the 
kid-like apron encircling their waists, and patch-marks of their high 
birth upon their caps. In their youth, when in or just appearing above 
the ground, they are completely invested with a membrane or universal 
veil, which is distinct and free from the skin of the cap. As the plant 
grows the membrane stretches and finally bursts. It sometimes ruptures 
in one place only and remains about the base of the stem as the volva. 
When such a rupture occurs the caps are smooth. In most species por- 
tions of the volva remain upon the cap as scruff or warts pointed or 
rough or as feathery adornment ; any or all of which may in part or 
whole vanish with age or be washed away by rain. 

Extending from the stem to the margin of the cap, and covering the 
gills, is the partial veil a membranaceous, white texture of varying 
thickness. As the cap expands this veil tears from it. Portions fre- 
quently remain pendant from the edges, the rest contracts to the stem 
as a ring, or droops from it as a surrounding ruffle, or, if of slight con- 
sistency, may be fugacious and disappear, but marks, remains, or the 
veil itself will always be traceable upon the stem. 

The Amanitae are of all colors, from the brilliant orange of the A. 
Caesarea, the rich scarlet or crimson of the A. muscaria, to the pure 
white of the A. phalloides in its white form. 

Their stems are usually long, and taper from the base toward the top. 
In some forms the base is distinctly bulbous. The volva at the base is 
attached to the stem at its lower extremity. It may be visible as a 
cup or ruptured pouch with spreading mouth, or it may be of such 
friable texture as to appear like mealy scales. Often, when the plant 
is pulled from the ground, the volva remains, but the marks of its 
attachment will appear and should be carefully looked for. Their gills 
are commonly white, are of equal length and radiate from near the 
stem, which they do not reach, to the circumference of the cap. They 
are white, unless tinged with age, excepting upon A. Caesarea and A. 
Frostiana where they are yellow.* Their caps are umbrella-shaped, flat 
or convex. Their flesh is white, does not change color when bruised. 
They are scentless and almost tasteless when fresh, when old they have 
a slightly offensive odor and taste. 

The family is not a large one, not over thirty members complete its 
circle. Every feature, every part of its several members, should be 
thoroughly known before the intimacy of eating. While at least nine 
* A. Frostiana is not always yellow gilled. 


1'LATE Vila. 

Photograph by C. F. Millspaugh. Illinois. 



The upper might be readily mistaken for the excellent A, procej-us, the lower for the common 

mushroom A, cam Centre, 


of the family are not only edible but delicate and sapid, far better will Amanita, 
it be to leave all alone than to make a mistake. A piece of a poison- 
ous variety the size of a dime will often cause serious disorders if eaten. 
Many persons have died from eating very small quantities. 

Because of its ovate or button-like form when young, it is frequently 
mistaken for the common field mushroom; even experienced mycoph- 
agists have been deceived by it. No other poison has so puzzled 
scientists. Other varieties of fungi may interfere with digestion, but to 
the Amanitae all deaths from toadstool-eating are traceable. Its subtle 
alkaloid is absorbed by the system, and in most cases lies unsuspected 
for from six to twelve hours, then its iron grip holds to the death. For 
centuries it has defied all remedies. The problem has been partially 
solved. At Shenandoah, Pa., August 31, 1885, a family of five were 
poisoned by toadstools ; two died, three lived. Noting the sad account 
in the newspapers, I at once wrote to Shenandoah for specimens of the 
fungi eaten and a description of the treatment. I promptly received 
from Dr. J. E. Schadle (now Professor Schadle), the physician in 
charge of the cases, a box containing two harmless varieties and sev- 
eral fine specimens of the Amanita phalloides, all of which were gath- 
ered on the same spot and by the same person who gathered the toad- 
stools doing the poisoning. They told the tale. A remarkably full 
and interesting account of the cases was sent to me by Dr. Schadle. 
After exhausting all other remedies, and after two of the five had died, 
he administered subcutaneously, by hypodermic injection, sulphate of 
atropine a product of the deadly nightshade analagous to belladonna 
rir to ^h * a grain at a dose. It proved to be an antidote and 
saved the lives of the remaining three. 

The action of atropine in arresting the deadly work of poisoning by 
amanitine had been foreshadowed by Schmidberg and Koppe, and 
dwelt upon in numerous published articles by Mr. Julius A. Palmer, to 
whom more than any other is due the branding of the murderous mem- 
bers of the Amanita family ; but for the first time atropine was used 
upon the human system to ward their blows. 

All of the species herein described are found in the United States. 
Of the twenty-seven, nine are edible, nine are either known to be deadly 
or are so closely allied to deadly species that it is unsafe to class them 
as other than poisonous until absolute proof is obtained of their harm- 


Amanita. lessncss. The remaining nine I have not seen, neither is there any rec- 
ord of their qualities. 


* Volva opening at the top or splitting all around, leaving a mani- 
fest, free border at the base of the stem. Pileus naked or with broad 
membranace'ous patches. 

** Volva splitting regularly all round the lower portion, persistent, 
more or less closely embracing the base of the bulbous stem. The 
upper portion being adnate to the pileus appears on it by expansion as 
scattered, thick warts. 

*** Volva friable, entirely broken up into wart-like scales, there- 
tore not persistent at the base of the stem, which is at first globose-bulb- 
ous, becoming less so as it lengthens. Pileus bearing mealy patches, 
soon disappearing or with small, hard, pointed warts. 

**** Volva rudimentary, flocculose, wholly disappearing. 

* Volva bursting at top, etc. 
A. viro'sa Fr. virus, poison. 

MINING white. Pileus 3-4 in. broad, fleshy, at 
first conical and acute, afterwards bell-shaped, 
then expanded, naked, viscous in wet weather, 
shining when dry, margin always even, but most 
frequently unequal, turned backward and inflexed. 
Flesh white, unchangeable. Stem 4-6 in. long, 

-wholly stuffed, almost solid, split up into longitudinal fibrils, cylindrical 
from the bulbous base, often compressed at the apex, torn into scales 
on the surface, springing from a lax, wide, thick volva, which bursts 
open at the apex. Ring close to the top, lax, silky, splitting up into 
floccose fragments. Gills free, thin, narrow, narrowing at both ends, 
but a little broader in front, not decurrent on the stem (although the 
apex of the stem is often striate), crowded, somewhat floccose at the 
edge. Fries. 

The pilei are most frequently oblique, extended and lobed on one 
side as in Hygrophorous conicus, scarcely ever depressed. The pileus 
rarely becomes yellow. The fragments of the veil often adhere to the 
edge of the gills. 



"} -3 
> > 




., > 

OS 3'*-' 

' ' Q 


In woods. Uncommon. August to October. Amanita. 

Fetid, poisonous. Stevenson. 

Spores spheroid or subspheroid, io-i6/x K.; 8/* W. P.; sub- 
globose, 8 io/x Massee. 
I think it a variety of A. phalloides. 

A. phalloi'des Fr. Gr. phallus-like. (Plate VI, figs. 2, 3, p. 6.) 
Pileus 3-4 in. broad, commonly shining white or lemon-yellow, fleshy, 
oval bell-shaped, then expanded, obtuse, covered over with a pellicle 
which is viscid (not glutinous) in wet weather, naked, rarely sprinkled 
with one or two fragments of the volva, the regular margin even. Stem 
35 in. long, / in. and more thick, solid downward, bulbous, hollow 
and attenuated upward, rather smooth, white. Ring superior, reflexed, 
slightly striate, swollen, commonly entire, white. Volva more or less 
buried in the soil, bulbous, semifree, bursting open in a torn manner. at 
the apex, with a lax border. GUIs free, ventricose, 4 lines broad, shin- 
ing white. Fries. 

PileilS very variable in color, commonly white or yellow (A. citrina 
Pers.), becoming green (A. viridis Pers.), olivaceous and occasionally 
variegated with tiger spots ; in late autumn with the disk almost black 
but whitish round the margin. Odor somewhat fetid, but little remark- 
able as compared with that of A. virosa. 

In woods. Frequent. August to November. 

A very POISONOUS and dangerous species. Stevenson. 

Spores 8-9/A W. G.S.; 8-io/* B.; 7-9^ diam. Massee; globose, 7.6x6/1 

Pileus at first ovate or subcampanulate, then expanded, slightly 
viscid when young and moist, smooth or rarely adorned by a few 
fragments of the volva, even on the margin, white, yellowish-brown or 
blackish-brown. Lamellae rather broad, rounded behind, free, white. 
Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, smooth or 
slightly floccose, ringed, bulbous, the ruptured volva either appressed 
loose or merely forming a narrow margin to the bulb. 

Plant 4-8 in. high. Pileus 2-5 in. broad. Stem 3-6 lines thick. 

This species is common and variable. It occurs everywhere in woods 
and assumes such different colors that the inexperienced mycologist is 
apt to mistake its different forms for distinct species. With us the pre- 



Amanita. vailing colors of the pileus are white, yellowish- white, grayish-brown 
and blackish-brown. It is remarkable that the form with a greenish 
pileus, which seems to be common enough in Europe, does not occur 
here. Fries also mentions a form having a white pileus with a black 
disk. A somewhat similar form occurs here, in which the pileus is 
grayish-brown with a black disk. Some of the variously colored forms 
were formerly taken to be distinct species, in consequence of which 
several synonyms have arisen, of which A. virescens Fl. Dan., Amanita 
viridis Pers., and Amanita citrina Pers., are examples. A. verna 
Bull, is a variety having a white pileus, a rather thick annulus and an 
appressed volva. It sometimes occurs early in the season; hence the 
specific name. It also occurs late in the season and runs into the typical 
form so that it is not easy to keep it distinct. The flesh and the lam- 
ellae are white, the stem is white, pallid or brownish, and the annulus is 
either white or brownish. The bulb is generally very broad and abrupt 
or depressed, though it sometimes is small and approaches an ovate 
form. The large bulbs are sometimes split externally in two or three 
places and are, therefore, two- or three-lobed. In such cases the volva 
is less persistent than usual and its free portion then furnishes merely an 
acute edge or narrow margin to the bulb. Specimens sometimes occur 
in which the margin of the pileus is narrowly adorned with a slight 
woolly hairiness, but usually it is perfectly smooth and even. By this 
character, taken in connection with the membranous volva and bulbous 
base of the stem, the species is readily distinguished. Sometimes a 
strong odor is emitted by it, but usually the odor is slight. Authors 
generally pronounce this a poisonous and very dangerous species. Its 
appearance is attractive, but its use as food is to be avoided. Peck, 
33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Common in woods and recently cleared woodlands. Frequent over 
the United States. June to frost. 

An exceedingly poisonous, dangerous, seductive species, responsible 
for most of the deaths from toadstool eating ; because in its white form 
it is mistaken for the common mushroom Agaricus campester. The 
real fault is with the collector, who should never eat any fungus found 
in the woods, believing it to be the mushroom. The mushroom does 
not grow in the woods. Neither has it white gills, nor white spores, nor 
a volva at the base of the stem as have Amanitae. 

The caps of A. phalloides vary in color white, oyster-color, smoky 


brown. The color of the commonest form is from white to a light hue Amanita. 
of greenish yellow. The center of the cap, whatever may be the pre- 
vailing color, is usually several shades darker. In shape, the cap 
changes from a knob in youth, through the shapes of expansion, until 
it becomes fully spread, when it is umbrella-shaped, or almost flat. 
Some forms have a slightly raised portion or umbo in the center of the 
cap. The gills are white, of good width, rounded next to the stem and 
free from it. 

The stem conforms in color to the cap, but in lighter shades. White- 
capped varieties have white stems. The stem has a sudden broad, dis- 
tinct bulb at the base. On the upper side of the bulb there is usually a 
margin or rim. The stem tapers more or less toward the cap, from 
which it is easily separable. The cup, wrapper or volva is torn or split 
or irregular at the upper part, and is not pressed to the stem as in some 

Professor Peck, in his 48th Report, gives the following excellent synop- 
sis of differences between the poisonous Amanita and edible fungi, for 
which it could only by great stupidity be mistaken : 

Poison amanita. Gills persistently white. Stem equal to or longer 
than the diameter of the cap, with a broad, distinct bulb at the base. 

Common musliroom. Gills pink, becoming blackish-brown. Stem 
shorter than the diameter of the cap, with no bulb at the base. 

From all forms of the edible Sheathed amanitopsis the Poison ama- 
nita differs in its distinctly bulbous stem, in having a collar on the stem 
and in the absence of striations on the margin of the cap. 

From the edible Reddish amanita, it is easily separated by the entire 
absence of any reddish hues or stains and of warts upon its cap. 

From the Smooth lepiota its distinct, abrupt and marginal bulb at 
once distinguishes it. 

A. ver'na Bull. vernus, of spring. A variety of A. phalloides. 
POISONOUS. White. Pileus ovate then expanded, somewhat de- 
pressed, viscid, margin orbicular, even. Stem stuffed then hollow, 
equal, floccose, closely sheathed with the free border of the volva. Ring 
reflexed, swollen. Gills free. Pileus glabrous, even on the margin, 
white, viscid when moist. Gills white. Stem ringed, white, floccose, 
stuffed or hollow, closely sheathed at the base by the remains of the 
membranous volva, bulbous. Spores globose, 8/* broad . 



Amanita. In woods. Spring and summer. 

The Vernal Amanita scarcely differs from white forms of the A. 
phalloides except in the more persistent and more closely sheathing 
remains of the wrapper at the base of the stem. It is probably only a 
variety of that species, as most mycologists now regard it, and it should 
be considered quite as dangerous. I have not found it earlier than in 
July, although in Europe it is said to appear in spring, as its name im- 
plies. Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Common over the United States. West Virginia, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, May to November. It appeared at Mt. Gretna, Pa., on May 
28, 1899. Mcllvaine. 

The absence of a ring separates white forms of A. volvata and A. 

The virulence of its poison is the same as that of A. phalloides. 

A. magnivela'ris Pk. magnus, large; velum, veil. Pileus con- 
vex or nearly plane, glabrous, slightly viscid when moist, even on the 
margin, white or yellowish-white. Gills close, free, white. Stem long, 
nearly equal, glabrous, white, furnished with a large membranous white 
annulus, sheathed at the base by the appressed remains of the mem- 
branous volva, the bulbous base tapering downward and radicating. 
Spores broadly elliptical, 10x6-8;*. 

Pileus 3-5 in. broad. Stem 5-7 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Solitary in woods. Port Jefferson, Suffolk county. July. 

The species resembles Amanita verna, from which it is separated by 
its large persistent annulus, the elongated downwardly tapering bulb of 
its stem, and especially by its elliptical spores. Peck, 5oth Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

I have not seen this species. Its resemblance to A. verna is enough 
to place the ban upon it until it has been tested. 

A. map'pa Fr. mappa, a napkin. From the volva. Pileus 2-3 in. 
broad, commonly white or becoming yellow, slightly fleshy, convexo- 
plane, obtuse or depressed, orbicular, dry, margin for the most part 
even. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, stuffed then hollow, almost 
equal above the bulb, rather smooth, white. Ring superior, soft, lax, 
here and there torn. Volva regularly circularly split, somewhat ob- 
literated ; the globoso-bulbous base united with the stem, with an acute 



and distant margin; the portion covering the pileus divided into broad, Amanita. 
irregular, somewhat separating scales. Gills annexed, crowded, nar- 
row, shining, white. Fries. 

Odor stinking. The color is that of A. phalloides, with which A. 
virosa exactly agrees, more rarely straw color, lemon-yellow, becoming 

In mixed woods. Frequent. Stevenson. 

Spores spheroid, J-iopK.; 8-9x6-8)". B.; subglobose, 7~9/x diame- 
ter Massee. 

New York woods and fields, common, September to October, Peck, 
22d Rep. ; North Carolina, Curtis; New England, Frost; Minnesota, 
Johnson; Ohio, Morgan; District Columbia, Miss Taylor. 


Probably but a variety of A. phalloides. 

A. spre'ta Pk. spreta, hated. (Plate VI, fig. I, p. 6.) Pileus 
subovate, then convex or expanded, smooth or adorned with a few 
fragments of the volva, substriate on the margin, whitish or pale-brown. 
Gills close, reaching the stem, white. Stem equal, smooth, annulate, 
stuffed or hollow, whitish, finely striate at the top from the decurrent 
lines of the lamellae, not bulbous at the base, but the volva rather large, 
loose, subochreate. Spores elliptical, generally with a single large 
nucleus, 10-13x68^. 

Plant 4-6 in. high. PileilS 3-5 in. broad. Stem 4-6 lines thick. 

Ground in open places. Sandlake and Gansevoort. August. Peck, 
32d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

This is a dangerous species, because containing a deadly poison and 
resembling the most common forms of Amanitopsis, therefore likely to 
be mistaken for them. Specimens sent by me to Professor Peck were 
identified as his species. I add my own description. 

Pileus oval, broadly umbonate, date-brown toward and on umbo, 
soft, dry, smooth, more or less sulcate on edge. Flesh white, thin, 
except at center. Stem tapers rapidly above ring and at base, white- 
reddish-brown toward middle, narrows toward volva from which it is 
almost free at the base, hollow, furfuraceous above ring. Gills white, 
crowded, free. Ring white, thin, persistent, but at times hard to dis- 
tinguish because clinging to stem. Volva free, fitting close, upper 



Amanita. margin thin, lower part quite thick, making stem appear bulbous, which 
it is not. White forms occur. 

Not as virulent as A. phalloides, but like it in its POISONOUS ef- 
fects. It differs from Amanitopsis in having a ring. 

Grows in woods and on wood-margins. 

Angora woods, West Philadelphia. On ground in mixed woods, 
open and grassy places in wood and wood-margins. August to Sep- 
tember. Mcllvaine. 

A. recuti'ta Fr. having a fresh or new skin. Pileus convex then 
plane, dry, smooth, frequently bearing fragments of the volva, margin 
nearly even. Stem stuffed then hollow, attenuated, silky, volva cir- 
cumscissile, becoming obliterated, margin closely pressed to stem ; ring 
distant, white. Gills striate-decurrent. 

In pine woods. Common. 

No report upon quality. 

A. Csesa'rea Scop. king-like. (Called by the Greeks Cibus Deorum, 
food of the gods.) CAUTION. Pileus 3-8 in. across, hemispherical, 
then expanded, free from warts, distinctly striate on the margin, red or 
orange becoming yellow. Gills free, yellow. Stem 4-6 in. long, up 
to % in. thick at base, slightly tapering upward, yellowish, flocculose, 
stuffed with white fibrils or hollow, with a conspicuous yellowish ring 
or veil. Volva white, large, distinct and membranous. Spores ellip- 
tical, 8-io/u. Peck. 

Open woods, under pines on lawns. July to October. 

Reported from North Carolina, South Carolina, Massachusetts, Mary- 
land, New Jersey, Ohio, Alabama, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, New York. 
Peck, Rep. 23, 32, 33, 48. 

This emperor of fungi is the most showy of its race. It grows to 10 
in. in height. The cap reaches 8 in. in diameter and the stem over i % 
in. in thickness. In very much smaller specimens about the same pro- 
portions occur. The cap is at first ovate, then hemispherical, then ex- 
panded. It has no warts or scales upon it. The margin is distinctly 
striate. The flesh is white, yellow or reddish under the skin; next to 
the gills it is usually yellow. 

The stem tapers upward from the socket at its base. It is yellowish 
and covered with loose fibrils of darker hue. The ring is white, but 



frequently tinged with yellow. In taste and smell it is mild. Open Amanita. 
woods is its favorite habitat, yet it is found growing luxuriantly under 
pines, maples, elms, on lawns. It is not often found, but when it is, it 
is solitary, or in groups or rings. In the latitude of Philadelphia it is 
found from July until October ist. Further south its stay conforms to 
temperature, and it is more frequent. There is no doubt of its rare 
edibility abroad, and of its being eaten in America. 

A specimen believed to be it should never be eaten until carefully 
distinguished from A. muscaria and A. Frostiana, which have warts or 
scales on the cap (which sometimes are not discernible after rain), 
white gills, and a volva which soon breaks up into fragments or scabs. 

Appearing like a small form of A. muscaria, to which it was formerly 
referred, is A. Frostiana Pk. (Frost's Agaric). It closely resembles 
small A. Caesarea, especially in the yellow tinge of stem, ring and gills. 
The volva and ring (persistent in A. Caesarea) soon disappear, but are 
traceable by fluffy fragments, or yellow stains. It is extremely poison- 

The differences, concisely, are these : A. Caesarea (Orange Amanita). 
Cap smooth, though occasionally with a few fragments of the volva as 
patches upon it. Gills yellow. Stem yellow. Volva usually persistent, 
sometimes breaking up into soft, fluffy masses. 

A. muscaria (Fly Amanita). Poisonous. Cap covered with remains 
of the volva as scales or wart-like patches. Gills white. Stem white or 
light-yellow. Volva not persistent, breaking up into fluffy fragments 
or scales. 

A. Frostiana. Poisonous. Smaller and more delicate than the two 
preceding. Cap smooth or with yellow scales or wart-like patches. 
Gills yellow or tinged on edge with yellow. Stem white or yellow, 
the ring evanescent, but always leaving a yellow mark on stem. Volva 
yellow, breaking up into yellow fluffy fragments. 

Far better for the amateur to let the A. Caesarea, and anything re- 
sembling it, respectfully alone. 

New York, Gansvoort. Circle forty feet in diameter. Peck, 32d 
Rep. ; Maryland. There is not a doubt that this fungus can be eaten 
with impunity, Banning; Alabama, abundant. Edible. Alabama Bull. 
No. 80. 

Roques and Cordier, French writers, regard it as the finest and most 
delicate of fungi, the perfume and taste being exquisite. 



Amanita. The writer has not had opportunity to eat A. Caesarea. If such 
should occur he would go about it very cautiously. No suspicion 
attaches to it abroad, but evidence is accumulating in the hands of the 
writer (not yet convincing) that either locality may render it poisonous 
or that A. muscaria varies so much in appearance as to deceive even 
the expert into mistaking it for A. Caesarea. It is possible that A. 
muscaria is, at times, in certain localities, harmless; but no such ex- 
ception as this is noted in the entire fungoid realm. It is not so common 
that collectors should mourn its waste. It is better, far, to let it alone. 

**Volva splitting regularly all around; pileus bearing thick warts, etc. 

A. musca'l'ia Linn. nnisca, a fly. (Plate VI, fig. 4, p. 6. Plate 
VIII.) POISONOUS. Pileus 4 in. and more broad, normally at first 
blood-red, soon orange and becoming pale, whitening when old, globose, 
then convex and at length flattened, covered with a pellicle which is at 
first thick, and in wet weather glutinous, but which gradually disappears, 
and sprinkled with thick, angular, separating fragments of the volva ; 
margin when full-grown slightly striate. Flesh not compact, white, 
yellow under the pellicle. Stem as much as a span long, shining white, 
firm, torn into scales, at first stuffed with lax, spider-web fibrils, soon 
hollow\ the adnate base of the volva forms an ovate bulb, which is mar- 
ginate with concentric scales. Ring very soft, torn, even, inserted at 
the apex of the stem, which is often dilated. Gills free, but reaching 
the stem, decurrent in the form of lines, crowded, broader in front, 
white, rarely becoming yellow. 

Var. rega'lis, twice as large. Stem stuffed, solid when young, as 
much as 12 in. thick, becoming light-yellow within; the volva ter- 
minates in 8 10 concentric squamoso-reflexed rows of scales. Pileus 
very glutinous, bay-brown or the color of cooked liver. Gills yel- 

Var. formosa, soft, fragile. Pileus at first lemon-yellow, with mealy, 
lax, yellowish, easily-separating warts, often naked. Gills often becom- 
ing yellow. A. formosa, with the warts rubbed off. 

Var. umbri'na, thinner and more slender. Stem hollow, often twist- 
ed, bulb narrowed. PileilS at first umber, then livid, with the excep- 
tion of the disk, which is dingy-brown. Gills at length remote. Stev. 

PileilS at first ovate or hemispherical, then broadly convex or nearly 
plane, slightly viscid when young and moist, rough with numerous 









whitish or yellowish warts, rarely smooth, narrowly and slightly striate Amanita. 
on the margin, white, yellow or orange-red. Gills white. Stem equal 
or slightly tapering upward, stuffed with webby fibrils or hollow, bear- 
ing a white ring above, ovate-bulbous at the base, white or yellowish; 
the volva usually breaking up into scales and adhering to the upper part 
of the bulb and the base of the stem. Spores elliptical, 8-iox6-8/A. 

Plant 5-8 in. high. PileuS 3-6 in. broad. Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

A white variety, with the pileus thickly studded with sharp warts, 
occurs in Albany Rural Cemetery. July. Peck, 24th Rep. 

Var. atba Pk. It also occurs on Long Island in two forms, the 
normal one and a smaller one, in which the warts of the pileus are 
evanescent or wanting. Not unfrequently it makes a close approach to 
white forms of A. pantherina, in having the upper part of the bulb uni- 
formly margined by the remains of the definitely circumscissile volva, 
but this margin is more acute than in that species. Peck, 46th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid, 10-12x8-9^ K.; 6x9/^1 W. G. S.; ellip- 
tical, 8-10x6-8/1 Peck. 

"At Cincinnati, yellow A. muscaria are all we find." Lloyd. 

Reported from most of the states. At Mt. Gretna I found it in great 
quantity, and frequently three or four tightly crowded together. Many 
pounds of it were sent to Professor Chittenden, Sheffield Laboratory, 
Yale University. Near Haddonfield, N. J., large patches annually 
grow under pines, gorgeous in their rich orange-red caps, usually scaly, 
with at times lemon-yellow in the same clusters, smooth as A. Caesarea. 
It grows from July until after hard frosts. 

It is undoubtedly poisonous to a high degree. Its juices in minute 
quantity, carefully and scientifically injected into the circulation of ether- 
ized cats, kill in less than a minute. A raw piece of the cap, the size 
of a hazel nut, affects me sensibly if taken on an empty stomach. Diz- 
ziness, nausea, exaggeration of vision and pallor result from it. The 
pulse quickens and is full, and a dreaded pressure affects the breathing. 
I have not noticed change in the pupil of the eye. Nicotine from 
smoking a pipe with me abates the symptoms, which entirely dis- 
appear in two hours, leaving as reminiscence a torturing, dull, skull- 
pervading headache. If, as is asserted on good authority, the Siberians 
use it as an intoxicant, they certainly suffer the accustomed penalty. 



Amanita. It is possible that persons may, in a degree, become immune to its poi- 
son, as they do to arsenic, strychnia, opium, nicotine, or it may be that 
a portion of the poison is extracted by boiling. It is, however, ex- 
tremely dangerous to rely upon extracting by any means the poison of 
the Amanita, and to eat the residue. Acetic acid or vinegar does not 
destroy the poison ; it dissolves it to an extent and extracts it, and be- 
comes as poisonous as the plant itself. There is no means of telling 
how much of the poison remains in the plant after such treatment. The 
safe plan is to eat, only, of toadstools which do not contain any poison 
to extract. 

One redeeming virtue, alone, rests with A. muscaria it kills flies. 

A. Frost'iana Pk. in honor of Charles C. Frost. POISONOUS. 
(Plate VI, fig. 5, p. 6.) Pileus convex or expanded, bright-orange or 
yellow, warty, sometimes nearly or quite smooth, striate on the margin. 
Gills free, white or slightly tinged with yellow. Stem white or yellow, 
stuffed, bearing a slight, sometimes evanescent ring, bulbous at the base, 
the bulb slightly margined by the volva. Spores globose, 8-io/x. in 

Plant 2-3 in. high. Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem about 2 lines 
thick. June to October. 

This appears like a very small form of the Fly Agaric, to which, as 
var. minor, it was formerly referred. The only decided characters for 
distinguishing it are its small size and globose spores. Our plant some- 
times grows in company with A. muscaria, but it seems to prefer more 
dense woods, especially mixed or hemlock woods. It is generally very 
regular and beautiful and has the stem quite often of a yellow color, and 
the bulb margined above with a collar-like ring. Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, Mcllvaine. 

A. Frostiana is found well over the land. It is frequent in shady 
woods and seems to favor ground under the prevailing tree oak, chest- 
nut, pine, hemlock, whichever it may be. From the many hundreds 
I have seen, I think it more likely to be mistaken by the novice for A. 
Caesarea than A. muscaria, because of its often yellow gills and stem. 
It is much smaller and thinner than either. In the states I have found 
it, it is darker than described, being a rich reddish-orange or scarlet. 
The partial veil or ring is very evanescent but often found upon the 



stem as a yellow, floccose remnant. The stain of the ring is always Amanita. 
noticeable. The volva is seldom found entire. It, too, is evanescent, 
but, like the veil, is found yellow and fluffy, adhering to the fingers 
when touched. 

It is probable that its highly colored cap has caused it to be gathered 
by the careless collector of bright-capped Russulae, and that thus R. 
emetica got its bad name. Examine carefully any toadstool resembling 
it. The Russulae have neither ring nor volva. 

A. excel'sa Fr. excelsus, tall. POISONOUS. Pileus 4-5 in. broad, 
brownish-gray, darker in the center, fleshy, soft, globose, then plane, 
pellicle thin, but viscous, and in reality separable in wet weather, then 
the surface is often wrinkled-papillose, or in a peculiar manner hollowed 
and pitted, sprinkled with angular, unequal, whitish-gray, easily sep- 
arating warts, the remains of the friable volva; margin at first even, 
but when properly /developed manifestly striate, even furrowed. Flesh 
soft, white throughout, unchangeable. Stem 4-6 in. long, I in. thick, 
at first stuffed, almost solid, but at length hollow, globose-depressed at 
the base, attenuated upward from the bulb, covered, sometimes as far 
as the ring, sometimes only on the lower part \vlthdense, squarrose, con- 
centric scales (from the epidermis of the stem being torn), striate at the 
apex. Ring superior, large, separating-free or at length torn. Gills 
quite free, rounded (not decurrent on the stem in the form of lines), 
very ventricose, K in. and more broad, shining white. 

The bulb when young is somewhat marginate, but by no means sep- 
arable, the margin proper, like that of A. muscaria, is marked with 
scales, buried in the soil, somewhat rooting, beneath the margin marked 
here and there with a concentric furrow. The shorter gills intermixed 
are more numerous than is usual among Amanitae. There is a smaller 
variety, with the margin more frequently striate and the stem stuffed, 
then hollow. Fries. 

Solitary, in woods, chiefly under beech. Stevenson. 

Spores 6x9/A W. G. S.; 8-9x5-6^ Massee. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; South Carolina, Ravenel; Cali- 
fornia, Harkness and Moore; Massachusetts, Frost, Andrews; Minne- 
sota, Johnson; Rhode Island, Olney. 

\. pantheri'na De C. spotted like a panther. Doubtful. Pileus 

2 17 


Amanita. commonly olivaceous-umber when young, fleshy, convex then flattened 
or somewhat depressed, with a sticky pellicle, which is at first thick and 
olivaceous dingy-brown, then thinned out, almost disappearing and 
Jivid, the disk only becoming brownish; margin evidently striate; the 
fragments of the volva divided into small, equal, white, regularly 
arranged, moderately persistent warts. Flesh wholly 'white, never 
yellow beneath the pellicle. Stem 3-4 in. long, >2 in. thick, at first 
stuffed then hollow with spider-web fibrils within, equal or attenuated 
upward, slightly firm and sometimes scaly downward, greaved at the 
base by the separable volva which has an entire and obtuse margin. 
Ring more or less distant, adhering obliquely, white, rarely superior. 
Gills free, reaching the stem, broader in front, 3-4 lines broad, shining 

It is readily distinguished from A. muscaria, var. umbrina, by the 
white flesh never becoming yellow beneath the pellicle. Variable in 
size and color, which, however, is never red or yellow, and in the posi- 
tion of the ring. 

In woods and pastures. Stevenson. 

Spores 7-8x4-5/4 A'./ 6-zo//, B.; 8x4^ W. G. S.; 7.6x4.8^ Morgan. 

Not poisonous, W. G. S.; not edible, Roze; poisonous, Leuba. 

North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, California, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, New York. Peck. 

A. Ravenel'ii B. and C. in honor of Henry W. Ravenel. PileilS 
4 in. across, convex, broken up into distinct areas, each of which is 
raised into an acute, rigid, pyramidal wart. Stem 3 in. high, bulbous. 
Volva thick, warty, somewhat lobed. King deflexed. 

South Carolina, June, H . W. Ravenel; a very fine species allied to 
A. strobiliformis, Vitt. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1859; Alabama, 
Atkinson (LI. Volvae). 

Properties not stated. 

A. rilSSllloi'des Pk. resembling a Russula. PileilS at first ovate, 
then expanded or convex, rough with a few superficial warts, or entirely 
smooth, viscid when moist, widely striate-tuberculate on the margin, 
pale-yellow or straw color. Gills close, free, narrowed toward the 
stem, white. Stem firm, smooth, stuffed, annulate, equal or slightly 
tapering upward, bulbous; annulus thin, soon vanishing. Volva fra- 
gile, subappressed. Spores broadly elliptical, iox8/A. 



Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 









Plant 2-3 in. high. Pilens 1.5-2 in. broad. Stem 3-5 lines thick. Amanita. 
Grassy ground in open woods. Greenbush. June. 

This species is remarkable for the thin striate-tuberculate margin of 
the pileus, which causes it to resemble some species of Russula. Peck, 
25th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Qualities not stated. 

Massachusetts, Francis. 

A. Strobilil'or'mis Vitt. strobilis, a pine-cone, from the shape of 
the warts. (Plate IX, fig. 3, p. 18.) Cap 3-10 in. across, convex 
or nearly plane, white or cinereous, sometimes yellow on the disk, 
rough with angular, mostly persistent warts which sometimes fall away 
and leave the pileus nearly smooth ; generally whitish, sometimes tinged 
with brown ; the margin even and extending a little beyond the lamellae. 
Gills free, rounded behind. Veil large and portions sometimes adhere 
to margin of cap. Stem 3-8 in. long, up to 1*4 in. thick, equal or 
slightly tapering upward, solid, floccose-scaly, white, bulbous, the bulb 
very large, sometimes weighing a pound, margined above and furnished 
with one or two concentric furrows, somewhat pointed below, firmly 
and deeply imbedded in the earth, floccose-mealy when young. 

Spores ellipcical, 13-15x8-10^1 Peck. 

Open woods and borders. June to October. 

Edible. W. G. Smith, Curtis, Peck. 

This is among the best of species. Its size, solidity, flavor are 
marked. I have found specimens weighing a pound and a half. It 
grows singly, but when one is found several are apt to be neighbors. 
When young, the cap is but a small knob upon a beet or top-shaped 
base, which is largely under ground. It cuts like a soft turnip, and has 
a strong, pungent, unmistakable odor, like chloride of lime, which en- 
tirely disappears in cooking. As the plant develops the bulb decreases 
in size. On all the many specimens the author has seen and eaten, the 
scabs are light brown and reddish-brown. 

A. SOlita'ria Bull. growing alone. Pileus convex or plane, warty, 
white or whitish, even on the margin. Gills reaching the stem, white 
or slightly tinged with cream color. Stem at first mealy or scaly, equal, 
solid, white, bulbous, the bulb scaly or mealy, narrowed below into a 
root-like prolongation. Ring lacerated, often adhering in fragments to 
the margin of the pileus and gills. Spores elliptical-oblong, 8-13x6.5^. 



Amanita. Plant 4-8 in. high. Pileus 3 -6 in. broad. Stem 4-6 lines thick. 
Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Solitary in woods and open places. July to October. 

Georgia, H. N. Starnes; Indiana, H ' . I . Miller; West Virginia, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Curtis, H. N. Statues, Philadelphia Myc. Club. 

In many localities I find it quite plentiful, and it is so reported from 
Georgia. Southern and middle New Jersey woods abound with it, and 
at Mt. Gretna, Pa., it is always present in its growing months. 

The cap is sometimes tinged with brown as are the angular, erect 
warts which are generally numerous, but often falling off or few and 
scattered. The flesh is white and smells like chloride of lime, but not 
nearly so strong as A. strobiliformis. The volva is broken up into 
floccose scales which cling to bulb and lower part of stem. These scales 
may be white and mealy or brownish. The entire fungus has a fluffy 
exterior, which is easily removed by rubbing. The annulus is torn, a 
part often adhering to the margin of the pileus and the gills. This and 
the long, tapering, rooting bulb are marked characteristics. The bulb 
is brittle. It is difficult to get the fungus from the ground entire. 

Stem and cap are juicy, tender, mild in flavor, wholesome. It is not 
equal in flavor to A. rubescens, but is more delicate. 

By many its properties have been stated as poisonous, doubtful. 
Quantities of it have been eaten by myself and friends. Hypodermic 
injection of its juices into the blood circulation of live animals prove it 
perfectly harmless. 

A. can'dida Pk. shining white. PileilS thin, broadly convex or 
nearly plane, verrucose with numerous small, erect, angular or pyramidal, 
easily separable warts, often becoming smooth with age, white, even on 
the margin. Flesh white. Gills rather narrow, close, reaching to the 
stem, white. Stem solid, bulbous, floccose-squamose, white, the annulus 
attached to the top of the stem, becoming pendent and often disappear- 
ing with age, floccose-squamose on the lower surface, striate on the 
upper, the bulb rather large, ovate, squamose, not margined, tapering 
above into the stem and rounded or merely abruptly pointed below. 
Spores elliptical, 10-13x8^. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 2.5-5 m - long, 5-8 lines thick, the 
bulb 1-1.5 m - thick in the dried specimens. 



This is a fine large species related to A. solitaria, but differing from Amanita. 
it in the character of its bulb and of its annulus. The bulb is not mar- 
ginate nor imbricately squamose. Its scales are small and numerous. 
Nor is it clearly radicating, though sometimes it has a slight abrupt 
point or myceloid-agglomerated mass of soil at its base. The veil or 
annulus is large and well developed, but it is apt to fall away and dis- 
appear with age. Its attachment at the very top of the stem brings it 
closely in contact with the lamellae of the young plant and the striations 
of its upper surface appear to be due to the pressure of the edges of 
these upon it. It separates readily from the margin of the pileus and is 
not lacerated. In the mature plant the warts have generally disap- 
peared from the pileus and sometimes its margin is curved upward 
Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3. 

Woods. Auburn, N. Y., Alabama, U. and E.; Pennsylvania, West 
Virginia, New Jersey, August to October, Mcllvaine. 

A dozen or more specimens were found in oak woods near Philadel- 
phia, and carefully tested. Their edible qualities were found to be 
precisely the same as A. solitaria. 

*** Whole volva friable, etc. 

A. rubes'cens Pers. rubesco, to become red. (Plate IX, fig. 2, 
p. 18. Plate XII, fig. 4, p. 32.) Pileus about 4 in. broad, dingy- 
reddish, becoming pale flesh-color, tan, scarcely pure, fleshy, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, moist but not glutinous in rainy weather and opaque 
when dry, covered with unequal, soft, mealy, whitish, easily-separating 
warts, which are smaller, harder and more closely adherent in dry 
weather ; margin even and, when old, slightly striate only in wet weather. 
Flesh commonly soft, white when fresh, reddening when broken. Stem 
4-5 in. long, as much as I in. thick, stuffed, somewhat solid, though 
soft within, conico-attenuated from the thickened base, reddish-scaled, 
becoming red-white, and without a trace of a distinct volva at the base. 
Ring; superior, large, membranaceous, soft, striate and white within. 
Gills reaching the stem in an attenuated manner, forming decurrent lines 
upon it, thin, crowded, soft, as much as % in. broad, shining white. 

Very changeable, but readily distinguished from all others of the 
same group by the flesh being reddish when broken; the stem and pileus 
are commonly spotted-red when wounded. In dry weather it is firmer, 
flesh reddening more slowly, warts minute. Odor scarcely any. There 



Amanita. is a remarkable variety circinata, pileus becoming plane, umber-brown, 
warts adnate, crowded, roundish. A. circinatus Schum. Stevenson. 

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid, 7-8x6ju, K.; 8x6/1 W.G.S.; 7-9x6-81* B.; 
elliptical, 8-9/x. long. Peck. 

Not reported west of the Mississippi river. 

Oak woods, borders and open places. July to September. Indiana, 
H . I. Miller; West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsyl- 
vania, Mcllvaine. 

It is quite common, often growing in large patches. Recent authors 
agree upon the edibility and deliciousness of this species. The author 
knows it to be one of the most plentiful, useful and delicious, after sev- 
eral years of pleasant experience with it. 

In July, 1899, at Mt. Gretna, I found, growing from the ground gre- 
gariously, a singular fungoid growth from 2-5 in. high; cap hemis- 
pherical, i in. in diameter, tightly fitting a solid stem of nearly the 
diameter of the cap. The whole was watery white, and evidently af- 
fected by a parasite. It was edible. September ist Professor Peck 
wrote to me : "I think I have found the identity of the diseased 
Agaric, of which you sent me samples some time ago. I mean the one 
affected by Hypomyces incequalis Pk. The host is Amanita rubescens, 
at least sometimes, and probably always." 

The plant is very heavy for its size. The lack of a volva, the dingy 
color and reddish stains .distinctly separate this from any poisonous 

A. spis'sa Fr. compact, dense; of the warts. Pileus umber, sooty 
or gray, fleshy, somewhat compact, convexo-plane, obtuse, smooth, 
even, but marked with small, ash-colored, angular, adnate warts; mar- 
gin even, but often torn into fibers. Flesh firm, white, quite imchange- 
able. Stem 23 in. long, as much as I in. thick, solid, turnip-shaped 
at the base, somewhat rooting with a globoso-depressed not marginate 
bulb, curt, firm, shining white, at length squamulose with concentric 
cracks. Ring superior, large. Gills reaching the stem, slightly striato- 
decurrent, broad, crowded, shining white. Fries. 

Spores I4f- W.G.S.; subglobose, 8-10/1 C.B.P.; 6/* W.P.; rather 
pear-shaped, 910x6^ Massee. 

Cap 23 in. across. Stem 2/^3 in. long, up to % in. thick. 

New Jersey, oak woods, August and September. Mcllvaine. 



A. spissa has been reported from but few localities. It is rare in the Amanita. 
latitude of Philadelphia. Half a dozen specimens have been found in 
neighboring New Jersey. 

Taste and smell strong, but when cooked the dish is savory and not 
unlike one of A. rubescens. 

A. as'pera Fr. asper, rough. Pileus 2-3 in. across. Flesh rather 
thick at the disk, whitish, white or reddish with tints of livid or gray, 
reddish or brownish under the cuticle; convex then plane, margin thin 
and even, rough with firmly adnate, minute, closely crowded, angular 
warts, reddish-brown or livid-brownish, not pure white, unchangeable. 
Gills free and rounded behind, not striately decurrent, ventricose, white. 
Stem stuffed, striate above the ring, short at first, ovate, then elon- 
gating to 2-3 in., attenuated upward from a wrinkled bulb, squamulose, 
white without and within. Ring superior, entire. 

Spores 8x6/u. Massee; 8x67/4 W.G.S. 

The flesh of stem and bulb when eaten by insects is reddish, the bulb 
when old is a reddish-brown. The large ring and stem become red 
when touched. In these particulars it resembles A. rubescens. In smell 
it is somewhat strong, not unlike A. strobiliformis, but not nearly so 

Cooked it is of excellent quality and flavor. I have eaten it since 1885 . 

A. abrup'ta Pk. abrupt, of the bulb. Pileus thin, broadly convex 
or nearly plane, covered with small angular or pyramidal, erect, some- 
what evanescent warts, white, slightly striate on the margin. Flesh 
white. Gills moderately close, reaching the stem and sometimes ter- 
minating in slightly decurrent lines upon it, white. Stem slender, gla- 
brous, solid, bulbous, white, the bulb abrupt, subglobose, often coated 
below by the white persistent mycelium, the ring membranous, per- 
sistent. Spores broadly elliptical or subglobose, 8-iox6-8/x. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2.5-4 m - l n g, 3~4 lines thick. 

The chief distinguishing mark of this species is the abrupt, nearly 
globose, bulbous base of the stem. This is somewhat flattened above 


and is sometimes longitudinally split on the sides. The small warts of 
the pileus are easily separable, and in mature specimens they have often 
wholly or partly disappeared. The remains of the volva are not pres- 
ent on the bulb in mature dried specimens, which indicates that the 



Amanita. species should be placed in the same group with A. rubescens, A. 
spissa, etc. The latter species have the bulb of the stem similar to that 
of our plant, but the color of the pileus and other characters easily sep- 
arate it. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3. 

Alabama, Underwood; New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. July 
to September. 

This species is edible and quite equal in quality to A. rubescens. 
Great care should be exercised in distinguishing it. 

A. nit'ida Fr. niteo, to shine. Pileus when flattened 4 in. broad, 
whitish, fleshy, somewhat compact, at first hemispherical, wrapped up, the 
thick volva forming a floccose crust, then broken up into thick, remark- 
ably angular, adhering warts, which become brownish, dry, shining, 
without a glutinous pellicle, margin always even. Flesh white, quite 
unchangeable. Stem 3 in. long, i in. thick, solid, firm, conico-attenu- 
ated, with a bulb-shaped base , squamulose, white. Ring superior, thin, 
torn, slightly striate, white, villous beneath, at length disappearing. 
Gills free, crowded, very broad, as much as % in., ventricose, shining 
white. Fries. 

Menands. Albany county. Our plant is more slender than the 
typical form, and has smaller but more numerous warts, but in other 
respects it exhibits the characters of this species. Peek, 43d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

California, H. and M.; Maryland. Common in nearly every woods 
in Maryland. Banning. 

From its likeness to poisonous species it should be suspected. 

A. prairiic'ola Pk prairie, colo, to inhabit. Pileus thin, convex, 
slightly verrucose, white, more or less tinged with yellow, even on the 
margin. Flesh white. Gills rather broad, subdistant, reaching the 
stem, white. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, somewhat 
squamose toward the base, white or whitish, the annulus persistent. 
Spores large, broadly elliptical, 12-14^ long, 7-9/4 broad. 

Pileus 1.5-3 m - broad. Stem 2-2.5 m - l n g, 2 ~4 lines thick. 

Bare ground on open prairies. Kansas. September. E. Bartholomew. 

This species belongs to the same tribe as A. abrupta. The only evi- 
dence of the presence of a volva shown by the dried specimens is found 
in a few inconspicuous, but separable warts on the pileus. There is no 



well marked bulb to the stem and no evidence remains of a volva at its Amanita. 
base. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3. 
Reported from Kansas only. Qualities unknown. 

A. monticulo'sa Berk. mountain, from the warts. Pileus 2.5-3 m - 
across, convex, areolate, with a wart in the center of each areola; those 
toward the margin consisting of soft threads meeting in a point, but 
sometimes simply flocculent, the central warts angular, pyramidal, trun- 
cate, discolored. Stem bulbous, scaly, flocculent, white. Veil thick, 
at length distant. Gills free, ventricose, remote, forming a well-defined 
area around the top of the stem. The warts are not hard and rigid as 
in A. nitida, and the free remote gills separate it from that and the 
neighboring species. Berk. 

North Carolina, sandy woods, common. Curtis. 

Properties not known. 

A. dail'cipes B. and M. daucum, a carrot; pes, afoot. Pileus 25 
in. broad, hemispherical, globose. Flesh white, soft, warts regular, 
pyramidal, saffron color. Gills narrow, reaching the stem, broadest in 
the middle. Stem 56 in. high, solid, base bulbous, with a restricted 
cortina above, squamulose downward. Veil fibrillose, extending from 
the margin of the pileus to the apex of the stem, fugacious. 

In cultivated fields. Ohio. Sullivant. Properties not given. 

A. lenticillar'is Lasch. resembling (the stem) a lentil. 
Fries places this species in Amanita, in which Stevenson follows him. 
Cooke and Massee place it in Lepiota, where it will be found. 

* Volva rudimentary, wholly disappearing. 

A. chlorilios'ma Pk. smelling like chlorine. (Plate IX, fig. i, 
p. 1 8.) Pileus convex or expanded, warty on the disk, covered on 
the even margin with a light powdery, at length evanescent substance, 
white. Gills white. Stem nearly cylindrical, stout, deeply penetrating 
the earth. Spores broadly elliptical, 7-10^ long. Odor distinct, chlo- 

Plant 6-7 in. high. Pileus 4-6 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. thick. 
Peck, Bot. Gaz., Vol. 4. 



Amanita. Burnt ground in woods. August. Closter, N. J., C. F. Austin; 
Alabama, U. and E.; West Virginia, Nuttall; New Jersey, Ellis; 
Mt. Gretna, Pa., July, in a cluster of a dozen individuals, and after- 
ward until frost, strong smelling, warts brownish-white, Mcllvaine. 
It is edible and equal to A. strobiliformis. 

A. calyptra'ta Pk. Pileus fleshy, thick, convex or nearly plane, 
centrally covered by a large irregular persistent grayish-white fragment 
of the volva, glabrous elsewhere, striate on the margin, greenish-yellow 
or yellowish-brown tinged with green, the margin often a little paler or 
more yellow than the rest. Lamellae close, nearly free, but reaching 
the stem and forming slight decurrent lines or striations on it, yellowish- 
white tinged with green. Stem stout, rather long, equal or slightly 
tapering upward, surrounded at the base by the remains of the ruptured 
volva, white or yellowish white with a faint greenish tint. Spores 
broadly elliptic, IO/A long, 6/u- broad, usually containing a single large 

Pileus 10-20 cm. broad. Stem 10-15 cm. long, 12-20 mm. thick. 

Rich ground in fir woods or their borders. Autumn. Oregon. Dr, 
H . Lane. 

This is a large and interesting species, well marked and easily recog- 
nized by its large size, by the greenish tint that pervades the pileus, 
lamellae, annulus and stem, and especially by the large persistent patch 
of grayish-white felty material that covers the center of the pileus and 
sometimes extends nearly to the margin. This is in fact the upper part 
of the ruptured volva that is carried up by the growing plant, and is 
very suggestive of the specific name. In the young state the plant is 
entirely enveloped in the volva, which then is similar to a goose egg in 
size and shape, and its walls are one-fourth to one-half inch thick. So 
thick and firm are they that the young plant appears sometimes to be 
unable to break through and it decays in its infancy. 

Dr. Lane says that, having found that the Italians made use of this 
mushroom for food, he began eating it and introducing it to his friends, 
and he learned by personal trial that it is a thoroughly good and whole- 
some mushroom, which, when broiled with bacon, fried, baked or 
stewed, may be eaten with perfect safety and that it is a nutritious food. 
Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 27, January, 1900. 



A. Creimla'ta Pk. PileuS thin, broadly ovate, becoming convex Amanita. 
or nearly plane and somewhat striate on the margin, adorned with a few 
thin whitish floccose warts or with whitish flocculent patches, whitish or 
grayish, sometimes tinged with yellow. Lamellsp close, reaching the 
stem, and sometimes forming decurrent lines upon it, floccose crenulate 
on the edge, the short ones truncate at the inner extremity, white. 
Stem equal, bulbous, floccose mealy above, stuffed or hollow, white, 
the annulus slight, evanescent. Spores broadly elliptic or subglobose, 
7.5-101". long, nearly as broad, usually containing a single large nucleus. 

PileuS 2.5-5 cm - broad. Stem 2.5-5 cm - l n g> 6-8 mm. thick. 

Low ground, under trees. Eastern Massachusetts. September. Mrs. 
E. Blackford and George E. Morris. 

The volva in this species must be very slight, as its remains quickly 
disappear from the bulb of the stem. The remains carried up by the 
pileus form slight warts or thin whitish areolate patches. The annulus 
is present in very young plants, but is often wanting in mature ones, in 
which state the plant might be mistaken for a species of Amanitopsis. 
Its true affinity is with the tribe to which A. rubescens belongs. As in 
that species, the bulb soon becomes naked and exhibits no remains of 
the volva. It is similar to A. farinosa also in this respect, but quite 
unlike it in color, in the adornments of the pileus and in the character 
of its margin, which is even in the young plant and but slightly striate 
in the mature state. Its dimensions are said sometimes to exceed those 
here given, and it is reported to have been eaten without harm and to 
be of an excellent flavor. I have had no opportunity to try. Peck, 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 27, January, 1900. 



Amanita; op sis, resembling. 

Amanitopsis. AFLFH AVING a universal veil at first completely envel- 

oping the young plant, which soon bursts through, 
carrying particles of it on the pileus, where they 
appear as scattered warts readily brushed off; the 
remainder or volva closely enwraps the base of the 
stem. Ring absent. Spores white. This genus 

r ^^B-^>Jwrj= _--. 

^ ** was formerly included in Amanita. It differs from 
Amanita in the absence of a ring or collar upon the stem and in the 
more sheathing volva. It differs from Lepiota in having a volva. 

Close observation is necessary in collecting Amanitopsis for the table. 
It has no trace of ring or veil upon the stem . So far as the species are 
known no poisonous one exists. But Amanita spreta Pk., which is 
deadly, so closely resembles forms of Amanitopsis that those confident 
of their knowledge will be deceived. The veil or traces of veil, which 
Amanita spreta always has, sometimes so adheres to and wraps the stem 
that it is not noticeable without close examination, thus giving to it 
every appearance of an Amanitopsis. 

The volva of A. spreta is attached for a considerable distance to the 
base of the tapering stem, and is not readily removed. This is a guide 
to detect it. It is a wolf in sheep's clothing. 

Amanitopsis corresponds to Volvaria in the pink-spored series, in 
which, as far as known, there is no poisonous species. 

All American species of Amanitopsis are given. Several have not 
been tested by the writer because of lack of opportunity. 

A. vagina'ta Roze vagina, a sheath. (Plate X, figs. I, 2, p. 28.) 
PileilS thin, fragile, glossy, smooth except in rare instances where a 
few fragments of the volva adhere to it for a time, deeply and distinctly 
striate on the margin, sometimes umbonate. Flesh white, in the dark 
forms grayish under the skin. Stem ringless, sometimes smooth, but 
generally mealy or floccose, hollow or stuffed with a cottony pith, not 
bulbous. Volva long, thin, fragile, closely sheathing yet free from the 
stem, except in the lower part, easily detachable and frequently remain- 
ing in the ground when the plant is pulled. Color variable, generally 
mouse-gray, sometimes livid, tawny-yellow or white, in one variety a 



Eli? ^ * 

Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 












rich date-brown. Spores globose, 8 IO/A broad Peck; elliptical 10x7 8/* Amanitopsis. 

Var. liv'ida Pers. livid. Leaden brown, gills dingy. (Plate X, 
fig. 2, p. 28.) 

Var. futva Schaeff. yellowish. Tawny-yellow or pale ochraceous. 

This plant is widely dispersed, having been reported from many local- 
ities in the United States, also from Nova Scotia and Greenland. 

On ground in woods and on margins of woods, under trees, in shaded 
grassy places. Sometimes in open stubble and pastures. June to frost. 
Mt. Gretna, September, 1899, found a cluster on decayed chestnut 
stump. Various colors abound hazel, brown, gray, yellow, whitish. 
The caps and stems are tender as asparagus tips, but without much dis- 
tinct flavor when cooked. 

Great care must be taken to distinguish these forms from Amanita 
spreta Pk. which is poisonous. See heading of genus Amanitopsis. 

A. niva'lis Grev. snowy. (Plate X, fig. 3, p. 28.) Pileus at first 
ovate, then convex or plane, smooth, striate on the thin margin, white, 
sometimes tinged with yellow or ochraceous on the disk. Flesh white. 
Gills subdistant, white, free. Stem equal, rather tall, nearly smooth, 
bulbous, stuffed, white; the volva very fragile, soon breaking tip into 
fragments or sometimes persisting in the form of a collar-like ring at the 
upper part of the bulb. Spores globose, 7.5-10^ in diameter. 

Plant 4-6 in. high. PileilS 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-4 lines thick. 
July to October. 

It approaches in some respects A. Frostiana, but its larger size, 
smooth pileus, lighter color and the absence of an annulus will easily 
distinguish it from that species. Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Specimens have been repeatedly found by the writer in open oak 
woods near Philadelphia. 

A strong, unpleasant bitter, which appears to develop while cooking, 
renders it unpalatable. It is harmless, but its use is not advised. 

A. velo'sa Pk. velosus, fleecy. Pileus at first subglobose, then bell- 
shaped or nearly plane, generally bearing patches of the remains of the 
whitish felty or tomentose volva, elsewhere glabrous, becoming sulcate- 
striate on the margin, buff or orange-buff. Flesh compact, white. 
Gills close, reaching the stem, subventricose, pale cream color. Stem 



Amanitopsis. firm, at first attenuated and tomentose at the top, then nearly equal, 
stuffed, white or whitish, closely sheathed at the base by the thick volva. 
Spores globose, io-13/x. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 3-4 lines thick 

Under oak trees. Pasadena, California. April. A. J. McClatchie. 

This fungus is closely related to A. vaginata, from which it may be 
separated by the more adherent remains of the thicker volva which 
sometimes cover the whole surface of the pileus, and by the thicker gills 
which are somewhat adnate to the stem and terminate with a decurrent 
tooth. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 22, No. 12. 

As it is probable this species will be found elsewhere than California, 
and from its close relation to A. vaginata likely to be edible, its descrip- 
tion is here given. 

A. Strangllla'ta (Fr.) Roze choked, from the stuffed stem. (Plate 
X, fig. 4, p. 28.) Pileus at first ovate or subelliptical, then bell-shaped, 
convex or plane, warty, slightly viscid when moist, deeply and distinctly 
striate on the margin, grayish-brown. Gills free, close, white. Stem 
equal or tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, nearly smooth, white or 
whitish, the volva soon breaking up into scales or subannular fragments, 
Spores globose, io-i3)u,. 

Plant 4-6 in. high. Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-6 lines thick. 
Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

A. Cecilia B. and Br. is a synonym. 

Not distinct in color and general appearance from A. vaginata, but 
distinctly separated by its warty pileus and evanescent mouse-colored 
volva which does not sheath the stem. Pileus striate when young, then 
sulcate. Stem mealy, especially on the upper part. 

Woods, open grassy places, wheat stubble, etc. June to September. 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Mcllvaine. 

In the latitude of Philadelphia the plant is found in great abundance. 
Its rather early appearance, staying quality, delicate consistency and 
flavor make it valuable as a food supply. 

Pearl color, bluish-gray and gray are the prevailing cap-coloring. 

A. adna'ta (W.G.S.) Roze adnatus, adnate, of the gills. Pileus 
about 3 in. across. Flesh thick, whitish, firm, convex, then expanded, 
rather moist, pale yellowish-buff, often furnished with irregular, woolly 



patches of volva ; margin even, extending beyond the gills. Stem 2-4 Amanitopsis. 
in. long, )'2 in. thick, cylindrical, rough, fibrillose, pale buff, flesh dis- 
tinct from that of the pileus, stuffed, then hollow; base slightly swollen. 
Volva adnate, white, downy, margin free and lax, sometimes almost 
obsolete. Gills truly adnate, crowded, with many intermediate shorter 
ones, white. Spores subglobose, with an oblique point, 7-8/ut Massee. 
Tender, good flavor, yielding more substance when cooked than any 
other Amanitopsis. 

A. volva'ta Pk. possessing a volva. Pileus convex, then nearly 
plane, slightly striate on the margin, hairy or floccose-scaly, white or 
whitish, the disk sometimes brownish. Gills close, free, white. Stem 
equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed, minutely floccose-scaly, 
whitish, inserted at the base in a large, firm, cup-shaped, persistent 
volva. Spores elliptical, lOxSyu,. 

Plant 2-3 in. high. Pileus 2-3 broad. Stem 3-4 lines thick. 
Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

The plant is easily recognized by its large, cup-shaped volva and cap, 
which is not smooth, as is usual in a species with a persistent mem- 
branous volva, more or less scaly with minute tufts of fibrils or tomen- 
tose hairs. The gills are white in the fresh plant. 

Professor Peck notes the species as quite rare. Numerous specimens 
occur in the sandy oak woods of New Jersey, and in oak woods near 
Angora, Philadelphia. July to October. 

Care must be taken to determine the absence of an annulus or any 
trace of one. Tender, delicate, without pronounced flavor. Equal to 
Amanitopsis vaginata. 

A. farino'sa Schw. covered with farina, meal. PileilS nearly plane, 
thin, flocculent-pulverulent, widely and deeply striate on the margin , 
grayish-brown or livid-brown. Gills free, whitish. Stem whitish or 
pallid, equal, stuffed or hollow, mealy, stib-bulbous, the volva flocculent- 
pulverulent, evanescent. Spores variable, elliptical ovate or subglobose , 
6-8/u, long. 

Plant about 2 in. high. Pileus I in. to 15 lines broad. Stem 1-3 
lines thick. July to September. 

This is our smallest Amanita (now Amanitopsis). It is neither very 
common nor very abundant when it does occur. It is described by 



Amanitopsis. Schweinitz as "solid," but I have always found it stuffed or hollow. 
Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

A. pusil'la Pk. small. Pileus thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, 
subglabrous, slightly umbonate, even on the margin, pale brown. Gills 
narrow, thin, close, free, becoming brownish. Stem short, hollow, 
bulbous, the bulb margined by the remains of the membranous volva. 
Spores broadly elliptical, 5-6x4/x. 

Pileus about i in. broad. Stem 8-12 lines long, 1-2 lines thick. 

Grassy ground. Gouverneur, St. Lawrence county. September. Mrs. 
Anthony. Peck, 5oth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Edibility not tested. 

A. pubes'cens Schw. downy. Pileus yellow, covered with a thin 
pubescence, margin involute. Stem short, about I in. in length, at 
first white becoming yellowish, bulbous, bulb thick. Volva evanescent. 
Gills white. 

In grassy grounds. Rare. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis. 

A. agglutina'ta B. and C. viscid. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, white, 
hemispheric then plane, viscid, areolate-scaly from the remains of the 
volva, margin thin, sulcate. Stem .5-1-5 in. long, 2 lines thick, short, 
solid, bulbous. Volva with a free margin. Gills broad, ventricose, 
rotundate-free. Spores elliptic. 

In pine woods. 

North Carolina, Curtis. 

Resembling some of the dwarf forms of A. vaginata but at once dis- 
tinguished by its solid stem and decidedly viscid, areolate-squamose 
pileus. Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts, 1848. 



Lepis, a scale. 

PileilS generally scaly from the breaking up of the cuticle and the Lepiota. 
adherence of the concrete veil. Grills free, often very distant from the 
stem and attached to a cartilagi- X^i^ (Plate XI.) 

nous collar. Stem hollow or stuffed, 
its flesh distinct from that of the 
pileus. Ring at first attached to 
the cuticle of the pileus, often mov- 
able, sometimes evanescent. 

On the ground . Several are found 
in hot-houses and hot-beds, and are 
probably introduced species. 

The universal veil, covering the 
entire plant when very young, is 
closely applied to the pileus, which 
from the breaking up of the cuticle 
is generally scaly. The stem in 
most species differs in substance 
from the pileus. This is readily 
seen by splitting the plant in half 
from cap to base. It is easily sep- 
arated from the cap, leaving a cup- 
like depression therein. Grills usu- 
ally white. In some species they are yellow-tinted. In others they 
become a dingy red when wounded or ageing. 

The veil in this genus, being concrete with the cuticle of the pileus, 
never appears as loose warts or patches, neither is there a volva as in 
Amanita and Amanitopsis. These three genera are the only ones in 
the white-spored series having gills free from the stem. In a few species 
the gills are slightly attached to the stem, but are never decurrent upon 
it as in Armillaria. When the plant is young it is egg-shaped. It then 
gradually spreads, becomes convex, and opens until it is nearly flat, 
with a knob in the center. 

The only species in this genus known to be poisonous to some persons 
is L. Morgani Pk., which is distinguished by its green spores and white 
3 .'3 



Lepiota. gills becoming green. L. Vittadini has also been regarded with sus- 



PROCERI (L. procera}. Page 35. 

King movable. The plant is at first entirely enclosed in a universal 
veil, which splits around at the base, the lower part disappearing on 
the bulb, the upper part attached to the pileus breaking up into scales. 
Stem encircled at the top with a cartilaginous collar to which the free, 
remote gills are attached. 

CLYPEOLARII {L. clypeolaria) . Page 39. 

Ring fixed, attached to the upper portion of the universal veil which 
sheaths the stem from the base upward, making it downy or scaly below 
the ring. The remainder of the veil united with the pileus breaking up 
and becoming downy or scaly. Collar at the apex of stem not so large 
as in Proceri, hence the gills are not usually so remote. Taste and 
smell unpleasant, resembling that of radishes. 

ANNULOSI (annulus, a ring). Page 44- 

Ring fixed, somewhat persistent, universal veil closely attached to the 
pileus. Collar absent or similar in texture to the stem. Stem, not 


GRANULOSI {L. granulosa}. Page 49. 

Pileus granular or warty. Universal veil sheathing the stem, at first 
continuous from the stem to the pileus, finally rupturing, forming a ring 
nearer the base. Stem not so distinctly different from the pileus as in 
other sections. 

MESOMORPHI (L. mesomorpha). 

Small, slender, stem hollow. Pileus smooth, dry. 





Photographed by Dr. J. R. Weist. 



PROCE'RI. Ring movable, etc. 

L. proce'ra Scop. procems, tall. (Plate XIII, p. 34.) Tall Lepiota. 
Lepiota, Parasol Mushroom, in some localities Pasture Mushroom (a 
misleading title). 

HE Flesh not very thick, soft, permanently white. 
Pileus at first ovate, finally expanded, cuticle soon 
breaking up into brown scales, excepting upon the 
umbo, umbo smooth, dark-brown, distinct. The 
caps vary in shades of brown, sometimes they 
have a faint tinge of lavender. Gills whitish, 
crowded, narrowing toward the stem, and very re- 
mote from it. Stem variable in length, often very 
long, tubular, at first stuffed with light fibrils, 

quite bulbous at base, generally spotted or scaly with peculiar snake- 
like markings below the ring, which is thick, firm and readily movable. 
When the stem is removed from pileus it leaves a deep cavity extending 
nearly to the cuticle. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 5-12 in. high, about % in. thick. 
White spores elliptical, 14-18x9-1 I/A Peck; 12-15x8-9^ Massee; 
14x10/11 Lloyd. 

Readily known by its extremely tall stem, shaggy cap, distinct umbo 
and the channel between the gills and stem. Resembles no poisonous 

Before cooking the scurf should be rubbed from the caps, which alone 
should be eaten, as the stem is tough. Though the flesh is thin, the 
gills are meaty and have a pleasant, nutty flavor. Fried in butter it 
has few equals. It makes a superior catsup. 

L. raclio'des Vitt. Gr. a ragged, tattered garment. PileilS very 
fleshy, but very soft when full grown, globose then flattened or depressed, 
not umbonate, at first incrusted with a thick, rigid, even, very smooth, 
bay-brown, wholly continuous cuticle, which remains entire at the disk 
but otherwise soon becomes elegantly reticulated with cracks; these very 
readily separate into persistent, polygonal, concentric scales, which are 
revolute at the margin and attached to the surface with beautifully 
radiating fibers, the surface remaining coarsely fibrillose-downy. Flesh 



Lepiota. white, immediately becoming saffron-red when broken, easily separating 
from the apex of the distinct stem, which is encircled with a prominent 
collar. Stem stout, at the first bulbous with a distinct margin upon the 
bulb, conical when young, then elongated, attenuated upward, as much 
as a span long, very robust, I in. thick, and more at the base, always 
even, and without a trace of scales or even of fibrils although the ap- 
pearance is obsoletely silky, wholly whitish, hollow within, stuffed with 
spider-web threads, the walls remarkably and coarsely fibrous. King 
movable, adhering longer to the margin of the pileus than to the apex 
of the stem, hence rayed with fibers at the circumference, clothed 
beneath with one or two zones of scales. Gills very remote, tapering 
toward each end or broadest at the middle, crowded, whitish, some- 
times reddening. Stevenson. 

Veil remarkable in its development and thick margin. 

Spores 6x8/A W.G.S. 

Fort Edward, Howe; Westfield, N. Y., Miss L. M. Patchen; Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Mcllvaine. 

A heavier species than L. procera, of which by some writers it has 
been considered a variety, but it differs in the absence of umbo and flesh 
becoming tinged with red. 

Stem is decidedly swollen downward. Veil heavy, apparently double, 
thickest at margin of cap to which it remains attached in heavy frag- 
ments. It tears from the stem, leaving no mark of ring. 

Var. puellaris Fr. puella, a girl. Smaller than typical form, shining 
white, pileus with downy scales. Not yet reported in America. 

Edible qualities similar to those of L. procera. It is sold indiscrimi- 
nately with it in London markets. 

L. excoria'ta Schaeff. stripped of its skin. Flesh spongy, rather 
thick, white, unchangeable. Pileus at first globose, then flat, hardly 
umbonate, pale-fawn or whitish, disk dark; cuticle thin, silky or scaly, 
sometimes areolate, more or less peeled toward margin, hence its name. 
Gills ventricose, white, free, somewhat remote. Stem attenuated, 
hollow or stuffed, short, scarcely bulbous, smooth, white, not spotted, 
very distinct from flesh of pileus. Ring movable but not so freely as 
that of L. procera. 

Stem \y*-2.% in. high, less than > in. thick. Pileus 2-3 in. broad. 

Spores 1 4- 1 5x8-9/4 Massee. 



In pastures or grassy lawns. May to September. Lepiota. 

North Carolina, edible, Curtis; Massachusetts, Frost; California, H. 
and M.; Ohio, Morgan; Minnesota, Johnson. 

Distinguished from the preceding by its smaller size and short stem 
which is scarcely bulbous. 

Esculent qualities good. 

L. mastoi'dea Fr. Gr. breast-shaped. Pileus rather thin, ovate, 
bell-shaped, then flattened, with a conspicuous acute umbo, cuticle thin, 
brownish, breaking up in minute scattered scales; the pileus appears 
whitish beneath. Stem hollow, smooth, tough, flexible, attenuated 
from the bulbous base to the apex. Ring entire, movable. Gills very 
remote, crowded, broad, tapering at both ends, white. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3-4 lines thick at base, 
1/^-2 lines at apex. 

North Carolina, edible, Curtis. It is generally eaten in Europe. 

In woods, especially about old stumps. October. 

The entire plant is whitish and is well marked by the prominent umbo, 
which generally has a depression around it. It has the least substance 
of any in this section, and consequently not much value as food. 

L. gracilen'ta Krombh. gracilis, slender. Pileus rather fleshy, 
thickest at the disk, ovate then bell-shaped, finally flattened, obscurely 
umbonate; at first brownish from the adnate cuticle, which, breaking 
up into broad adpressed scales, allows the whitish pileus to be seen be- 
neath them. Gills remote, very broad, crowded, pallid. Stem whit- 
ish, obscurely scaly, hollow or containing slight fibrils, slightly bulbous. 
Ring thin, floccose, vanishing. 

Stem 56 in. long, 3-5 lines thick. In pastures, also in woods. 

Spores nx8/A W.G.S. 

Almost as tall as L. procera, but slighter in stem and pileus; the 
ring, instead of being firm and persistent, is thin and fugacious, and 
the stem is hardly bulbous. 

Edible, but not of the first quality. 

L. Mor'gani Pk. in honor of Professor Morgan. (Plate XIV.) 
Pileus fleshy, soft, at first subglobose, then expanded or even depressed, 
white, the brownish or yellowish cuticle breaking up into scales except 



Lepiota. on the disk. Gills close, lanceolate, remote, white, then green. Stem 
firm, equal or tapering upward, subbulbous, smooth, webby-stuffed, 
whitish, tinged with brown. Ring rather large, movable. Flesh both 
of the pileus and stem white, changing to reddish and then to yellowish 
when cut or bruised. Spores ovate or subelliptical, mostly uninucleate, 
sordid green, 1013x78/1.. 

Plant 6-8 in. high. Pileus 5-9 in. broad. Stem 6-12 lines thick. 
Peck in Bot. Gaz., March, 1879. 

Open dry grassy places. Dayton, Ohio. A. P. Morgan. 

This species is remarkable because of the peculiar color of the spores. 
No green-spored Agaric, so far as I am aware, has before been dis- 
covered, and no one of the five series, in which the very numerous species 
of the genus have been arranged, is characterized in such a way as to 
receive this species. 

It seems a little hasty to found a series (Viridispori) on the strength 
of a single species. Until other species of such a supposed series shall 
be discovered it seems best to regard this as an aberrant member of the 
white-spored series. The same course has been taken with those Agarics 
which have sordid or yellowish or lilac-tinted spores. 

It gives me great pleasure to dedicate this fine species to its discoverer 
Mr. Morgan. Peck. 

Commonly 6-8 in. high, 5-9 in. diameter, though larger specimens 
are sometimes found. It is the most conspicuous Agaric in the meadows 
and pastures of the Miami valley; it appears to flourish from spring to 
autumn whenever there is abundance of rain. 

It is heavier and stouter than L. procera and I am disposed to claim 
that it is the largest Agaric in the world. Spores 10-12x7-8)".. In 
immature specimens they are greenish-yellow. Morgan. 

Kansas, Bartholomew (Peck, Rep. 50); Kansas, Cragin; Alabama, 
U. and E.; Georgia, Benson; Louisiana, Rev. A. B. Langlois; Michigan, 
C. F. Wheeler (Lloyd, Myc. Notes) ; Texas, Prof. W. S. Carter; 
Indiana, H. I. Miller. 

L. Morgan! is one of the largest, handsomest of the genus. It is 
very abundant in the western and southwestern states. Mr. H. I. 
Miller, Terre Haute, Ind., writes August 18, 1898: "I have recently 
measured several which were more than twelve inches across. At the 
present time this mushroom is growing in more abundance throughout 
Indiana than any other. It grows luxuriantly in the pastures, generally 









in grand fairy rings, five, ten, fifteen feet in diameter. We find it also Lepiotn, 
in the woods. It is beautifully white and majestic, and these rings can 
be seen in meadows where the grass has been eaten close, for half a 
mile or more. The gills are white until the cap is almost opened, by 
which time the green spores begin to cause the gills to change to green. 
The meat is fine and is usually more free from worms than other mush- 
rooms. Six families, here, have eaten heartily of them. The experi- 
ence is that one or two members of each family are made sick, though 
in two families, who have several times eaten them, no one was made 
sick. I enjoy them immensely, and never feel any the worse for eating 
them. I doubt if we have a finer-flavored fungus. The meat is simply 
delicious. One fairy ring yields a bushel." 

Prof. W. S. Carter, University of Texas, Galveston, reported to me 
(and sent specimens of L. Morganii) the poisoning of three laboring 
men from eating this fungus. They were seriously sick, but recovered. 

The conclusion is inevitable that this green-spored Lepiota contains a 
poison which violently attacks some persons, yet is harmless upon others. 

I have not had opportunity to test it. It should be tested with great 
caution. (See Supplement, pages 730 and 738.) 

CLYPEOLA'RII. Clypeus, a shield. Ring fixed; stem sheathed, etc. 

L. Frie'sii Lasch. in honor of Fries. Pileus fleshy, soft, lacerated 
into appressed tomentose scales. Stem hollow, with a webby pith, sub- 
bulbous, scaly. Ring superior, pendulous, equal. Gills subremote, 
linear, crowded, branched. Fries. 

Pileus fleshy but rather thin, convex or nearly plane, clothed with a 
soft, tawny or brownish-tawny down, which breaks up into appressed, 
often subconfluent scales, the disk rough with small acute, erect scales. 
Flesh soft, white. Grills narrow, crowded, free, white, some of them 
forked. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, subbulbous, hollow, 
colored like the pileus below the ring, and there clothed with tomentose 
fibrils which sometimes form floccose or tomentose scales, white and 
powdered above. Ring well developed, flabby, white above, tawny 
and floccose-scaly below. Spores 7-8x3-4;*. 

Plant 2-5 in. high. Pileus 1-4 in. broad. Stem 2-5 lines thick. 

Catskill mountains and East Worcester. July to September. 

\ have quoted the description of this species as it is found in Epicri- 



Lepiota. sis, because the American plant which I have referred to it does not in 
all respects agree with this description, but comes so near it that it can 
scarcely be specifically distinct. In the American plant, so far as I 
have seen it, erect, acute scales are always present, especially on the 
disk, and the down of the pileus does not always break up into distinct 
areas or scales. Neither is the stem usually scaly, but rather clothed 
with soft tomentose or almost silky fibrils. The gills are crowded and 
some of them are forked. At the furcations there are slight depressions 
which interrupt the general level of the edges, and give them the ap- 
pearance of having been eaten by insects. The plant has a slight odor, 
especially when cut or bruised. Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Remarks under L. acute*squamosa apply to L. Friesii, which Fries 
himself doubts being distinct from the first. The plants vary greatly in 
size, color and habitat. The name acutesquamosa carries a descrip- 
tive meaning with it that L. Friesii does not. 

It does not appear to have been reported except by Professor Peck, 
but probably appears as L. acutesquamosa in other lists. 

The edible qualities are excellent. 

L. acutesquamo'sa Wein. acutus, sharp; squama, a scale. Pileus 
fleshy, obtuse, at first hairy-floccose, then bristly with erect, acute, 
rough scales. Stem somewhat stuffed, stout, bulbous, powdered above 
the moderate-sized ring. Gills approximate, lanceolate, simple. Fries. 

PileilS convex or nearly plane, obtuse or broadly subumbonate, 
clothed with a soft tawny or brownish-tawny tomentum, which usually 
breaks up into imperfect areas or squamae, rough with erect, acute scales, 
which are generally larger and more numerous on the disk. Gills close, 
free, white or yellowish. Stem equal, hollow or stuffed with webby fila- 
ments, subbulbous. Spores about 7x34/4. 

Woods and conservatories. Buffalo, G. W. Clinton; Albany, A. F. 
Chat field; Adirondack mountains and Brewertown, Peck. 

The form found in the hot-houses seems to have the tomentum of the 
pileus less dense and the erect scales more numerous than in the form 
growing in woods. The annulus is frequently lacerated. In the speci- 
mens of the woods the erect scales are sometimes blackish in color, and 
they then contrast quite conspicuously with the tawny or brownish- 
tawny tomentum beneath them. They vary in size and shape. Some 
resemble pointed papillae, others, being more elongated, are almost 



spine-like. These are sometimes curved. They are generally larger Lepiota. 
and more numerous on the disk than elsewhere, and often they are 
wholly wanting on the margin. Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Philadelphia, 1897, on lawn and growing from trunk of a maple 
tree; Mt. Gretna, Pa., mixed woods. Mcllvaine. 

I first saw specimens of L. acutesquamosa when sent to me by Miss 
Lydia M. Patchen, President Westfield Toadstool Club. It was later 
found by myself and tested. Specimens were sent to Professor Peck 
and identified as L. acutesquamosa. 

Caps and stems brownish-purple. The pointed squamules or tufts 
have dark-brown points, shaded to a delicate purple at base. Gills 
light, faint flesh-color. Veil is silky, transparent, beautiful, quite tena- 
cious stretching until cap is well expanded, persistent, though at times 
fugacious. Smell like stewed mushrooms. The caps are of excellent 
substance and flavor. 

L. his'pida Lasch. rough. Pileus 2-3 in. across. Flesh thin, 
white, unchangeable; hemispherical then expanded, umbonate, tomen- 
tose or downy at first from the remains of the universal veil ; during 
expansion the down becomes broken up into small, spreading, scaly 
points, which eventually disappear, umber-brown, sometimes with a 
tawny tinge. Gills free but near to the stem, the collar of the pileus 
prominent and sheathing the stem, crowded, ventricose, simple, white. 
Stem about 3-5 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, attenuated upward, densely 
squamosely-woolly up to the superior, membranaceous, reflexed ring, 
dingy-brown, stem tubular, but fibrillosely stuffed. Spores 6 7x4/u. 

In margins of and in open mixed woods, under pine trees, Haddon- 
field, N. J., July to September, 1892. Quite plentiful year after year in 
the same places. The American plant is taller than the English species, 
the stem reaching five inches, and the color of the cap a delicate tawny- 
brown. Smell slight, but pungent like radishes. 

The whole fungus is tender and delicious. It is one of the few Lepi- 
otae that stews well. 

L. feli'na Pers. belonging to a cat. Pileus thin, bell-shaped or 
convex, subumbonate, adorned with numerous subtomentose or floccose 
blackish-brown scales. Gills close, free, white. Stem slender, rather 



Lepiota. long, equal or slightly tapering upward, hollow, clothed with soft, loose, 
floccose filaments, brown. Ring slight, evanescent. Spores elliptical, 

Plant 2-3.5 in. high. Pileus .5-1.5 in. broad. Stem 1-2 lines 

Woods. Adirondack Mountains. August and September. 

It is easily distinguished from A. rubrotincta by the darker color of 
the scales of the pileus, by the loose floccose filaments that clothe the 
brown stem, by the fugacious ring and the smaller spores. Peck, 35th 
Rep. N. Y. State Dot. 

The caps compare favorably with other Lepiotae in substance and 

L. crista'ta A. and S. crista, a tuft, crest. Pileus thin, bell-shaped 
or convex, then nearly plane, obtuse, at first with an even reddish or 
reddish-brown surface, then white adorned with reddish or reddish- 
brown scales formed by the breaking up of the cuticle, the central part 
or disk colored like the scales. Gills close, free, white. Stem slender, 
hollow, equal, smooth or silky-fibrillose below the ring, whitish. Rin^ 
small, white. Spores oblong or narrowly subelliptical, 5-7x3-4/1. 

Plant 1-2 in. high. Pileus .5-1.5 in. broad. Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Grassy places and borders of woods. June to September. 

This species is easily known by its small size and the crested appear- 
ance of the white pileus, an appearance produced by the orbicular un- 
ruptured portion of the cuticle that remains like a colored spot on the 
disk. The fragments or scales are more close near this central part and 
more distant from each other toward the margin, where they are often 
wholly wanting. The scales are sometimes very small and almost gran- 
ular. In very wet weather the margin of the pileus in this and some 
other species becomes upturned or reflexed. Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Found in Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia. June to September, 
1897. Mcllvaine. 

Scales were appressed and slightly tinged with brown, often very 
small. Caps of same, upturned and bare near margin. Taste sweet, 
slightly like new meal. Odor strong. 

Cooked it is of good consistency and pleasing to taste. 



L. alluvi'naPk. alluvies, the over-flowing of a river. Pileus thin, Lepiota. 
convex or plane, reflexed on the margin, white, adorned with minute 
pale-yellow hairy or fibrillose scales. Grills thin, close, free, white or 
yellowish. Stem slender, fibrillose, whitish or pallid, slightly thickened 
at the base. Ring slight, subpersistent, often near the middle of the 
stem. Spores elliptical, 6-7x4-5^. 

Plant 1-2 in. high. Pileus .5-1 in. broad. Stem 1-1.5 l mes thick. 

Alluvial soil, among weeds. Albany. July. 

In the fresh plant the scales are of a pale yellow or lemon color, but 
in drying they and the whole pileus take a deeper rich yellow hue. The 
ring is generally remote from the pileus, sometimes even below the 
middle of the stem. Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

In 1897, I found it growing among weeds on lot near University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Seemingly it is a city resident. 

The taste and smell are pleasant. Cooked it is tender and savory. 
Both stems and caps are good. 

L. metulse'spora B. and Br. metula, an obelisk. Pileus thin, bell- 
shaped or convex, subumbonate, at first with a uniform pallid or brown- 
ish surface, which soon breaks up into small brownish scales, the margin 
more or less striate, often appendiculate with fragments of the veil. 
Gills close, free, white. Stem slender, equal or slightly tapering up- 
ward, hollow, adorned with soft floccose scales or filaments, pallid. 
Ring slight, evanescent. Spores long, subfusiform. 

Plant 2-3.5 in. high. Pileus .5-1 -5 in- broad. Stem 1-2 lines 

Woods. Adirondack mountains. August and September. 

This species occurs with us in the same localities as L. felina, which 
it very much resembles in size, shape and general characters, differing 
only in color, the striate margin of the pileus and the character of the 

The species has a wide range, having been found in Ceylon, England, 
Alabama and Kentucky. Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

This has not been elsewhere noted in the United States, probably 
from neglect of the spore characters, being reported as L. clypeolaria. 

New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Mcllvaine, 



ANNULO'SI. Ring large, fixed; stem not sheathed. 

Lepiota. L. lioloseri'cea Fr. Gr. entire, silken. PileilS 3 in. and more 
broad, whitish or clay-white, fleshy , soft, convex then expanded, rather 
plane, obtuse, floccoso-silky , somewhat fibrillose, becoming even, fragile, 
disk by no means gibbous ; and wholly of the same color ; margin in- 
volute when young. Flesh soft, white. Stem 2)^-4 in. long, % in. 
and more thick, solid, bulbous and not rooted at the base, soft, fragile, 
silky-fibrillose, whitish. Ring superior, membranaceous, large, soft, 
pendulous, the margin again ascending. Gills wholly free, broad, 
ventricose, crowded, becoming pale-white. Fries. 

A species well marked from all others. Inodorous. 

On soil in flower beds. 

Spores elliptical, 7-8x5/4 Massee; 6x9/A W.G.S. 

Wisconsin, Bundy; Minnesota, Johnson. 

Considered esculent in Europe. 

L. Vittadi'ni Fr. in honor of the Italian mycologist. PileuS 3-4 
in. across. Flesh 4-6 lines thick at the disk, becoming very thin at 
the margin, white; convex then plane, obtuse or gibbous, densely 
covered with small, erect, wart-like scales, altogether whitish. Gills 
free but rather close to the stem, 3-4 lines broad, rounded in front, 
thickish, ventricose, with a greenish tinge. Stem 2/^-3)2 in. long, 
up to % in. thick, cylindrical, with numerous concentric rings of squar- 
rose scales, up to the superior, large ring; whitish, or the edges of the 
scales often tipped with red, solid. Fries. 

In pastures, etc. 

Intermediate between Lepiota and Amanita. 

Noted by Fries as poisonous. It may or may not be, but as a matter 
of precaution it is described. A large species, pure white, extremely 

Massachusetts, Farlow. 

L. nauci'na Fr. No translation applicable. Pileus i-i % in. broad, 
white, the disk of the same color, fleshy, soft, gibbous or obtusely um- 
bonate when flattened, even, the thin ctiticle splitting up into granules. 
Stem 1-^-3 in. long, stuffed, at length somewhat hollow, but without 
a definite tube, attenuated upward from the thickened base, fibrillose, 












unspotted, white. Ring superior, tender, but persistent, adhering to Lepiota. 
the stem, at length reflexed. Gills free, approximate, crowded, ventri- 
cose, soft, white. 

There is a prominent collar, as in the Clypeolarii, embracing the stem. 
Stature and appearance of L. excoriata, but commonly smaller, the 
superior ring adfixed, etc. Fries. 

Spores subglobose, 6-7/u. Massee. 

L. naucina Fr. is the European species which has its American coun- 
terpart in L. naucinoides Pk. The variations in the American species 
are noted under L. naucinoides. 

As Amanita phalloides in its white form the poisonous white Ama- 
nita, resembles L. naucina or L. naucinoides in some stages of its growth 
and may be confounded with it, careful note should be taken of their ex- 
ternal differences. In L. naucinoides the bulb and stem are continuous, 
each passing into the other imperceptibly; in A. phalloides the junc- 
tion of stem and bulb is abrupt and remains so, and the bulb is more 
or less enwrapped in the volva. The ring is also larger than in L. nau- 
cinoides and is pendulous, and the gills are permanently white. A cer- 
tain means of distinguishing between them is by the application of heat 
as in cooking. On toasting both it will be found that the gills of the 
Amanita remain white, but those of the Lepiota turn quickly brown. 

L. naucinoi'des Pk. No translation applicable. (Plates XV, XII, 
fig. 2, p. 32.) Pileus soft, smooth, white or snowy-white. Gills free, 
white, slowly changing with age to a dirty pinkish-brown or smoky- 
brown color. Stem ringed, slightly thickened at the base, colored like 
the pileus. Spores subelliptical, uninucleate, white, 8-10 long xS-8/* 
broad. Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Kansas, Cragin; Wisconsin, Bundy; New Jersey, Ellis; Iowa, Mac- 
bride; New York, Peck, 23d, 29th, 35th Rep.; Indiana, H.I. Miller, 
Dr. J. R. Weist. 

L. naucinoides Pk. is the American counterpart of L. naucina Fr., 
a European species, excepting that the spores of the latter are described 
as globose. The caps are ovate when young and usually from I / 3 in. 
across when expanded, but occasionally reach 4 in., smooth, but 
frequently rough or minutely cracked in the center, white or varying 
shades of white deepening in color at the summit. In a rare form var. 
squamo'sa, large, thick scales occur which are caused by the breaking 



Lepiota. up of the cap surface. When young the gills are white or faintly yellow, 
becoming pinkish or dull brown in age. The pinkish hue is not always 
apparent. The outer edge of the veil or ring is thickest; usually it is 
firmly attached to the stem, but movable rings are frequently noticed. 
When the plant ages the ring is often missing, but traces of it are always 
discernible. Stem rarely equal, often it is distinctly bulbous, generally 
tapering upward from a more or less enlarged base, hollow when fully 
grown, until then containing cottony fibers within the cavity or appearing 
solid, 2-3 in. long, %% in. thick. 

Its habitat is similar to that of the common mushroom lawns, 
pastures, grassy places though unlike the latter it is found in woods. 
Until thoroughly acquainted with it, specimens found in woods and 
supposed to be L. naucinoides should not be eaten. An Amanita might 
be mistaken for it. It is readily distinguishable from the common 
mushroom and its allies by the color of the gills and spores which are 
white, and differences in stem and veil. 

It is found from July until after hard frosts. It was first reported 
edible by Professor Peck in 1875, under the name of Agaricus naucinus. 

The L. naucinoides is rewarding the favor with which it has been 
received as an esculent, it being equal to the common mushroom and 
quite free from insects. Large crops of it are reported from all over the 
country, and from many sections it is told of as a stranger. During 
1897-98 the author has found it in plenty upon ground familiar to him 
for years, upon which it had not previously shown itself. The common 
mushroom must look to its laurels. 

Its cultivation as a marketable crop is possible and probable. 

L. cepsesti'pes Sow. cepa, an onion; stipes, stem. (Plate XII, fig. 
3, p. 32.) Pileus thin, at first ovate, then bell-shaped or expanded, 
umbonate, soon adorned with numerous minute brownish scales, which 
are often granular or mealy, folded into lines on the margin, white or 
yellow, the umbo darker. Grills thin, close, free, white, becoming 
dingy with age or in drying. Stem rather long, tapering toward 
the apex, generally enlarged in the middle or near the base, hollow. 
Ring thin, subpersistent. Spores subelliptical, with a single nucleus, 

Plant often cespitose, 2-4 in. high. Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 
2-3 lines thick. 



Rich ground and decomposing vegetable matter. Also in graperies Lepiota. 
and conservatories. Buffalo, G. W. Clinton; Albany, A. F. Chatfield. 
Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores elliptical, 7-8x4/1 Massee; 8x4^ W.G.S.; 8-10x5-81". Peck. 

Haddonfield, N. J., Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine; New York, Mrs. E. 
C. Anthony; Indiana, H. I. Miller. July to October. 

Whoever has seen the seed-stalks of an onion knows the shape from 
which this fungus takes its name. The dense clusters are graceful, 
dainty, and contain many individuals of all ages from the very young 
with egg-shaped heads, like pigmy C. comatus, to the fluff-capped eld- 
est, willowy and fair to look upon. The out-door kind soon droops 
when matured ; the young plants of a cluster will remain fresh for 
several days after taken from their habitat. Stems in these tufts are 
often quill-shaped, and the striations on the cap margins are shorter 
than those on their indoor cousins. These grow in hot-houses and sta- 
bles. One of the two forms has a yellow cap, the other is white and 

These forms have often come to my table as a pleasant winter sur- 
prise. Children in the hot-houses of Haddonfield, N. J., watched for 
its appearance among the bedded plants, sure of a present when they 
brought me a meal of it. Both the white and yellow varieties were 
equally enjoyed. 

The entire fungus is tender and delicious cooked in any way. 

L. farino'sa Pk. farina, meal. Pileus thin, rather tough, flexi- 
ble, at first globose or ovate, then bell-shaped or convex, covered with 
a soft, dense, white veil of mealy down, which soon ruptures, forming 
irregular, easily-detersible scales, more persistent and sometimes brown- 
ish on the disk. Flesh white, unchangeable. Gills close, free, white, 
minutely downy on the edge. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward > 
somewhat thickened at the base, slightly mealy, often becoming gla- 
brous, hollow or with a cottony pith above, solid at the base, white, 
pallid or straw-colored, the ring lacerated, somewhat appendiculate on 
the margin of the pileus, evanescent. Spores subovate, 10-13x81*. 

Pileus 1.5-2.5 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Mushroom beds in a conservatory, Boston, Mass. March. Com- 
municated by E. J. Forster. 

This species is related to L. cepaestipes, from which it may be dis- 



Lepiota. tinguished by its pileus, which is not folded on the margin, and by its 
larger spores. It is edible. It is very distinct from Amanita farinosa. 
Peck, 43d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Ohio, Lloyd, Prof. William Miller (Lloyd Myc. Notes). 

L. Americana Pk. (Plate XII, fig. i, p. 32. Plate XVa.) Pileus 
at first ovate, then convex or expanded, urnbonate, scaly, white, the 
umbo and scales reddish or reddish-brown. Gills close, free, white. 
Stem somewhat thickened at or a little above the base, hollow, bearing 
a ring, white. Spores subelliptical, uninucleate, 8-iox5-8/u,. 

The American lepiota belongs to the same genus as the parasol 
mushroom and the Smooth lepiota. It has one character in which it 
differs from all other species of Lepiota. The whole plant when fresh 
is white, except the umbo and the scales of the cap, but in drying it 
assumes a dull reddish or smoky-red color. By this character it is 
easily recognized. 

In the very young plant the cap is somewhat egg-shaped and nearly 
covered by the thin reddish-brown cuticle, but as the plant enlarges the 
cuticle separates and forms the scales that adorn the cap. On the 
central prominence or umbo, however, it usually remains entire. The 
margin of the cap is thin and is generally marked with short radiating 
lines or striations. The gills do not quite reach the stem and are, there- 
fore, free from it. Sometimes they are connected with each other at or 
near their inner extremity by transverse branches. They are a little 
broader near the margin of the cap than at their inner extremity. The 
stem affords a peculiar feature. It is often enlarged towards the base 
and then abruptly narrowed below the enlargement, as in the Onion- 
stemmed lepiota. In some instances, however, the enlargement is not 
contracted below and then the stem gradually tapers from the base up- 
ward. The stem is hollow and usually furnished with a collar, but some- 
times this is thin and may disappear with advancing age. Wounds or 
bruises are apt to assume brownish-red hues. 

The caps vary in width from 1-4 in. ; the stems are from 3-5 in. 
long, and 2-5 lines thick. Sometimes plants attain even larger 
dimensions than these. The plants grow singly or in tufts in grassy 
ground or on old stumps. They may be found from July to October. 

In flavor this species is not much inferior to the parasol mushroom, 
but when cooked in milk or cream it imparts its own reddish color to 










the material in which it is cooked. It is, however, a fine addition to Lepiota. 
our list of esculent species. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Dot. 

I found several on a decaying willow trunk, and on the ground beside 
it, in Philadelphia. In July, 1898, large quantities, often clustered, 
grew under the great, open auditorium of the Pennsylvania Chautauqua, 
at Mt. Gretna, Pa., from ground covered with crushed limestone. 

The caps are meaty and excellent in flavor. They should be broiled 
or fried. 

GRANULOSI. Pileus granular or warty. Stem sheathed, etc. 

L. granillo'sa Batsch. granosus, full of grains. Pileus thin, con- 
vex or nearly plane, sometimes almost umbonate, rough, with numer- 
ous granular or branny scales, often radiately wrinkled, rusty-yellow or 
reddish-yellow, often growing paler with age. Flesh white or reddish- 
tinged. Gills close, rounded behind and usually slightly adnexed, 
white. Stem equal or slightly thickened at the base, stuffed or hollow, 
white above the ring, colored and adorned like the pileus below it. 
Ring slight, evanescent. Spores elliptical 4-5x3-4^. 

Plant 1-2.5 in- high- Pileus 1-2.5 in - broad. Stem 1-3 lines 
thick. Woods, copses and waste places. Common. August to October. 

This is a small species with a short stem and granular reddish-yellow 
pileus, and gills slightly attached to the stem, a character by which it 
differs from all the preceding. The ring is very small and fugacious, 
being little more than the abrupt termination to the coating of the stem. 
Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. State Hot. 

Spores 5-6x3//. B.; 3x4/4 W.G.S.; elliptical, 4-5x3-4^ Peck. 

Var. rufes'cens B. and Br. Pure white at first, then partially turning 
red and in drying acquiring everywhere a reddish tint. 

Var. atbida Pk. Persistently white. 

Though small many plants grow neighboring. Being fleshy for their 
size, and of pleasing quality, they well repay gathering. Remove stems. 

Open woods, Angora, West Philadelphia; Haddonfield, New Jersey, 


L. delica'ta Fr. delicatus, delicate. Up to I K in. across, reddish, 
becoming yellowish toward margin. Flesh well proportioned to cap, 
4 49 


Lepiota. convex, obscurely umbonate, glabrous, slightly viscid. Stem I K-2 in. 
long, very thin, but covered with dense downy scales, equal, lighter 
than cap. Ring usually entire, membranaceous, fluffy from scales. 
Gills free, crowded, ventricose, white. 

Haddonfield, N. J., January, 1896-97, in hot-houses. Mcllvaine. 
A delicate, delicious Lepiota. Though small, it is meaty. Its ap- 
pearance in hot-houses (it is found in woods) insures a crop at a time of 
year when other species are not plentiful, and when anything edible in 
the toadstool line is most welcome to their lovers. 

L. lenticula'ris Lasch. lenticula, a lentil. Pileus at first globose, 
then convex, even, naked, pinkish-tan color. Flesh thick, spongy, 
white. Gills close to stem, but free from it, ventricose, crowded, 
whitish. Stem 46 in. high, thick, equal or swollen at base, solid but 
spongy, more or less covered with scales; above the ring it is frequently 
covered with drops of water more or less green, which leave spots when 
they dry. Veil superior and very large. 

Pileus 3-4 in. across. Stem 4-6 in. long, % in. and more thick. In 
damp woods. 

Redman's Woods, Haddonfield, N. J. September, 1894. Mcllvaine. 

This species is included in Amanita by Fries and Stevenson. Massee 
places it in Lepiota. In the dozen or more specimens I have found, 
there was no trace of a volva, even when very young. I tested it care- 
fully and at one time ate three good-sized caps without experiencing 
any indications of poison. I have seen it during but one season and 
not then (at one time) in sufficient quantity to make a meal off it. 
Cooked it has a slight oheesy flavor which is pleasant. 

L. illi'nita Fr. illino, to smear over. PileilS rather thin, soft, at 
first ovate, then campanulate or expanded, subumbonate, smooth, white, 
very viscid or glutinous, even or striate on the margin. Gills close, 
free, white. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, 
viscid, white. Spores broadly elliptical, 5x4/1, broad. 

Plant 2-4 in. high. Pileus 1-2.5 in. broad. Stem 2-3 lines thick. 

Thin or open woods. Adirondack mountains. July to September. 

This is a smooth white species with the stem and pileus clothed with 
a clear viscid or glutinous veil. The margin of the pileus is often even, 
but the typical form of the species has it striate. The flesh is soft and 



white. The species may be distinguished from the viscid white species Lepiota. 
of Hygrophorus by the free, not adnate nor decurrent lamellae. Peck, 
35th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Springton and Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1887-1897. Mcllvaine. 

Not yet found by me in quantity. Several specimens eaten were of 
good flavor. 

L. rilglllo'sa Pk. Pileus thin, submembranaceous, broadly con- 
vex or nearly plane, umbonate, rugulose, widely striate on the margin, 
whitish. Lamellae thin, narrow, close, free, whitish. Stem short, 
equal, slightly silky, whitish, the annulus thin, persistent, white. Spores 
elliptic, 7-5/i long, 4/4 broad. 

Pileus 12-20 mm. broad. Stem about 2.5 cm. long, 2 mm. thick. 

Moist grassy places under trees. Washington, D. C. July. Mrs. 
E. M . Williams. Perhaps in the fresh state the pileus is not as dis- 
tinctly rugulose as when dry. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 27, 
January, 1900. 



Armilla,3i ring. 

Armuiaria. Pileus and Stem continuous. Veil partial, sometimes only indicated 

(Plate XVII.) by the scales which clothe the stem 

terminating in the form of a ring. 
Spores white. On the ground or on 

In the young plant the veil extends 
from the stem to the pileus, some- 
times forming scaly patches upon it ; 
below the ring it is attached to the 
stem often in scales. 

But for the presence of the ring 
the species of this genus could be dis- 

tributed in Tricholoma, Clitocybe and Collybia, with which they agree 
in all other characters. 

In Amanita and Lepiota, the other ringed genera of the white-spored 
series, the flesh of the stem and pileus is not continuous; and their stems 
are therefore easily separated. Amanita is also distinguished by its 




Gills sinuately adnexed, stem fleshy, ring often evanescent. (Like 

CLITOCYBE. Page 55- 

Gills not sinuate, more or less decurrent, narrowed behind; ring per- 
manent. (Resembling Clitocybe.) 

COLLYBLE. Page 58. 

Gills adnate, equal behind ; stem somewhat cartilaginous outside ; 
ring permanent. (Resembling Collybia.) 

I. TRICHOLOMATA. Gills sinuately adnexed, etc. 

A. robus'ta A. and S. robustus, robust, sturdy. Substance of entire 
plant compact. Pileus 2-3 in. across, varying in shades of gray and 




brown, scaly, fibrillose on margin, decreasing toward center or smooth, Armillaria. 
convex or top-shaped and margin involute at first, expanding. Flesh 
firm, very thick. Gills broad, emarginate, nearly free, crowded, whitish, 
up to >2 in. broad. Veil large, membranaceous, sometimes floccose, 
remaining adherent to the stem. Stem 1-2 in. long, obese, solid, 
tapering at the base, brownish-white and fibrillose below veil, white and 
flocculose above, flesh of stem continuous with that of the cap. 

Stevenson gives var. minor with even cap with both gills and ring 
very narrow. 

Spores ovoid-spherical. 7/u,. Q. 

Edible, Curtis; District Columbia, Mrs. M. Fuller. 

In mixed woods. Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New Jersey, Mcll- 

The substance of A. robusta differs from all other Armillaria in being 
very compact. It is not acrid but has a marked flavor. Cut into small 
pieces and well cooked it makes an acceptable dish. It is best in 
croquettes and patties, or served with meats. 

A. viscid'ipes Pk. viscidus, sticky; pes, a foot. PileilS fleshy, com- 
pact, convex or nearly plane, glabrous, whitish with a slight yellowish 
or reddish-yellow tint. Flesh white, odor peculiar, penetrating, sub- 
alkaline. Gills narrow, crowded, sinuate or subdecurrent, whitish. 
Stem equal, solid, viscid and slightly tinged with yellow below the 
narrow membranous ring, whitish above. Spores elliptical, 8x5/4. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 6-12 lines thick. 

In mixed woods. Rock City, Dutchess county. October. 

It is a large fine fungus, easily known by its white and yellowish hues, 
its crowded gills, viscid stem and peculiar penetrating almost alkaline 
odor. The cuticle of the pileus is thin and soft to the touch, but it 
sometimes cracks longitudinally and is sometimes slightly adorned with 
innate fibrils. A. dehiscens is said to have a viscid stem, but it is also 
squamose and the pileus is yellowish-ochraceous. Peck, 44th Rep 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Quite common in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Mcllvaine. 

It loses its strong odor when cooked and is equal to other Armillaria 
in edibility. Unless well cooked it has a slight saponaceous flavor. 
This is easily overcome by a few drops of lejnon juice or sherry. 



Armillaria. A. appendicula'ta Pk. bearing an appendicula or small appendage. 
Pileus broadly convex, glabrous, whitish, often tinged with rust color 
or brownish rust color on the disk. Flesh white or whitish. Gills 
close, rounded behind, whitish. Stem equal or slightly tapering up- 
ward, solid, bulbous, whitish, the veil either membranous or webby, 
white, commonly adhering in fragments to the margin of the pileus. 
Spores subelliptical, 8x5/1*,. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3.5 in. long; 5-10 lines thick. 

Auburn, Ala. October. C. F. Baker. 

The general appearance of this species is suggestive of Tricholoma 
album, but the presence of a veil separates it from that fungus and places 
it in the genus Armillaria. The veil, however, is often slightly lacer- 
ated or webby and adherent to the margin of the pileus. Peck, Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 24. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., Angora, Pa. On decaying roots in ground. August 
to November. Found plentifully in resorts of other Armillaria. Edi- 
bility the same. Mcllvaine. 

A. pondero'sa Pk. ponderosus, weighty, ponderous. Pileus thick, 
compact, convex or subcampanulate, smooth, white or yellowish, the 
naked margin strongly involute beneath the slightly viscid, persistent 
veil. Gills crowded, narrow, slightly emarginate, white inclining to 
cream color. Stem stout, subequal, firm, solid, coated by the veil, 
colored like the pileus, white and furfuraceous above the ring. Flesh 
white. Spores nearly globose, 4;* in diameter. 

Plant 4-6 in. high. Pileus 4-6 in. broad. Stem about I in. thick, 

Ground in woods. Copake, Columbia county. October. 

The veil for a long time conceals the gills, and finally becomes lacera- 
ted and adheres in shreds or fragments to the stem and margin of the 
pileus. Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

New England, Frost; New York, Peck, Repts. 26, 29, 41. West Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania. Ground in woods. September to November. 

Professor Peck says in 26th Report: "This species has not been 
found since its discovery in 1872." 

Where the Armillaria mellea frequents I have often found A. pon- 
derosa. It was plentiful at Mt. Gretna, Pa., in September, 1898. 



Young specimens are quite as edible as A. mellea, and rather more 

' II. CLITOCYB^E. Gills not sinuate, etc. 

A. mel'lea Vahl. melleus, of the color of honey. (Plate XVI, fig. i, 
p. 52.) PileilS adorned with minute tufts of brown or blackish hairs, 
sometimes glabrous, even or when old slightly striate on the margin. 
Gills adnate or slightly decurrent, white or whitish, becoming sordid 
with age and sometimes variegated with reddish-brown spots. Stem 
ringed, at length brownish toward the base. Spores elliptical, white, 
8-io/n long. Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 9x5-6;* W.G.S.; iox8/* B.; 8-io/u, Peck. 

The A. mellea is unusually prolific and is common over the United 
States and Europe. Specimens may be found in the spring-time, but 
in middle latitudes it is common from August until after light frosts. It 
is usually in tufts, some of which contain scores of plants and are showy 
over ground filled with roots, or on stumps or boles of decaying trees. 
It frequents dense woods and open clearings. I have seen acres of dense 
woodland at Mt. Gretna, Pa., so covered with it and its varieties that 
but few square yards were unoccupied. 

A description of the typical A. mellea will rarely apply to any one 
plant. A combination of its variable features in one description would 
include something of nearly every white-spored Agaric under the sun. 
Yet there is something indescribable about it which once learned will 
unerringly betray it. 

Its Caps vary from perfectly smooth, through tufts of scales and hairs, 
more or less dense, to matted woolliness. It may show any one of these 
conditions in youth and be bald in age. Some shade of yellow is the 
prevailing color, but this will vary from whitish to dark-purplish or 
reddish-brown. When water-soaked it is one color, when dry, another. 
Commonly the margins of the Caps are striated, sometimes they are 
smooth as a cymbal, and not unlike one, have a raised place or umbo 
in the center. Flesh white or whitish. Gills when young are white or 
creamy, usually running down the stem, sometimes slightly notched at 
attachment. They freckle in age and lose their fair complexion. The 
Veil or collar about the stem is as variable as fashion thick and closely 
woven or flimsy as gossamer, or vanishing as the plant grows old. The 



Armiiiaria. Stems may be even as a lead pencil, or swollen like a pen-holder, or 
bulbous toward the base, or distorted by pressure in the tufts. It is as 
variable in color as the cap, usually darkening downward in hues of 
brown. The outside is firm and fibrous, sometimes furrowed, inside 
soft or hollow. 

Cap 1-6 in. across. Stem 1-6 in. long, %-% in. thick. 

Var. obscu'ra has the cap covered with numerous small blackish scales. 

Var. flava has the cap yellow or reddish-yellow, but in other respects 
it is like the type. 

Var. glabra has the cap smooth, otherwise like the type. 

Var. radica'ta has a tapering, root-like prolongation of the stem, 
which penetrates the earth deeply. 

Var. bulbd ' sa has a distinctly bulbous base to the stem, and in this 
respect is the reverse of var. radicata. 

Professor Peck writes: "Var. exannulata (Plate XVI, fig. 2, p. 52) 
has the cap smooth and even on the margin, and the stem tapering at 
the base. The annulus is very slight and evanescent or wholly wanting. 
The cap is usually about an inch broad, or a little more, and the plants 
grow in clusters, which sometimes contain forty or fifty individuals. It 
is more common farther south than it is in our state (N. Y.), and is 
reported to be the most common form in Maryland. This I call var. 
exannulata." From Dr. Taylor, Washington, D. C. ; Indiana, H. I. 

To these may be added also var. al'bida Pk. in which the pileus is 
white or whitish. 

A variety, perhaps a variation of var. bulbosa was sent to me by E. 
B. Sterling, Trenton, N. J., and afterward found by myself at Mt. 
Gretna, Pa. The Cap purplish-brown, convex, striate and light on 
margin, edge irregular with parts of veil attached. Flesh white, very 
thin. Gills decurrent, arcuate, pinkish-gray. Stem stuffed, fibrous, white 
above, dense floccose veil, same color as cap below, swollen toward 
base which is pointed, sulcate, white inside, closely clustered and some of 
the stems distinctly bulbous. Taste decidedly unpleasant. An intense 
acridity develops and increases when the juices of raw pieces are swal- 
lowed, and the salivary glands are much excited. The acridity is not 
lost in cooking. It simply can not be eaten. Specimens were sent by 
me to Professor Peck who referred it to A. mellea. 

I have never seen the abortive form of Clitopilus abortivus, though 



found in many places and in great quantity, showing any part or trace ArmUiaria. 
of the original plant. But that a similar monstrosity occurs upon A. 
mellea is shown by individuals and parts of individuals of a cluster being 
aborted. Without such positive proof, no one would suspect either of 
these odd formations to be abortive of either C. abortivus or A. mellea, 
or any other fungus. I consider the abortive form of A. mellea far 
superior in substance and flavor to it or any of its varieties. 

The Armillaria can not be ranked among the tender or high-flavored 
toadstools, yet their abundance, meaty caps and nourishing qualities 
place them among our most valuable food species. 

The caps when chopped into small pieces make good patties and 
croquettes. They have an impressive flavor of their own, and offer an 
esculent medium for seasoning and the gravies of various meats. 

A. nardos'mia Ellis nardosmius, of the odor of nardus. (A name 
applied by the ancients to several plants, especially spica nardi spike- 
nard.) Pileus fleshy, firm, thick and compact on the disk, thin toward 
the margin, whitish, variegated with brown spots, with a thick, tough 
and separable cuticle. Flesh white. Gills crowded, subventricose, 
slightly emarginate, whitish. Stem solid, fibrous, not bulbous, sheathed 
below by the brown velvety veil, the ring narrow, spreading, uneven on 
the edge. Spores subglobose, 6/* in diameter. 

Pileus about 3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Ground in woods, Suffolk county. September. Peck, 43d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Several specimens from sandy grounds in pine woods, Haddonfield, 
N. J., were sent by me to Professor Peck and were identified by him. 
Plentiful at Mt. Gretna, Pa., September to frost, 1898. In mixed 
woods, on gravelly ground. Eaten in quantity by several persons. 

Cuticle of caps when dry breaking up into brownish, squamulose 
scales, margin involute. Gills subdecurrent. Veil thick, persistent. 
Stem short, subbulbous, solid. Flesh white. Very much resembles a 
short-stemmed Lepiota. Smell and taste strong, like almonds. Disap- 
pears in cooking. 


III. COLLYBI/E. Gills adnate, stem somewhat cartilaginous. 

ArmUiaria. A., mu'cida Schrad. mucidus, slimy. Pileus commonly shining 
white, thin, almost transparent, hemispherical then expanded, obtuse, 
more or less radiato-wrinkled, smeared over with a thick tenacious glu- 
ten ; margin striate when thinner. Stem 1^3 in. long, 1-2 lines thick 
at the apex, thickened at the base, stuffed, thin, rigid, curved ascend- 
ing, smooth, white, but sooty scaly at the base when most perfectly de- 
veloped. Ring inserted at the apex of the stem, bent downward and 
glued close to the stem, furrowed, the white border again erect, with a 
swollen and entire margin, which sometimes becomes dingy brown. 
Gills rounded behind, obtuse, adhering to the stem and striato-decurrent, 
distant, broad, lax, mucid, always shining white. 

Very variable in stature, from i in. (when of this size the stem is 
almost equal) to as much as 6 in. broad. The color of the pileus varies 
gray, fuliginous, olivaceous. The gills sometimes become yellow, but 
only from disease. Sometimes solitary, sometimes a few are joined in 
a cespitose manner at the base. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptical, 15-16x8-9/1 Massee; 17x14/1* W.G.S. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; Mary- 
land, Miss Banning. 

West Virginia mountains, 1882, Haddonfield, N. J., 1891-94, on 
beech trees and roots. Mcllvaine. 

Commonly considered esculent in Europe. 

Dirt adheres so tenaciously to it that it is difficult to clean. This, 
however, occurs only when the fungus grows from roots and pushes its 
way up through covering earth. When growing from trees it is attractive 
and of good quality. 

Should be chopped fine and well cooked. 


Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 












Gr. a hair, a fringe. 

PileilS symmetrical, generally fleshy, never truly umbilicate, seldom Tricholon . 
umbonate. Veil absent or appearing only as fibrils or down on the 

margin of the pileus. Gills sinuate _- ^ (Plate XIX.) 

(the small sudden curve near the 
stem always apparent in the young 
plant), sometimes with a slightly de- 
current tooth. Stem central, usually 
stout, fleshy-fibrous, without a bark- 
like skin. Flesh continuous with 
that of the pileus. Ring and Volva 
absent. Spores white or dingy. 

But one is known to be poisonous. 
Some are acrid or unpleasant in fla- 
vor. With one exception all grow 
on the ground in pastures and woods, 
appearing from May to late in the 

. Gills generally white or dingy, fre- 
quently spotted or stained. The pi- 
leus may be smooth or adorned with 
fibrous or downy scales, dry, moist, 
viscid or water-soaked. 

The distinguishing feature of Tricholoma is the sinuate gills. In 
Collybia the stem bears a distinct bark-like skin ; in Clitocybe the gills 
are never sinuate ; species of Pleurotus are distinguished by growing on 
wood only, and Paxillus by their strongly-incurved margin and anas- 
tomosing gills. 

In cooking Tricholoma consistency must 'be the guide to plan and 
time. The tougher varieties require to be cut into small pieces and to 
be well cooked, while the brittle and delicate varieties will cook quickly. 
Many of them make excellent soups. 


Stem fibrillose from the remains of the adnate universal veil. 




LIMACINA (/imas, a slug or snail, slimy). Page 61. 

Trichoioma. Cuticle of pileus viscid when moist, innately fibrillose or scaly, but not 
lacerated ; flesh of pileus thick, firm ; margin almost naked. 

* Gills not discolored, nor becoming reddish. 

** Gills discolored, usually spotted with reddish-brown. 

GENUINA. Page 67. 

Cuticle of the pileus never moist or viscid ; torn into downy or floe- 
cose scales. Flesh soft, not water-soaked ; margin involute and slightly 
downy at first. 

* Gills not changing color, nor spotted with red or black. 

** Gills becoming reddish or gray, the edge at last generally with 
reddish or black spots. 

RiGlDA (rigeo, to be stiff). Page 74. 

Pileus rigid, hard, somewhat cartilaginous when fleshy, very fragile 
when thin, cuticle rigid, granulated or broken up when dry into smooth 
scales, not torn into fibrils. Young specimens occur which are fibrillose 
from the veil, not from laceration of the cuticle. 

* Gills white or pallid, not becoming spotted with red or gray. 
** Gills becoming reddish, grayish or spotted. 

SERICELLA {sericeus, silky). Page 74. 

Pileus first slightly silky, soon becoming smooth, very dry, neither 
moist, viscid, water-soaked, nor distinctly scaly; rather thin, opaque, 
absorbing moisture, but is the same color as the gills. Stem fibrous, by 
which the smaller species resembling Collybia may be distinguished. 

* Gills broad, rather thick, somewhat distant. 
** Gills narrow, thin, crowded. 


In rainy weather moist ; when very young pruinose (but rarely con- 
spicuously) from the universal veil. Flesh soft and spongy or very 
thin when it is water-soaked. 

GUTTATA (gutta, a drop). Page 76. 

Pileus fleshy, soft, fragile, marked with drop-like spots or rivulose. 
Appearing in spring, rarely in autumn. 



Cespitose, in troops or often in rings. Trichoioma. 

* Gills whitish. 

** Gills becoming reddish or smoky-gray. 

SPONGIOSA (spongia, a sponge). Page 78. 

Pileus compact, then spongy, obtuse, even, smooth, moist but not 
hygrophanous ; firm, growing in troops late in the autumn. Stem 
stout, base usually thickened, spongy fibrous. Gills at length decur- 
rent but sinuate, by which character they are distinguished from Clito- 

* Gills not discolored. 
** Gills discolored. 

HYGROPHANA (Gr. , wet; to appear). Page 80. 

Pileus thin, somewhat umbonate; flesh at length soft, watery. Stem 
rootless, containing a pith, entirely fibrous. 

Flesh not exceeding in depth the width of the not broad, thin gills; 
thinnest toward the margin, hence somewhat umbonate. Color of the 
pileus either moist or dry, very variable in the same species. Pileus 
sometimes pulverulent from the persistence of the veil in dry weather. 

* Gills whitish, not spotted. 

** Gills more or less violet, gray or smoky. Not represented. 

Series A. 

I. LIMA'CINA. Viscous when moist. 
* Gills not becoming discolored, nor becoming reddish. 

T. eques'tre Linn. eqttestre, belonging to a horseman or knight, 
from distinguished appearance. Pileus fleshy, compact, convex becom- 
ing expanded, obtuse, pale-yellowish, more or less reddish tinged, the 
disk and. central scales often darker, the margin naked, often wavy. 
Flesh white or tinged with yellow. Gills rounded behind, close, nearly 
free, sulpJnir-yellow. Stem stout, solid, pale-yellow or white, white 
within. Spores 6.5^8x4-5^. 

Pileus 3-5 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 6-10 lines thick. 

. 61 


Trichoioma. Pine woods, especially in sandy soil. Albany county. September 
to November. 

This is a noble species but not plentiful in our state (N. Y.). The 
pileus is said to become greenish very late in the season. The stem, in 
the typical form, is described as sulphur-yellow in color, but with us it 
is more often white. The scales of the disk are sometimes wanting. 
In our plant the taste is slightly farinaceous at first, but it is soon 

Var. pinastreti A. and S. is a slender form having a thin, even pileus, 
thinner and more narrow gills and a more slender stem. A. crassus 
Scop., A. aureus Schaeff. , and A. flavovirens Pers. are recorded as 
synonyms of this species. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Professor Peck later says in "Mushrooms and Their Use," p. 52: 
"I confidently add it to the list of edible species." 

New Jersey, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. In pine forests and 
groves. September to frost. Mcllvaine. 

I have eaten it since 1883. All disagreeable odor about T. equestre 
(which I have seldom noticed) disappears upon cooking. The substance 
is rather tough, but good. 

T. COryphse'um Fr. chief, leader. From its distinguished appear- 
ance. Pileus very fleshy but not compact, convex then plane, obtuse, 
viscid, yellowish, streaked with small brownish scales. Stem solid, 
attenuated upward. Gills emarginate, crowded, white, edge yellow. 

Large and of striking appearance. In shady beech woods. 

Pronounced a good edible by the Boston Myc. Club. 
-The color of the plants is given as greenish-yellow. Bull. Boston 
Myc. Club, 1896. 

T. UStale Fr. uro, to burn. Pileus fleshy, convex, then plane, 
obtuse, even, smooth, viscid, bay-brownish. Stem stuffed, equal, dry, 
rufo-fibrillose, apex naked, silky, nearly smooth. Gills emarginate, 
crowded, white, at length with reddish spots. Cooke. 

Chiefly in pine woods. 

Pileus 3 in. Stem 2-3 in. long, about Yz in. thick, 

Spores SxSju, W. G.S.; 7-8x51* Massee. 

North Carolina, Curtis, pine woods, Schweinitz; Kansas, Cragin. 
Massachusetts. Edible. Boston Myc. Club, Bull. No. 5. 



T. resplen'dens Fr. shining brightly. PileilS fleshy, convex then Tricboioma. 
nearly plane, even, bare, viscid, white, sometimes hyaline-spotted or 
yellowish on the disk, shining when dry, the margin straight. Flesh 
white, taste mild, odor pleasant. Gills nearly free when young, then 
emarginate, somewhat crowded, rather thick, entire, white. Stem 
solid, bare, subbulbous, even, dry, white. Spores 8x47*. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 4-8 lines thick. 

Thin woods. Catskill mountains. September. Peck, 44th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. , in mixed woods. October and November. Mcllvaine. 

It is of excellent flavor, consistency and food value. 

T. transmu'tans Pk. changing. PileilS convex, nearly bare, viscid 
when moist, brownish, reddish-brown or tawny-red, usually paler on the 
margin. Flesh white, taste and odor farinaceous. Gills narrow, close, 
sometimes branched, whitish or pale yellowish, becoming dingy or red- 
dish-spotted when old. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, bare 
or slightly silky-fibrillose, stuffed or hollow, whitish, often marked with 
reddish stains or becoming reddish-brown toward the base, white within. 
Spores subglobose, 5/*. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods. The plants are often cespitose. 

I suspect that Agaricus frumentaceus of Curtis's catalogue belongs to 
this species. Both the pileus and stem, as well as the gills, are apt to 
assume darker hues with age or in drying, and this character suggested 
the specific name. The species is classed as edible. Peck, 44th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Curtis catalogues T. frumentaceum as edible. 

T. transmutans is reported from many states. It has a mealy taste 
and odor. Wherever it is found it is a valuable food species. 

T. sejunc'tum Sow. separated ; from the peculiar manner in which 
the gills separate from the stem. PileilS fleshy, convex then expanded, 
umbonate, slightly viscid, streaked with innate brown or blackish fibrils, 
whitish or yellowish, sometimes greenish-yellow. Flesh white, fragile. 
Gills broad, subdistant, rounded behind or emarginate, white. Stem 
solid, stout, often irregular, white. Spores subglobose, 6.5/t. 

PileilS 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 4-8 lines thick. 



Trichoioma. Mixed woods. Suffolk county, N. Y. September. 

The plants referred to this species are not uncommon on Long Island, 
growing on sandy soil in woods of oak and pine. They are usually 
more or less irregular and the pileus becomes fragile. It is quite vari- 
able in color, sometimes approaching a smoky-brown hue, again being 
nearly white. The taste of the typical form is said to be bitter, but the 
flavor of our plant is scarcely bitter. In other repects, however, it 
agrees well with the description of the species. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Spores 6/n W.G.S. 

Flesh is tender. Cooked, of good body and peculiar but pleasant 
flavor. A valuable species, baked, scalloped, fried. 

T. terri'ferum Pk. terra, earth ; fero, to bear. Pileus broadly convex 
or nearly plane, irregular, often wavy on the margin, glabrous, viscid, 
pale-yellow, generally soiled with adhering particles of earth carried up 
in its growth. Flesh white, with no decided odor. Gills thin, crowded, 
slightly adnexed, white, not spotted or changeable. Stem equal, short 
solid, white, floccose-squamulose at the apex. Spores minute, sub- 
globose, 3/A. 

Pileus 3-4 in. broad. Stem 1-1.5 m - lng> 6-8 lines thick. 

Woods. Catskill mountains. September. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Found in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. August to frost, 

Not inviting, hard to clean, nevertheless edible and good. 

T. portento'sum Fr. portentosus, strange, monstrous. Pileus 3-5 in. 
broad, sooty, livid, sometimes violaceous, fleshy, but thin in comparison 
with the stoutness of the stem, convexo-plane, somewhat umbonate, 
unequal and turned up, viscid, streaked with black lines (innate fibrils), 
but otherwise even and smooth, the very thin margin naked. Flesh 
not compact, white, fragile. Stem commonly 3 in. often 4-6 in long, 
i in. thick, stout, solid, the whole remarkably fibrous-fleshy, somewhat 
equal, naked, but fibrilloso-striate , white; the base, which is occasionally 
attenuato-rooted, villous. Gills rounded, almost free, 3-4 lines to as 
much as i in. broad, distant, white, but varying, becoming pale-gray 
or yellow. Fries. 


4-5X4/A K.; 5X4/A W.G.S. Tricboloma. 

West Virginia, 1882 ; New Jersey, Pennsylvania, in woods and open 
places. May to November. Mcllvaine. 

It is one of the first toadstools I experimented upon. I have been 
constant to it. Its caps fried in butter are unsurpassed. 

** Gills discolored, usually spotted with reddish-brown. 

T. fla'vo-bl'im'neum Fr. flavus, yellow; brunneus, brown. Pileus 
fleshy, conical, then convex, at length expanded, subumbonate, viscid, 
clotJied with streak-like scales. Stem hollow, somewhat ventricose, 
fibrillose, at first viscid, yellowish witliin, tip naked. Gills emarginate, 
dccnrrent, crowded, yellowish, then reddish. Fries. 

Odor that of new meal. Stem 35 in. long, % in. thick, dull-reddish 
or brownish. Pileus 36 in. broad, disk darker, dingy dull-red or 

North Carolina, Curtis; damp woods, A. fulvus, Schweinitz. 

Edible, Cooke, 1891. 

T. rus'sula Schaeff. reddish. (Plate XVIII, fig. 3, p. 60.) Pileus 
fleshy, convex, becoming plane or centrally depressed, obtuse, viscid, 
even or dotted with granular squamules on the disk, red or incarnate, 
the margin usually paler, involute and minutely downy in the young 
plant. Flesh white, sometimes tinged with red, taste mild. Gills sub- 
distant, rounded behind or subdecurrent, white, often becoming red- 
spotted with age. Stem solid, firm, whitish or rose-red, squamulose at 
the apex. Spores elliptical, 7x4^. 

Pileus 3-5 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 6-8 lines thick. 

Mixed woods. Albany. Cattaraugus and Steuben counties. Sep- 
tember and October. 

According to the description the typical plant has the pileus incarnate 
and the stem rosy-red, but in the American plant the pileus is generally 
more clearly red and the stem white, though this is often varied by red- 
dish stains. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mixed woods. August until after frost. At Mt. Gretna, Pa. 1897- 
1898 the patches were large, generous yielders. 

Edible, Cooke; edible, Cordier, Rogues. 

T. russula is a dressy fungus and has a fashion of its own. The mot- 
5 65 


Trichoioma. lings upon its cap, gill and stem, in shades of red, subdued though 
they be, give it a handsome personality distinct from any other. 

The species is a variable one in its minor markings. When moisture 
is prevalent the caps of all are viscid. Both young and old are often 
cracked. Stems frequently not squamulose at apex, frequently rosy 
when young, often flattened. The fibrous interior of the stem and its 
fibrous connection with the flesh of the cap are very marked. Gills 
emarginate in youth as well as in age. It is solitary, gregarious, occa- 
sionally bunched. 

An excellent fungus, a free late grower, meaty, easily cooked, and 
of fine flavor. 

T. frumenta'ceum Bull. frumentum, made of corn. Pileus 2-3 in. 

broad, whitish or clay-color and variegated dull red, truly fleshy, con- 
vex then plane, obtuse, viscous, dry in fine weather, even, smooth. 
Flesh white. Stem 3 in. long, % in. thick, solid, equal, fibrillose 
when dry, whitish. Grills rounded, somewhat crowded, rather broad, 
white, at length spotted-red. 

Wholly becoming pale white, but the stem and pileus are alike marked- 
red, and the gills are at length reddish, wherefore, as well as for the 
strong smell of new meal, it is undoubtedly nearest to A. pessundatus. 
When full grown it has all the appearance of Entoloma. On the 
ground. Stevenson. 

Spores 6/u. W.G.S. 

North Carolina, Curtis. Edible. Porcher says Dr. Curtis was the 
. first to declare it edible. 

T. pessunda'tum Fr. pessum dare, bent downward. Pileus fleshy, 
compact, convex, very obtuse, repand, viscid, granulose or spotted. 
Stem solid, firm, at first ovato-bulbous, everywhere villose with whitish 
scales. Gills emarginate, nearly free, crowded, white, at length spotted 
with red. 

In pine woods. Odor and taste mealy. 

Pileus bay, reddish, paler at the margin. Stature of Ag. eques- 
tris. Fries. 

Spores 5x2.5/1* Massee; very minute, globose, 23/4 C.B.P. 

Reckoned edible, but very rare. Stevenson. 

California, H. and M. 



II. GENUl'NA. Cuticle of pileus torn into downy or fibrillose scales. 

* Gills not changing color nor becoming spotted. 

T. decoro'sum Pk. decorus, decorous. Pileus firm, at first hemi- 
spherical, then convex or nearly plane, (Plate XX.) 
adorned with numerous brownish sub- 
squarrose tomentose scales, dull ochra- 
ceous or tawny. Flesh white. Gills 
close, rounded and slightly emarginate 
behind, the edge slightly scalloped. 
Stem solid, equal or slightly tapering 
upward, white and smooth at the top, 
elsewhere tomentose-scaly and colored 
like the pileus. Spores broadly el- 
liptical, 5x4^. 

PileilS 1-2 in. broad. Stem 2-4 
in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Decaying trunks of trees. Catskill 
mountains and Alleghany county. 
September and October. 

A rare but beautiful species. It is 
often cespitose. It departs from the 
character of the genus in growing on 
decaying wood. Peck, 44th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Trichoioma decorosum is not rare in Pennsylvania. I have found it 
at Angora, Philadelphia and in Chester county, Pa., growing in clus- 
ters and singly. At first sight one might take it for one of the many 
forms of Armillaria, but even cursory examination shows the difference. 

It is of good consistency and flavor, having a decided mushroom taste. 

T. flaves'cens Pk. pale yellow. Pileus convex, firm, often irregu- 
lar, dry, slightly silky becoming bare, sometimes cracking into minute 
scales on the disk, whitish or pale yellow. Flesh whitish or yellowish. 
Gills close, white or pale-yellow, emarginate, floccose on the edge. 
Stems firm, solid, often unequal, central or sometimes eccentric, single or 
cespitose, colored like the pilous. Spores subglobose, 5/* in diameter. 


Two-thirds natural size. 


Trichoioma. Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 1-2.5 in- long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Pine stumps. Albany and Rensselaer counties. October. 

The species seems to be related to T. rutilans but has not the red or 
purplish tomentum of that fungus. It, like T. decorosum, is always 
lignicolous. T. rutilans is sometimes so. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State 

Frequently found in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. 
Pine stumps. September to frost. Mcllvaine. 

The flesh compares with that of T. rutilans, and makes an equally 
good dish. 

T. gran'de Pk. Pileus thick, firm, hemispherical, becoming con- 
vex, often irregular, dry, scaly, somewhat silky-fibrillose toward the 
margin, white, the margin at first involute. Flesh grayish-white, taste 
farinaceous. Gills close, rounded behind, adnexed, white. Stem stout, 
solid, fibrillose, at first tapering upward, then equal or but slightly 
thickened at the base, pure white. Spores elliptical, 9-1 ix6/*. 

Pileus 4-5 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 1-1.5 in. thick. 

Among fallen leaves in woods. Cattaraugus county. September. 

The plants are often cespitose, and then the pileus is more or less 
irregular and the gills somewhat lacerated. The species is related to 
T. columbetta, from which its larger size, constantly scaly pileus, more 
cespitose mode of growth, larger spores and farinaceous taste separate 
it. The scales of the pileus are brownish, and the pileus itself is some- 
times slightly dingy on the disk. The young margin is pure white like 
the stem, and both it and the upper part of the stem are sometimes 
studded with drops of moisture. 

The plant was found on trial to be edible, but not of first quality. 
The flesh is not very tender, nor the flavor captivating even in young 
specimens. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Mixed woods. August to frost. Mcllvaine. 

Gross when old. Young specimens of medium quality and flavor. 

T. columbet'ta Fr. columba, a pigeon. (Plate XVIII, fig. 5 , p, 60. ) 
Pileus convex, then nearly plane, fleshy, obtuse, rigid, somewhat flex- 
uous, dry, at first bare, then silky-fibrillose, becoming even or scaly, 
white, the margin at first involute, more or less tomentose. Flesh white, 



taste mild. Gills close, emarginate, thin, white. Stem stout, solid, Trichoioma. 
unequal, nearly bare, white. Spores 7-8x4. 5/x. 

The species is very variable and the following varieties have been de- 
scribed : 

Var. A. Pileus nearly always repand or lobed, at first bare, even, 
at length cracked-scaly, often reddish spotted, the margin when young 
indexed, tomentose. Stem obese, even, unequal, swollen, an inch thick. 
The typical form. 

Birch wood among mosses. 

Var. B. Pileus subflexuous, silky-fibrillose, at length scaly, some- 
times dingy-brown spotted, the margin scarcely tomentose. Stem 
longer, equal or slightly narrowed at the base. 

Bushy places. Intermediate between A and C. 

Var. C. PileilS regular, flattened, evidently fibrillose, sometimes 
spotted with blue, four inches broad. Stem equal, cylindrical, fibrillosc- 
striate, four inches long. 

Beech woods. A showy variety so diverse from variety A that it 
might be regarded as a distinct species, did not variety B connect them, 
and so much resemble both that it might with equal propriety be re- 
ferred to either. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1-4 in. long, 3-12 lines thick. 

Woods and pastures. Albany county, N. Y. 

It may be distinguished from T. album by its mild taste. It is re- 
corded as edible. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Edible, Curtis, Cooke, Stevenson. 

This much varied Trichoioma is as varied in its habitat. I have 
found it on vacant lots in Philadelphia, in mixed woods at Devon, Pa., 
and in the forests of the West Virginia mountains, and eaten it since 

It cooks readily and is of mild, agreeable flavor. 

T. ru'tilans Schaeff. rutilo, to be reddish. Pileus fleshy, campanu- 
late becoming plane, dry, at first covered with a dark-red or purplish 
tomentum then somewhat scaly, the margin thin, at first involute. Flesh 
yellow. Gills crowded, rounded, yellow, thickened and down}' on the edge. 
Stem somewhat hollow, nearly equal or slightly thickened or bulbous at 
the base, soft, pale-yellow variegated with red or purplish floccose scales. 
Spores 6.5-8x6.5^. 




(Plate XXI.) 

About three-eighths natural size. 

mallow confection. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 

in. long, 58 lines thick. 

On or about pine stumps, rarely on 
hemlock trunks. July to November. 
Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores subglobose, 5-6/A diameter 
Massee; 6-8x6^ B.; 6x91* W.G.S. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey. May to November. Mc- 

Quite common in West Virginia 
mountains and in pine woods of New 
Jersey. The Boston Mycological 
Club reports it found in quantity in 
Massachusetts. The flesh when 
cooked is gummy, like the marsh- 
It is excellent. 

** Gills becoming reddish or gray , etc. 

T. vacci'num Pers. vacca, a cow. Pileus fleshy, convex or cam- 
panulate, becoming nearly plane, umbonate, dry, floccose-scaly, reddish- 
brown, the margin involute, tomentose. Flesh white. Gills adnexed, 
subdistant, whitish, then reddish or reddish-spotted. Stem equal, hol- 
low, covered with a fibrillose bark, naked at the apex, pale reddish. 

Spores subglobose, 6/u,. 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Under or near coniferous trees. Greene and Essex counties. Sep- 
tember and October. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Recorded as edible by Gillet. 

Plentiful in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia. Have eaten it 
since 1885. Fair. 

T. fuligi'neum Pk. fuligineus, resembling soot. Pileus convex or 
nearly plane, obtuse, often irregular, dry, minutely scaly, sooty-brown. 
Flesh grayish, odor and taste farinaceous. Gills subdistant, uneven on 
the edge, ash-colored becoming blackish in drying. Stem short, solid, 
equal, bare, ash-colored. Spores oblong-elliptical, 8x4/4. 



Pileus 1-2.5 in. broad. Stem I-I-5 m - long, 3~5 lines thick. Trichoioma. 

Among mosses in open places. Greene county. September. Rare. 
Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Quite common in Pennsylvania and New Jersey on mossy wood 
margins. It is of fair quality and flavor. 

(Plate XVIII, fig. 4, p. 60.) 
(Plate XXII.) 

One-half natural size. 

T. ter'reum Schaeff. the earth. (Plate XVIII, fig. 4, p. 60. ) Pi- 
leus fleshy, thin, soft, convex, cam- 
panulate or nearly plane, obtuse or 
umbonate, innately fibrillose or ftoc- 
cose-scaly, ashy-brown, grayish- 
brown or mouse color. Flesh white 
or whitish. Gills adnexed, subdis- 
tant, more or less eroded on the edge, 
white becoming ash-colored. Stem 
equal, varying from solid to stuffed 
or hollow, fibrillose, white or whitish. 
Spores broadly elliptical, 6-7x4-5^. 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1-2 
in. long, 24 lines thick. 

Woods. Albany, Rensselaer and Cattaraugus counties. September 
to November. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot. 

Spores 7x5.5/4 Morgan; 5-6/4 Massee; 6-7x411 K.; 6/* W.G.S. 

Eaten by Professor Peck. Eaten by Mcllvaine. Quality fair. 

T. ter'reum Schaeff. var. fra grans Pk. Pileus convex or nearly 
plane, dry, innately-fibrillose or minutely floccose-scaly, grayish-brown 
or blackish-brown. Gills rather broad, adnexed, whitish or ash-colored. 
Stem equal, solid or stuffed, rarely hollow, whitish. Spores broadly 
elliptical, 6-7x4-5/4. 

The Fragrant tricholoma has a distinct farinaceous odor and flavor. 
In other respects it closely resembles the Earth-colored tricholoma of 
which it is considered a mere variety. The typical European plant is 
said to be without odor or nearly so and has not been classed among 
the edible species by European writers. But our variety, though not 
high-flavored, is fairly good and entirely harmless. Its cap varies con- 
siderably in color but is some shade of gray or brown. Its center is 
without any prominence or very bluntly prominent, and its surface is 



Trichoioma. commonly very obscurely marked with innate fibrils or in small plants 
may have very small flocculose tufts or scales. The flesh is whitish as 
also are the gills, though these sometimes assume a more decided gray- 
ish hue. They are rather broad and loose and sometimes uneven on 
the edge or even split transversely. They are usually deeply excavated 
next the stem and attached to it by a narrow part. The stem is whitish 
or slightly shaded with the color of the cap. It often has a few longi- 
tudinal fibrils, but never any collar. It may be either solid, stuffed or 
spongy within, or in large specimens, hollow. 

The plants grow gregariously or sometimes in tufts on the ground 
under or near trees or in thin woods, especially of pine, or in mixed 
woods. The caps vary from 1-4 in. broad, and the stems from 1-3 in. 
long and from 2-6 lines thick. The plants occur in autumn. In Europe 
there is a variety of this species which also has a farinaceous odor, but 
it differs from our plant in having reddish edges to the gills. It is called 
variety orirubens. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Var. fragrans is plentiful and gregarious among New Jersey pines. 
October to frost. Other varieties are often found. Specimens found 
by me at Mt. Gretna, Pa., and sent to Professor Peck who identified 
them as var. fragrans Pk., were decidedly umbonate. Gills were easily 
separable from cap. 

Var. fragrans is a favorite. It is pleasant to many, even raw. Plenti- 
ful salting while cooking develops a high and exquisite flavor. 

T. fumes'cens Pk. smoky. PileilS convex or expanded, dry, 
clothed with a very minute appressed tomentum, whitish. Gills narrow, 
crowded, rounded behind, whitish or pale cream color, changing to 
smoky-bine .or blackish where bruised. Stem short, cylindrical, whitish. 
Spores oblong-elliptical, 5-6.5^. 

Pileus i in. broad. Stem I-I-5 in. high, 2-3 lines thick. 

Woods. Columbia county. October. Rare. 

The species is remarkable for the smoky or blackish hue assumed by 
the gills when bruised and also in drying. It is apparently related to 
T. immundum Berk., but in that species the whole plant becomes 
blackish when bruised, and the gills are marked with transverse lines 
and tinged with pink. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. September to November, 1898. Mcllvaine. 

The size of cap sometimes attains to 3 in and stem to % in. in thick- 



ness. Taste at first farinaceous then sweetish. The caps are of excellent 
quality and flavor. 

Pileus fleshy, compact, 

(Plate XXIII.) 

^ X 

0=1 R 

T. imbriea'tum Fr. covered with tiles, 
convex or nearly plane, obtuse, dry, 
innately scaly, fibrillose toward the 
margin, brown or reddish-brown, the 
margin thin, at first slightly in flexed 
and pubescent then naked. Flesh firm, 
thick, white. Gills slightly emargi- 
nate, almost adnate, rather close, 
white when young, becoming reddish 
or spotted. Stem solid, firm, nearly 
equal, fibrillose, white and mealy or 
pulverulent at the top, elsewhere col- 
ored like the pileus. Spores 6.5x 


-r,-! i j CIA One-half natural size. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-3 

in. long, 4-10 lines thick. Under or near coniferous trees. Greene and 
Essex counties. September and October. 

This is an edible species. It has a farinaceous odor and taste when 
fresh. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Dot. 

Closely resembles T. transmutans in size, color and taste. It is, how- 
ever, easily separated by its dry cap and solid stem. Peck. 

Plentiful in pine woods of New Jersey, and among hemlocks in West 
Virginia. Mt. Gretna, Pa., under pines. October and November, 
1898. Me livable. 

Specimens found at Mt. Gretna had caps dark umber when young, 
and margin incurved to stem. Gills yellowish. Stem up to 4 in. long, 
stout, solid, swollen at base, and having a short pointed ending, firm, 
fibrillose, white. Flavor farinaceous. 

Flesh of good texture and taste. 

Trichoioma. III. Rio'iDA. Pileus rigid, cuticle broken up into smooth scales, etc. 

* Gills white or pallid, not becoming spotted with red or gray . 
Not represented. 

** 'Gills becoming reddisJi or grayish, spotted, etc. 

T. sapona'ceum Fr. sapo, soap. Strong, smelling of an undefina- 
ble soap. Cap 24 in. across, involute at first, convex then flattened, 
dry, glabrous, moist in wet weather, never viscid, brownish, more or 
less spotted or having the skin cracked into scales, occasionally covered 
with dark fibrils. Flesh firm, whitish becoming reddish when wounded. 
Gills emarginate, with a hooked tooth (uncinate) thin, distant, pale 
white. Stem 2-4 in. long, about ,4 in. thick, often unequal, base 
sometimes long and rooting, usually smooth, at times reticulated with 
black fibrils, or is scaly. Distasteful. 

The species is variable in size and color. Stevenson remarks: 
"Scarcely any species has been more confounded with others." It may 
always be safely distinguished by its odor, by its distant gills, by the 
smooth cuticle of the cap cracking into scales, and by the change of 
color to reddish when bruised. 

West Virginia mountains. August to frost. 1881-85. New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania. Mcllvaine. 

This fungus is not extremely unpleasant when eaten like T. sulphu- 
reum, but no one will care to eat it. There is nothing in the flavor to 
recommend it or to inspire a cultivation of taste for it. 

IV. SERICEL'LA. Pileus slightly silky, soon smooth, etc. 
* Gills broad, rather thick, somewhat distant. 

T. sulplm'reum Bull. sulphur, brimstone. Odor strong, fetid or 
like gas tar. Cap 1-4 in. across, subglobose, then convex and plane, 
slightly umbonate, sometimes depressed, fleshy, margin at first involute. 
Color dingy or reddish sulphur-yellow, at first silky, becoming smooth 
or minutely tomentose. Flesh thick., yellow. Gills rather thick, nar- 
rowed behind, emarginate or acutely adnate, sometimes appearing arcu- 
ate from shape of cap. Stem 2-4 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, equal or 



slightly bulbous, often curved, smooth striate, sulphur-yellow, stuffed, Trichoioma, 
fibrous or hollow, yellow within, at times having yellow fibrous roots. 

Spores 9- 1 ox 5 /* Massee. 

Very variable in size. Gregarious, common in mixed woods. 

West Virginia, 1 88 1. West Philadelphia, 1886. Mcllvaine. 

When quite young T. sulphureum is showy and inviting. Its smell 
is discouraging, its taste forbidding. No amount of cooking removes 
its unpleasant flavor. I have tried to eat enough of it to test its quali- 
ties, but was satisfied after strenuous efforts to mark it INEDIBLE. 

T. chrysenteroi'des Pk. like gold. PileilS fleshy, convex or plane, 
not at all umbonate, firm, dry, glabrous or slightly silky, pale-yellow 
or buff, becoming dingy with age, the margin sometimes reflexed, flesh 
pale-yellow, taste and odor farinaceous. Gills rather close, emarginate, 
yellowish, becoming dingy or pallid with age, marked with transverse 
-ccinlets along Hie upper edge, the interspaces veined. Stem equal, 
firm, solid, bare, fibrous-striate, yellowish without and within. Spores 
elliptical, 8-10x5-6/4. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3-4 lines thick. 

Woods. Lewis and Cattaraugus counties. September. 

Nearly allied to T. chrysenterum, but separable by the gills, which 
are somewhat veiny and not free, by the entire absence of an umbo and 
by its farinaceous odor and taste. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Frequently found at Angora, and in Woodland Cemetery, West 

Edible. Fair flavor and good quality. 

T. o'picum Fr. uncouth. Pileus i-i ^ in. across. Flesh rather thin, 
becoming grayish; convex, then expanded, obtusely-umbonate, at 
length usually upturned and split, very dry, even at first, then minutely 
scaly, gray. Gills broadly emarginate, ventricose, rather thick, scarcely 
distant, hoary. Stem 2-3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, equal, fibrillose, 
becoming almost glabrous, pallid then grayish, stuffed. Massee 

Among moss, in pine woods, etc. 

Inodorous. Somewhat resembling T. saponaceum, but distinguished 
by the absence of smell. 

Waretown, N. J. Under pines and open places in pine woods. Au- 
gust to September, 1889. Mcllvaine. 



Trichoioma. When wet the caps become darker and have a mottled appearance. 
They are tender, but rather tasteless. The species serves to make 
quantity when cooked with others of higher flavor. 

T. pipera'tum Pk. piper, pepper. PileilS rather thin, firm, dry, 
convex, obtuse or subumbonate, virgate with innate brownish fibrils, 
varying in color from grayish-brown to blackish-brown, sometimes with 
greenish or yellowish tints. Flesh white or whitish, taste acrid. Gills 
broad, close, rounded behind, adnexed, whitish or yellowish. Stem 
generally short, equal, solid, silky, slightly mealy or pruinose at the 
top, white or slightly tinged with yellow. Spores elliptic, 6-7/x. long, 
SfJ- broad. PileilS 4-7 cm. broad. Stem 5-7 cm. long, 6-12 mm. thick. 

The central part of the pileus is sometimes a little darker than the 
rest. The peppery or acrid taste is very distinct and remains in the 
mouth many minutes. This and the innately fibrillose character of the 
pileus are distinguishing characters of the species. The plants appear 
from September to November. Peck, Torr. Bull., Vol. 26. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. October to November, 1898, on damp ground 
among moss. Mcllvaine. 

Cap up to 3 in. across, bell-shaped, then convex, depressed in center 
and undulate, light-brown, darker toward center, dry, minutely fibril- 
lose. Flesh thick, white, thin toward margin. Gills emarginate, un- 
equal, not forked. Stem 1/^2 in. long, hard, equal or enlarging 
toward base, white, silky, striate. 

Though peppery raw, this Trichoioma is of good substance and flavor 
when cooked. 

V. GUTTA'TA. Pileus marked with drop-like spots or rivulose. 

* Gills whitish. 

T. gambo'sum Fr. gambosus, swelling near the hoof. PileilS 

3-4 in. and more broad, becoming pale-tan, fleshy, hemispherico-convex , 
then flattened, obtuse, undulated and bent backward, even, smooth, but 
spotted as with drops, at length widely cracked (not, however, torn into 
squamules), the margin at the first involute and tementose. Flesh thick, 
soft, fragile, white. Stem 2 in. and more long, ^2 1 in. thick, solid _ 
fleshy-firm, almost equal, often curved-ascending at the base, 



downy at the apex. Gills rounded or emarginato-adnexed, with a some- 
what decurrent tooth and when old sinuato-decurrent, crowded, ventri- 
cose, 2-3 lines broad, whitish. Fries. 

Odor pleasant, of new meal. Often forming large rings or clusters. 
A whitish form must not be confounded with T. albellus. 

Spores I3XH/X, W.G.S.; 13-14x8-9/1* Massee; 13x10^ Cooke. 

Angora, Philadelphia. Chester and Lebanon county, Pa. Mcllvaine. 


** Gills becoming reddish or smoky-gray. 

T. tigl'i'num Schaeff. spotted like a tiger. Pileus 2 in. broad, pal- 
lid-brown, variegated with crowded and darker dingy-brown spots, com- 
pactly fleshy, convex then expanded, obtuse, repand. Flesh thick, 
firm, white, unchangeable, but thin at the involute margin. Stem I in. 
long and thick, very compact, solid, pruinate, white. Gills rounded 
behind, at length decurrent with a tooth, crowded, narrow, white, at 
length darker. 

Solitary or cespitose. Very distinguished, obese, and without any 
marked smell of new meal. In fir woods and open grassy ground. 
Rare. June to July. Stevenson. 

Edible, Cooke, Fries. 

T. albel'lum Fr. albus, white. Pileus about 3 in. broad, becom- 
ing pale-white, passing into gray when dry, fleshy, thick at the disk, 
thinner at the sides, conical tJien convex, gibbous when expanded, when 
in vigor moist on the surface, spotted (mottled) as with scales, the thin 
margin naked. Flesh soft, floccose, white, unchangeable. Stem curt, 
i , 1 2 2 in. long, i in. thick at the base, reaching % in. toward the apex, 
solid, fleshy-compact, ovato-bulbous (conical to the middle, cylindrical 
above the middle), fibrillose-striate, white. Gills very much attenuated 
behind, not emarginate, becoming broad in front, very crowded, quite 
entire, white. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, 67x441 Massee; ovoid, 3/* W.G.S.; ovoid, 3/u. 
Cooke . 

Pileus not becoming yellow. Odor weak when fresh, taste pleasant, 
almost that of cooked flesh. There are two forms: one larger, solitary, 
another smaller, connato-cespitose, quite as in A. albellus Sow. It is 
often confounded with smaller forms of A. gambosus. Stevenson. 

North Carolina, Curtis. Damp woods. Edible. 



Tciciioioma. VI. SPONGlo'SA. Pileus compact then spongy, smooth, moist. 

* Gills not discolored, 

T. vires'cens Pk. viresco, to grow green. Pileus convex or nearly 
plane, sometimes centrally depressed, moist, bare, dingy-green, the mar- 
gin sometimes wavy or lobed. Gills close, gradually narrowed toward 
the outer extremity, rounded or slightly emarginate at the inner, white. 
Stem subequal, stuffed or hollow, thick but brittle, whitish, sometimes 
tinged with green. Spores broadly elliptical, 5x4/4. 

Pileus 3-5 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 612 lines thick. 

Thin woods. Essex county. July. 

The dull smoky-green hue of the pileus is the distinguishing feature 
of this species. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Quite common in West Virginia, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. July 
to October. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Tastes somewhat like many Russulae, when cooked. Flavor 

T, fumidel'lum Pk. smoky. Pileus convex, then expanded, sub- 
umbonate, bare, moist, dingy-white or clay-color clouded ^vith brown, 
the disk or umbo generally smoky-brown. Gills crowded, subventri- 
cose, whitish. Stem equal, bare, solid, whitish. Spores minute, sub- 
globose, 4-5X4/A. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1.5-2.5 in. long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Woods. Albany county and Catskill mountains. September and 

The stem splits easily and the pileus becomes paler in drying. It 
sometimes becomes cracked in areas. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

On ground. Mt. Gretna. October and November. 1897. Mcll- 

The species was plentiful among the leaf mold, growing from the 
ground in mixed woods. 

The caps are delicate in substance and flavor. 

T. leucocepll'alum Fr. Gr. white; head. Pileus iM-2 in. across, 
convex then plane, even, moist, smooth, but when young covered with 
a satiny down; water-soaked after rain. Flesllthin, tough, white. Gills 
rounded behind and almost free, white. Stem up to 2 in. long, K in. 



thick, exterior hard, shining, fibrous; interior hollow but solid at base Tricboior 
which is attenuated and rooting, twisted. Smell strong of new meal. 
Taste pleasant. 

Spores 9-10x7-8/1. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Grassy woods and borders. October to November, 
1898. Mcllvaine. 

Quite common. The caps are excellent. 

T. al'bum Schaeff. albns, white. Pileus fleshy, tough, convex, 
becoming plane or depressed, obtuse, very dry, even, glabrous, white, 
sometimes yellowish on the disk, rarely wholly yellowish, the margin at 
first involute. Flesh white, taste acrid or bitter. Grills emarginate, some- 
what crowded, distinct, white. Stem solid, elastic, equal or tapering 
upward, externally fibrous, obsoletely frosted at the apex, white. Spores 
elliptical, 5-6/* long. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Woods. Common. August to October. This species is variable in 
color and in size, being sometimes robust, sometimes slender. It grows 
singly, in troops or in tufts. It has no decided odor, but a bitter un- 
pleasant taste. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Cooked, tender and of fair flavor. 

** Gills becoming discolored. 

T. persona'tum Fr. wearing a mask (from its many varieties of 
colors). (Plate XVIII, p. 60.) Pileus compact, becoming soft, 
thick, convex or plane, obtuse, regular, moist, bare, variable in color, 
generally pallid or ashy tinged with violet or lilac, the margin at first 
involute and frosted with fine hairs. Flesh whitish. Gills broad, 
crowded, rounded behind, free, violaceous becoming sordid-whitish or 
dingy-brown. Stem generally thick, subbulbous, solid, fibrillose or 
frosted with fine hairs, whitish or colored like the pileus. Spores dingy 
white, subelliptical, 8-9x4-5^. On white paper the spores have a 
slight salmon tint, but they are regular in shape, not angular as in En- 

Pileus 2-5 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 6-12 lines thick. Peck, 
44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Woods and open places, and growing from old, matted stable straw. 
Common over the United States. 



When T. personatum becomes known to the collector, either in the 
field or on the table, it is sure to become a favorite. It is fleshy, rotund, 
stocky, moist and smooth, with a tendency in its cap to be wavy-rimmed 
and jauntily cocked in wet weather. It grows singly or in troops, oc- 
casionally in tufts of from five to six individuals. A patch of it is valu- 
able and worth husbanding with covering of fine straw. Cortinarius 
violaceus resembles it somewhat in color and shape, but it shows a spi- 
dery veil, and has brown spores. It is edible. 

The common name of T. personatum in England is Blewits, which 
translated into understandable English is believed to be "blue-hats." 
It is everywhere eaten, being of substantial substance, good flavor and 
cookable in any way. It is especially fine in patties, stews and cro- 

T. nu'dum Bull. naked. PileilS about 3 in. broad, becoming purple- 
violaceous then changing color, reddish, fleshy, comparatively thin, con- 
vexo-plane then depressed, obtuse, even, smooth, with a pellicle which 
is moist and manifest in rainy weather; margin inflexed, thin, naked. 
Flesh thin, pliant, colored. Stem about 3 in. long, % in. thick, stuffed, 
clastic, equal, almost naked, mealy at the apex, violaceous then becoming 
pale. Gills rounded then decurrent (on account of the depressed pileus ) , 
crowded, narrow, of the same color as the pileus or deeper violaceous, 
but soon changing color, at length reddish without the least tinge of 
violet. Stevenson. 

Spores 7x3. 5/x Massee; 6-8x4^ B. t 6x3/01 W.G.S. On ground 
among leaves. Esculent, very good and delicate. Cordier. Edible. 
Rose. Edible, all American authorities. 

VII. HYGROPH'ANA. Pileus thin, water-soaked, etc. 
* Gills whitish, not spotted. 

T. grammopo'dilim Bull. Gr. aline; Gr. afoot. Pileus 3-6 in. 
broad, pallid-livid or brownish-red when moist, whitish when dry, 
fleshy, very thin toward the margin, campanulate then convex, and at 
length flattened, obtusely umbonate, even, smooth, pellicle moist in 
rainy weather, not viscous, separating, flesh-colored when moist, white 
when dry, soft, fragile. Stem tall, about 3-4 in. long, ^ in. and more 



thick, solid, elastic, equal with exception of the thickened base, cyl- Trichoioma. 
indrical, firm, smooth, evidently longitudinally sulcate, whitish. Gills 
arcuato-adnate or broadly horizontally emarginate, acute at both ends, 
very crowded, quite entire, very many shorter, somewhat branched 
behind, white. 

Odor moldy. Striking in appearance; the chief of this group. 
There is a variety wholly white. In pastures and grassy woods. Stev- 
enson . 

Spores 5-6> Massee. 

Distinguished by the grooved stem and crowded gills, which are 
adnate when the pileus is expanded. Often growing in rings. 

North Carolina, Curtis. Not reported elsewhere. Esculent. Cooke. 
Much eaten in Europe. 

T. bre'vipes Bull. brevis, short; pes, a foot. Pileus about 2 in. 
broad, umber then becoming pale, fleshy, soft, convex then becoming 
plane, even, smooth, moist (opaque when dry) ; flesh of the pileus be- 
coming brownish when moist, becoming white when dry. Stem solid, 
very rigid, at length fibrous, pruinate at the apex , externally and in- 
ternally fuscous; otherwise very variable, sometimes very short, 23 
lines only long and thick, attenuated downward; commonly I in., 
sometimes bulbous, sometimes equal, more slender. Gills emarginato- 
free, crowded, ventricose, disappearing short of the margin, quite entire, 
becoming fuscous then whitish. Solitary. Inodorous. The pileus is 
often stained with soil. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptical, 7-5x5/x Peck; J-^ Massee. 

Esculent and very delicate. Paulet. Esculent. Cooke. 

T. hu'mile Pers. low, small. (Plate XVIII, fig. 6, p. 60. ) Very 
variable in form and color. Cap 2-3 in. across, convex then expanded, 
wavy, flattened, sometimes umbonate, sometimes depressed, glabrous, 
occasionally powdered with thin white dust, fragments of veil, some- 
times viscid. Color changes with moisture, blackish, grayish, and 
having somewhat the appearance of an oyster. Gills rounded-adnexed, 
with a slight tooth, arcuately decurrent, crowded, 23 lines broad, 
whitish. Flesh soft, whitish or grayish. Stem 1-2 in. long, up to % 
in. thick, equal (misshapen by pressure when tufted), light gray, cov- 


Trichoioma. ered with fine down, stuffed, becoming hollow, soft, fragile. Gregari- 
ous, usually tufted. 

Spores 7-8x5-61* K, 

Open woods, in gardens, among cinders, grass, etc., September to 

Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia, 1897. Mcllvaine. 

Its tufted habit and fair size, fleshy cap of good flavor, make it a de- 
sirable species. It cooks readily and the caps are of fine flavor. 

T. pse'didum Fr. pcedidus, nasty. Pileus about I Yz in. across. 
Flesh very thin, tough, becoming whitish; bell-shaped then convex, at 
length expanded, umbonate, at length depressed round the conical, 
prominent umbo, moist, virgate or streaked with innate fibrils radiating 
from the center, otherwise almost even, smoky-mouse color, opaque, 
margin naked. Gills adnexed with a slight decurrent tooth, slightly 
sinuate, crowded, narrow, white then gray. Stem about I in. long and 
2 lines thick, base slightly bulbous, tough, slightly striate, naked, dingy- 
gray. Spores elliptic-fusiform, 10-11x5-6/1. 

In gardens, on dung-hills, etc. Small, tough, color dingy, without 
a trace of violet tinge. Massee. 

Edible. Cooks tender, and is of good flavor, notwithstanding its 
name, which in no way applies. 

T. Subpulvenilen'tlim Pers. slightly dusty. Pileus 1-2 Y* in. across, 
convex then plane or depressed in center, even, innately pruinose, 
hoary, white, whitish, grayish, margin extending as a slight rim in- 
curved beyond gills. Flesh white, thick, firm, liygrophanous. Gills 
rounded without a tooth, close, narrow, white. Stem 2-3 in. long, 
3-5 lines thick, equal, solid, somewhat striate, whitish. 

Spores 5x3/4 Massee ; 4x3/4 W.G.S. 

Biological grounds, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. May 
to November, 1898. Mcllvaine. 

A species one is glad to find. It has a healthy substantial presence 
full of promise. It is a solitary grower among grass on lawns and past- 
ures, but its individuals are neighborly. Caps and stems are excellent. 






Gr. sloping. (From the depression of the pileus.) 

PileilS generally fleshy, becoming thin toward the margin, flexible or ciitocybe. 
tough, plane or depressed, margin involute. Gills adnate or decurrent, 
never sinuate. Stem confluent and homogeneous with flesh of pileus, 
somewhat elastic, with a spongy stuffing, frequently becoming hollow, 
externally fibrous. Universal veil when present conspicuous on the 
pileus like frost or silky dew, but commonly wanting. 

Growing on the ground, frequently in groups. The thinner and 
hygrophanous species appear late in autumn. Some are quite fragrant. 
Collybia, Mycena and Omphalia are separated by their stems being car- 
tilaginous, not externally fibrous as in Ciitocybe. Tricholoma by its 
sinuate gills. 

Variations in species of Ciitocybe are great. A few are easily fixed 
in the genus, but many of them will puzzle the amateur and perplex 
the expert. The gills are always attached to the stem, and usually run 
down it. They are not notched next to the stem as in Tricholoma. 

Like Tricholoma, Ciitocybe has many species, most of which are com- 
mon, and are probably edible. I therefore give Professor Peck's de- 
scription of all Clitocybes thus far submitted to him. 

I know of but one species which is injurious to some persons Ciito- 
cybe illudens. Many eat and enjoy it. It does not agree with others. 
A few untried species are suspicious to a like extent. Ciitocybe illu- 
dens possesses the property of phosphorescence. 

Several species of Ciitocybe have not been seen or tested by me, nor 
have I information that these have been tested. 



Flesh firm, not watery, nor splitting into plates. Those which turn 
pale in drying differ from Series B by their silky luster. 

DlSClFORMES (disk-shaped). Page 85. 

Pileus somewhat equally fleshy ; convex then plane or depressed, ob- 
tuse, regular; gills at first adnate or regularly adnato-decurrent. Nor- 
mally solitary. 



ciitocybe. * Pileus gray or brownish. 

* Pileus violet or reddish. 

* Pileus becoming yellowish. 
**** Pileus greenish, becoming pale. 

* Pileus white, becoming shining white. 

Distinguished from white hygrophanous species and white species of 

DlFFORMES (irregularly shaped). Page 94. 

Pileus fleshy in the center, thin at the margin, at first umbonate, then 
expanded and depressed, irregular. Gills unequally decurrent, longer 
in some places than in others, sometimes rounded on one side of the 
stem or only reaching it as in Tricholoma. Stem somewhat cartilagi- 
nous externally, but fibrous. 

Cespitose, often grown together at base, variable in form, sometimes 

INFUNDIBULIFORMES (funnel-shaped). Page 98. 

Pileus becoming thin from the fleshy center to the margin, at length 
funnel-shaped or deeply umbilicately depressed in the center. Stem 
spongy, externally fibrous. Gills deeply and equally decurrent from 
the first. Pileus often becoming discolored or pallid, not hygrophanous. 

* Pileus colored or becoming pale, the surface (at least under a lens) 
innately flocculose or silky, bibulous, not moist. 

* Pileus colored or pallid, smooth, moist in rainy weather. 

* Pileus shining whitish, with scattered superficial flocci or becom- 
ing smooth. 

Flesh thin, soft, watery, hygrophanous. 

CYATHIFORMES (cup-shaped). Page 104. 

Flesh of pileus thin, consisting of two separable plates, disk not com- 
pact, hygrophanous, depressed then cup-shaped ; gills at first adnate 
then decurrent, descending, straight. Color dingy when moist. 

ORBIFORMES (round-shaped). Page 109. 

Pileus somewhat fleshy, hygrophanous. convex then flattened or de- 



pressed, polished, not squamulose nor mealy; gills plane, horizontal, cntocybe. 
thin, crowded, adnate or decurrent with a small tooth. Color dingy or 
becoming watery pale. 

* Gills becoming ash-colored. Pileus at first dark. 
** Gills whitish. Pileus becoming pale. 

VERSIFORMES (variable in shape). Page 1 06. 

Pileus thin, convex then deformed, tough, more or less squamulose 
or furfuraceous ; gills adnate, broad, rather thick, generally distant. 
Color hygrophanous. 

* Pileus squalid or brownish with dark squamules. None known to 
be edible. 

** Pileus bright, of one color. 

Series A. 


* Pileus gray or brownish. 

C. nebllla'risBatsch. nebula, a cloud. (Plate XXIV, fig. 7, p. 82.) 
The Clouded clitocybe, Clitocybe nebularis, takes its name from the 
clouded-gray appearance of its thick cap, which is at first convex, but 
when mature, either flat or a little depressed. Its flesh is white, thick- 
est in the middle, and in a vertical section is seen to taper rapidly down- 
ward into the stem. The gills are close together and rather narrow for 
the size of the plant. They are white or yellowish-white. The stout 
solid stem usually tapers upward from the base and is whitish. 

The cap is two to four inches or more broad, the stem one to two 
inches long and about half an inch thick. The Clouded mushroom 
grows in woods, and sometimes forms large tufts or clusters among fallen 
leaves. It is found in autumn, but is not very common in this country. 
Authors differ in their estimate of the edible qualities of this mushroom, 
but the more recent ones generally agree in classing it as edible . ' ' Mush- 
rooms and Their Use," C. H. Peck. 

Spores 4.5x3/4 Cooke / elliptical 6x3.5/4 Massee ; 3x4/4 W.G.S. 

There has been great diversity of opinion as to the edibility of this 
species on the continent. Cordier and a friend suffered from it. Paulet 
counseled mistrust. 



cntocybe. This fungus is quite common in the West Virginia mountains and in 
some parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, where I have found it. It 
is, however, limited to localities. It is one of my favorites, being of 
marked flavor and agreeable consistency. I have not known it to harm 
anone . 

C. cla'vipes Pers. clava, a club; pes, a foot. Pileus 


-^z n. 

across, rather convex at first, soon 
plane, at length almost obconical, 
very obtuse, even, glabrous, dry, 
sometimes all one color, brown, 
sooty, livid-gray, etc., sometimes 
whitish towards the margin, very 
rarely entirely white. Flesh loose in 
texture, white, thin at the margin. 
Gills deeply decurrent, continued 
down the stem as straight lines, 
rather distant, flaccid, quite entire, 
broad, entirely and persistently white. 
Stem 2 in. long, base Yz in. and 
more thick> conical | y attenuated up- 
rather fibrillose, livid, sooty, solid, spongy within.' Spores 

About two-thirds natural size. 


In woods, especially pine. Resembling C. nebularis in color, but 
quite distinct. Smell pleasant, entire substance soft and elastic, fries. 

Spores elliptical, 6-7x4^ Massee; sub-ellipsoid, 5-7x3-4^ K.; 
6x8/4 W.G.S. 

Found in pine woods of New Jersey, and under spruce in West 
Virginia. Its substance is spongy, therefore does not stew well. Cooked 
in any other way it is delicate and of excellent flavor. 

C. gangraeno'sa Fr. gangrcena, gangrene. Pileus fleshy, convex 
then plane, obtuse, whitish, at first sprinkled with white powder, then 
naked, variegated, streaked. Gills slightly decurrent, arcuate, crowded, 
dingy-white. Stem somewhat bulbous, soft, striate, spongy, solid. 

Stinking; large, flesh becoming blackish and variegated with black. 
Stem curved, sometimes excentric. Pileus whitish, here and there 
greenish, livid, etc. Fries. 



Yar. nigres'cens Lasch. Whitish; pileus thin, soft, at first convex, ciitocybe. 
obtuse then plane, somewhat umbonate, and somewhat depressed ; gills 
decurrent, very much crowded, narrow, stem solid, downy. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem I 1 i-i>2 in. long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Odor rather sweet, taste unpleasant. Cooke. 

New Jersey, Haddonfield, pine woods. July to August. Mcllrainc. 

This Clitocybe is in every way unattractive. It is not poisonous, but 
no one would care to eat it. 

One-half natural size. 

C. me'dia Pk. medius, middle.. Because intermediate between C. 
nebularis and C. clavipes. PileuS^ plate XXVI J- 
fleshy, convex, becoming plane or 
slightly depressed, dry, dark grayish- 
brown, the margin often wavy or ir- 
regular, flesh white, taste mild. Gills 
broad, subdistant, adnate or decur- 
rent, whitish, .the interspaces some- 
what venose. Stem equal or but 
slightly thickened at the base, solid, 
elastic, not polished, colored like or 
a little paler than the pileus. Spores 
elliptical, 8x5/n. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1-2 

in. long, 48 lines thick. Mossy ground in deep woods. 

This species is intermediate between C. nebularis and C. clavipes. 
In its general appearance, and in the character of the pileus and stem, 
it resembles C. nebularis, but in the character of the more distant gills 
and in the size of the spores it is nearer C. clavipes, of which it might 
perhaps be regarded as a variety. Two forms are distinguishable. In 
one the gills are more distant, slightly rounded behind, and adnate or 
abruptly terminated ; in the other they are closer and more distinctly 
decurrent. The plant is edible. Peck, 42d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

I have known this fungus very favorably since 1883, and regard it as 
one of the best. I have seen it in the West Virginia mountains only, 
but it will probably be found in cool, shaded, high localities all over the 
country. Both it and the C. nebularis are well worthy df search. 

North Elba. 


cntocybe. C. viles'ceilS Pk. vilesco, of little value. PileilS convex, then plane 
or depressed, often irregular, glabrous, slightly pruinose on the in- 
volute margin, brown or grayish-brown, becoming paler with age, often 
concentrically rivulose. Gills close, adnate or decurrent, cinereous, 
sometimes tinged with dingy-yellow. Stem short, solid, sometimes 
compressed, grayish-brown, with a whitish tomentum at the base. 
Spores subglobose or broadly elliptical, 5-6. S/A; flesh whitish-gray, 
odor slight. 

Plant gregarious, 1-2 in. high. Pileus 1-1.5 in. broad. Stem 
1-2 lines thick. Grassy pastures. Jamesville, August. Peck, 33d 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

A pale form of this species grows on sandy soil, in which the pileus 
is smoky white, but it becomes grayish-brown in drying. The mycelium 
binds together a mass of sand, so that when the plant is taken up 
carefully a little ball of sandy soil adheres to the base of the stem. The- 
stem is sometimes pruinose. The flavor is mild and agreeable. Peck, 
50th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Sometimes plentiful about Philadelphia. Edible. Caps tender, slight 

C. COmitia'lis Fr. belonging to an assembly. PileilS about i >a in. 
across, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, even, glabrous, rather moist 
but not hygrophanous, every part colored alike, sooty-umber, almost 
black. Flesh firm, white. Gills very slightly decurrent, horizontal, 
plane, thin, crowded, white. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, 
equally attenuated upward from the base, glabrous, sooty, elastic, 
stuffed. Spores elliptical, 7-8x4/1. 

Damp places among mosses in pine woods, etc. Distinguished by 
the blackish color of the almost flat pileus, and the very slightly decur- 
rent gills. Somewhat allied to C. clavipes, but firmer, smaller and in- 
odorous. Massee. 

Rather rare. Found in New Jersey among pines; in Pennsylvania 
in mixed woods. 

Edible. Good texture and flavor. 

** Violet or reddish. 

C. cyanophse'a Fr. Gr. blue. Pileus 3-4 in. broad, becoming 
bluish-dusky-brown, compact, convex then plane, obtuse, smooth. 



Photographed by Dr. J. R. Weist. 



Stem 3 in. long, I in. thick at the base, attenuated upward, robust, cntocybe. 
solid, smooth, becoming azure-blue when young, abruptly white at the 
apex . Gills deeply decurrent, crowded, violaceous, then becoming pale. 

New York, Albion. In woods. October. Edible. Dr. E. L. 

Specimens sent to me by Dr. Gushing are the first and only ones of 
the species I have seen. The description is accurate. The spores were 
cream color. 

C. monadel pha Morg. monas, single; adelphos, a brother. From 
its cespitose habit. (Plate XXVII.) Densely cespitose. Pileus fleshy, 
convex then depressed, at first glabrous, then scaly, honey color, vary- 
ing to pallid-brownish or reddish. Stem elongated, solid, crooked, 
twisted, fibrous, tapering at the base, pallid-brownish or flesh color. 
Gills short, decurrent, not crowded, pallid flesh color. Spores white, 
a little irregular, 7.5x5.5/4. 

On the ground in wet woods, spring to late autumn. Pileus 1-3 in. 
Stem 3-7 in. Morgan. 

Grassy places. Menands. Albany county. September. Edible. 
Resembling Armillaria mellea, but distinguished from it by the absence 
of a collar from the stem, by the more decidedly decurrent lamellse and 
by the solid stem. It is also more agreeable in flavor. It is related to 
C. illudens in habit and manner of growth. Peck, 5ist Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Spores 8x5/4 Peck. 

October 15, 1898. Identified by Professor Peck. September until 

Grows in great clusters about roots, etc., at Mt. Gretna. Frequently 
much water-soaked and uninviting. Taste variable, sometimes strong, 

It is edible, but care should be exercised in collecting to get young 
fresh groups. 

C. SOCia'lis Fr. socius, a companion. Pileus about I in. broad, 
pale-yellowish with a reddish tinge, fleshy, convex then expanded, 
acutely umbonate especially when young, even, smooth, dry. Flesh 
moderately thin, white. Stem i in. long, 2 lines or a little more thick, 



ciitocybe. solid, fibrous, commonly ascending, smooth, reddish, the rooting base 
hairy, (jills plano-decurrent, scarcely crowded, becoming yellow. Fries. 
A very pretty species, densely gregarious, inodorous. The stem is 
sheathed-hairy at the base like Marasmius peronatus. Its greatest af- 
finity is with A. vernicosus, of which it is perhaps a variety. Sf even son . 
Quite common in pine woods of New Jersey. Though small, goodly 
messes of it may be gathered from its patches. The caps make a pleas- 
ing dish. 

** Pileus becoming yellow. 

None reported as tested for edibility. 

**** Pileus greenish or becoming pallid. 

C. odo'ra Bull. odortts, fragrant. (Plate XXIV, fig. 9, p. 82.) 
Fragrant. PileilS about 2 in. across, flesh rather thick, tough; soon 
plane and wavy, even, smooth, pale dingy green, silky when dry. Gills 
adnate, rather close, broad, greenish or pallid. Stem about 11/2 in. 
long, 2 lines thick, base incrassated, elastic, stuffed. Spores elliptical, 
6 8x4 5/t. In woods. Massee. 

Readily distinguished by the strong, aniseed smell, dingy bluish- 
green pileus, and the pallid or greenish gills. 

Sometimes somewhat cespitose. Tough; size variable, color varies 
between pale green and greenish-gray, usually all colored alike, but the 
gills are sometimes white; smell pleasant, spicy, especially when dry. 

Spores 6xs/x K.; 8x4/x B. 

A rather delicate, even exquisite dish. Cooke. 

Edible. Exceedingly spicy. The flavor is pleasant, but rather 
strong. A few specimens mixed with others of like texture but less 
flavor make a tasty dish. 

C. rivulo'sa Pers. rivus, a stream. (Named from rivulet-like streaks 
on pileus.) Pileus 1-3 in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane and 
depressed, obtuse, often undulately lobed, dingy flesh-color or reddish, 
becoming pale, glabrous, then covered with a whitish down. Gills 
slightly decurrent, broad, rather crowded, pinkish-white. Stem about 
2 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, rather fibrillose, tough, elastic, whitish, 
stuffed. Spores elliptical, 6x3.5/1. Massee. 



Among grass by road-sides, etc. cntocybe. 

Not common, but when found it is basket-filling. I have found it in 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey and West Virginia. 

Edible. The caps are rather tough but become glutinous and tender 
when well cooked. Flavor fine. 

***** Pileus white, shining when dry. 

C. cemssa'ta Fr. cerussa, white lead. Pileus 1^-3 in. across, 
flesh thick at the disk, becoming thin toward the margin ; convex then al- 
most plane, obtuse, even, minutely floccose then almost glabrous, white. 
Gills adnate, then decurrent, very much crowded, thin, permanently 
white. Stem about 2 in. long, 35 lines thick, smooth, tough, elastic, 
naked, spongy and solid, white. Among dead leaves, etc. 

Taste mild, smell almost obsolete. Stem rather thickened at the base 
and often tomentose. Pileus said to be gibbous, but not umbonate nor 
becoming rufescent. Gills not changing to yellowish. Fries. 

Spores 3/* W.G.S. 

Edible. Good. 

C. phyllopll'ila Fr. Gr. leaf-loving. Whitish-tan. Pileus 1-3 in. 
across, rather fleshy, convex then plane, becoming umbilicate and de- 
pressed, sometimes wavy, smooth and even. Gills thin, subdistant, 
white then tinged with ocher, rather broad, very slightly decurrent. 
Stem 2-3 in. long, equal, stuffed then hollow, whitish, tough, silky- 
fibrillose. Spores 6x4/4. 

Among leaves in woods, etc. 

Spores 6x4/1. Massee; 6x3/1* W.G.S.; 5.5x2.87* Morgan. 

Found at Devon, Pa., 1888 ; Angora, West Philadelphia, 1897. It is 
equal to the Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) in texture, but not 
so high in flavor. Well cooked it is an agreeable and valuable food. 

C. pitliyoph'ila Seer. Gr. pine-loving. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, dead- 
white when moist, shining whitish when dry, fleshy but thin, rather 
plane, umbilicate, at length irregularly shaped, repand and undulato- 
lobed, even, smooth, flaccid, the margin slightly striate when old. Stem 
somewhat hollow, rounded then compressed, equal, even, smooth, ob- 
soletely or scarcely pruinose at the apex, white tomentose at the (not 



ciitocybe. bulbous) base. Gills adnate, somewhat decurrent, very crowded, plane v 
2-3 lines broad, distinct, quite entire, white. 

Odor not remarkable, but pleasant. Gregarious, somewhat cespi- 
tose ; white indeed, but when moist watery and somewhat hygrophanous, 
in which it evidently differs from A. phyllophila. A. tuba, which ap- 
pears in the same places, is very like it. Stevenson. 

Spores 6-7x4^ B. 

Massachusetts, Sprague ; New York, Peck, Bull. 1887. 

Albion, Orleans county, N. Y., October, 1898, Dr. Gushing. 

Several specimens received were clearly referable to C. pithyophila, 
though varying in having caps deeply depressed but not umbilicate. 
The white tomentosity at base was present but indistinct. 

Four specimens were eaten and found good. Eaten enjoyably by 
Dr. Gushing. 

C. fus'cipes Pk. ftisctis, dirty; pes, a foot. Pileus thin, broadly 
convex or plane, umbilicate, glabrous, whitish and striatulate when 
moist, pure white when dry, odor and taste farinaceous. Gills nearly 
plane, subdistant, adnate or slightly decurrent, white. Stem equal, 
glabrous or slightly mealy at the top, hollow, dingy brown when moist, 
paler when dry. Spores globose, 5-6/4. 

PlleilS 48 lines broad. Stem about I in. long. Under pine trees. 
Carrollton. September. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Edible. Its small size gives it minor importance, but a quantity of 
it makes an excellent meal. 

C. can'dicans Pers. candico, to be shining white. Entirely white. 
Pileus about i in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane or slightly 
depressed, umbilicate, regular or slightly excentric, even, with an 
adpressed silkiness, shining, shining white when dry. Gills adnate 
then slightly decurrent, crowded, very thin, narrow, straight. Stem 
1-2 in. long, 12 lines thick, even, glabrous, cartilaginous, polished, 
equal, hollow, base incurved, rooting, downy. Spores broadly elliptical 
or subglobose, 5-6x4^. Massee. 

Among damp fallen leaves, etc. 

Entirely white, small, rather tough; approaching Omphalia in the 
structure of the stem. The following form is described by Fries as 
occurring in. pine woods: Stem thin, flexuous, base glabrous; pileus 



plane, not umbilicate, naked (without silky down). Gills scarcely cutocybe. 

A remarkable form but scarcely to be separated as a species. Fries. 

Quite common in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. The 
caps are excellent when well cooked. 

C. dealba'ta Sow. dealbo, to whitewash. Pileus about I in. or a 
little more broad, white, slightly fleshy, tough, convex then plane and 
at length revolute and undulated, always dry (not watery in rainy 
weather), even, smooth, somewhat shining, but as if innately pruinose 
under a lens. Flesh thin, arid, white. Stem i in. long, 2 lines thick, 
stuffed, wholly fibrous, at length also tubed, equal, but often ascending, 
whitish, mealy at the apex. Gills adnate, scarcely decurrent, thin, 
crowded, white. 

Pileus sometimes orbicular, sometimes upturned and wavy. Odor 
weak, pleasant, but not very remarkable. Most distinct from A. can- 
dicans in the nature of the stem. 

Edible. Its top is exceedingly like ivory. Its charming flavor is ex- 
ceeded by very few other fungi. Stevenson. 

Among leaves and grass. Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia. 

This charming fungus is common over the land. I have known it 
since 1881, and found it from North Carolina to West Virginia. 

C. robus'ta Pk. robustus, stout. Pileus thick, firm, at first convex, 
soon plane or slightly depressed in the center, glabrous, white, the mar- 
gin at first involute or decurved, naked. Flesh white. Gills narrow, 
close, decurrent, whitish. Stem stout, rather short, solid, glabrous, 
equal or slightly tapering upward, often with a bulbous base, white. 
Spores elliptical, 8x4-5^. 

Pileus 3-4 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 8-12 lines thick. 

Woods among fallen leaves. Catskill mountains. September to 

This large and robust fungus is closely allied to C. Candida Bres., 
from which it differs in the naked margin of the pileus, the absence of 
any marked odor and especially in the more elliptical shape of its spores. 
The same plant has been collected in Maryland by Mr. L. J. Atwater, 
who considers it edible, having eaten it with satisfaction and safety. 
Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 



Clitocybe. This fungus is quite plentiful in Pennsylvania and in open oak woods 
in New Jersey. Its size and sometimes gregarious growth give it a 
permanent food value. Its texture is coarse, but when cooked it is 
highly satisfactory. 

C. gallina'cea Scop.- t -/w//ww f a hen. Application not apparent. 
White; acrid. Pileus 1-1% in. across, rather fleshy at the disk, mar- 
gin thin; convex then depressed, but not funnel-shaped, even, dry, 
opaque. Gills slightly decurrent, narrow, crowded, thin. Stem about 
1% in. long, 2 lines thick, equal, even, solid. Among grass, moss, etc. 

Resembling C. dealbata in form, but smaller, opaque, dingy-white, 
taste somewhat acrid. Stem solid, but not cartilaginous, about 2 in. 
long, equal, ascending or flexuous, excentric, at first floccosely mealy, 
always opaque, white. Pileus slightly fleshy, convex then plane, not 
depressed, obtuse, % i in. broad, unequal, dry, pruinosely hoary; 
flesh white, compact, but thin. Gills adnato-decurrent, thin, crowded, 
plane. Fries. 

It loses its acridity in cooking and is quite equal to C. dealbata. 

C. tmnci'cola Pk. truncus, trunk of a tree. Pileus thin, firm, 
expanded or slightly depressed in the center, smooth, dry, white. Gills 
narrow, thin, crowded, adnate-decurrent. Stem equal, stuffed, smooth, 
often excentric and curved, whitish. 

Plant I in. high. Pileus I in. broad. Stem I line thick. 

Trunks of frondose trees, especially maples. Croghan. September. 
Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores SxS.S/* Morgan. 

Found on maple trees in West Philadelphia, Pa. Edible. Good 


C. decas'tes Fr. Gr. a decade; a number of ten. From the stems 
being often joined in bundles of about ten. Densely cespitose. Pileus 
512 in. across, soon almost plane, disk gibbous or obtuse; margin at 
first shortly incurved, then expanded, very much waved and often lobed, 
even, glabrous, dingy-brown or livid when moist, pale clay-color when 
dry. Flesh exceedingly thin except at the disk, whitish. Stem 4-7 
in. long, % \% in. thick, usually slightly thinner upward, rather soft, 




entirely fibrous, solid, white, usually curved and ascending, coalescent ciitocybe. 
into a solid mass at the base. Gills adnato-decurrent, or often more or 
less adnexed, up to % in. broad, rather narrowed towards the margin, 
often wavy. Spores globose, smooth, 4/4 diameter. 

On the ground and on sawdust. 

Albion, Orleans county, N. Y., Dr. dishing. October, 1898. 

On ground in grassy places (Woodland Cemetery, May 22, 1897). 
Mel r lvalue. 

Particularly welcome to toadstool lovers are the early comers. The 
present species is among the first. It is rich in quantity, substance and 

C. mul'ticeps Pk. multus, many; caput, a head. (Plate XXVIII, 
p. 94.) Pileus fleshy, thin except on the disk, firm, convex, slightly 
moist in wet weather, whitish, grayish or yellowish-gray. Flesh white, 
taste mild. Gills close, adnate and slightly decurrent, whitish. Stems 
densely cespitose, equal or slightly thickened at the base, solid or stuffed, 
firm, elastic, slightly pruinose at the apex, whitish. Spores globose, 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Open places, grassy ground, etc. Albany and Sandlake. June and 
October. This species forms dense tufts, often composed of many in- 
dividuals. In this respect it is related to such species as C. tumulosa, 
C. aggregata and C. illudens. From the crowding together of many 
individuals the pileus is often irregular. Sometimes the disk is brown- 
ish and occasionally slightly silky. The gills are sometimes slightly 
sinuate, thus indicating a relationship to the species of Tricholoma. The 
taste, though mild, is somewhat oily and unpleasant. The plants appear 
in wet, rainy weather, either early in the season or in autumn. Speci- 
mens have been sent to me from Massachusetts by R. K. Macadam and 
Professor Farlow, and from Pennsylvania by Dr. W. Herbst. Peck, 
43d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Mt. Gretna, Pa. In May, and in autumn 
months. Very variable in size, color, shape of gills, texture and taste. 

The early spring clusters are remarkable for their tenderness and 
excellence. Clusters of hundreds of individuals grew abundantly at Mt. 
Gretna in May, 1899. When the fungus was young the gills were 



Clitocybe. sometimes adnate, almost free, often decurrent. The varying color of 
oysters is well seen in C. multiceps. 

Edible. They should be well cooked. The addition of a little lemon 
juice or sherry conceals a slight raw taste sometimes present. 

C. illu'dens Schw. mocking, deceiving. (Frontispiece.) Pileus 
fleshy, convex or expanded, smooth, generally with a small umbo. 
Gills not crowded, unequally decurrent, some of them branched, nar- 
rowed toward each end, the edge, in dry specimens, discolored. Stem 
firm, solid, long, smooth, tapering at the base. 

Height 5-8 in., breadth of pileus 4-6 in. Stem 6-8 lines thick. 

Spores 4- 5 yx Peck. 

Grows in clumps or large masses about stumps or decaying trees from 
August to October. Its bright, deep yellow is attractive from a distance. 
As many as fifty plants may form a cluster. Cap from 2-6 in., fleshy, 
convex or expanded, often with a raised center directly over the stem; 
flesh juicy and yellow; gills yellow, widely separated, running down 
stem unequally; stem long, firm, solid, smooth, tapering toward base. 
When cooked the taste is rather saponaceous. Strong stomachs can 
retain a meal of them, but the fungus generally sickens the eater. 
Many testings show it to contain a minor poison. It is not deadly, but 
should not be eaten. Bull. No. 2, Phila. Myc. Center. 

New York, Peck, Rep. 23-49. Well known in southern states. 
Indiana, H. I. Miller. 

The mysterious property of phosphorescence is possessed by this 
fungus. As heat is known to develop in masses of the fungus it is of 
interest to know whether it is from the phosphorescence or a ferment. 
Its radiance by night surpasses its splendor by day. Mr. H.I. Miller, 
of Terre Haute, Ind., first drew the writer's attention to this quality. 
A large box of specimens sent by him retained their luminous quality 
after three days of travel to such an extent that the print of a newspaper 
could be read when held close to the mass. 

Mr. Miller writes: "There is something about this fungus which 
generates heat. When I bring in a basketful of it. for the pleasure its 
phosphorescence affords my friends, I find that after having been in the 
6asket for two or three hours, and while piled one bunch upon top of 
another, that to insert one's hand among the different clusters is like 
putting it close to a hot stove." 



This fungus is so inviting in quantity and beauty that one turns from ciitocybe. 
it with a regret that lingers. Eaten in quantity it acts upon some persons 
as an emetic. I have several times eaten of it without other than 
pleasurable sensations, but persons partaking of the same cooking have 
been sickened. 

C. fumo'sa Pers. fumus, smoke. Pileus 1-3 in. across, fleshy, mar- 
gin thin; convex, often gibbous when young, regular or wavy, even, 
pellicle not separable, glabrous, sooty-brown, soon livid or gray when 
dry. Gills adnate in regular forms, but often decurrent when the pileus 
is irregular, crowded, distinct, grayish-white from the first. Stem 23 
in. long, 3-6 lines thick, almost equal, often twisted or curved, gla- 
brous, dingy-white, apex mealy, solid, fibrous. Spores subglobose, 
5-6/x diam. 

In woods. Autumn. 

Gregarious, somewhat cespitose, tough, rather cartilaginous. Pileus 
truly obtuse, never streaked, often regular. Smell none. Fries. 

Var. po'lius. Densely and connately cespitose. Pileus convex, then 
plane, obtuse, smooth, gray. Stem flexuous, smooth. Gills crowded, 
whitish. Edible. Cooke, 1891. 

Var. polius found growing in large quantities in Boston navy yard in 
stone barn. Determined by Professor Peck. A fair edible. R. K. 

This woods-growing Ciitocybe has been many times found by me in 
a hot-house in Haddonfield, N. J. Professor Peck confirmed my iden- 
tification. Either its spores or mycelium had evidently been carried 
thither in the wood-earth used by florists. The hot-house crops ap- 
peared in March, and continued until June. 

Several of the plants showed an effort to comply with some condi- 
tion unusual to them, by producing gills upon the upper side of the 
pileus. Those below were venose and crisped. 

This wild species had thus been brought into cultivation. The culti- 
vated plants were much more tender than the wild. Both are excellent. 

C. COnnex'a Pk. connexus, joined. From its relation to Tricholoma. 
Pileus thin, convex or expanded, subumbonate, clothed with a minute 
appressed silkiness, white, the margin sometimes faintly tinged with 

7 97 

Agaric aceae 

cutocybe. blue. Grills crowded, narrow, white inclining to yellowish. Stem 
equal or tapering downward, solid, whitish. 

Plant 2-3 in. high. Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2 lines thick. 

Ground in woods. Croghan. September. 

The gills sometimes terminate rather abruptly and are not strongly 
decurrent, hence it might easily be mistaken for a Tricholoma. The 
margin of the pileus is sometimes marked with slight ridges as in Ag. 
laterarius. The odor is weak but aromatic and agreeable. Peck, 26th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Found in plenty in oak woods near Philadelphia, and in West Vir- 
ginia; a few specimens in southern New Jersey. Autumn. 

Edible, and quite equal to most of the Clitocybes. 

C. tumulo'sa Kalchbr. tumulus, a mound. Cespitose. Pileus 1-2 
in. across, disk fleshy, margin thin; conico-convex then expanded, ob- 
tusely umbonate or obtuse, even, glabrous, brownish-umber, becoming 
pale, margin drooping. Grills more or less decurrent or slightly emar- 
ginate, crowded narrow, white, then grayish. Stem 35 in. long, un- 
equal, usually thicker below, minutely downy, pallid, solid. 

On the ground in woods. Spring and autumnal months. Readily 
distinguished by the densely clustered habit, and the umber pileus. 
The gills are very variable, sometimes distinctly decurrent, at others 
rounded behind, and almost resembling a Tricholoma. Spores sub- 
globose, 5-6/*. Massee. 

California, H. and M.; New York, Peck, Rep. 42. 

Sent to me by Mrs. Mary Fuller, Washington, D. C. The specimens 
eaten were of good consistency and flavor. 


* Pileus colored or becoming pale, etc., surface innately ftocculose or 

silky ; not moist. 

C. gigante'a Sow. giganteus, of gigantic size. PileilS 6-10 in. 
across. Flesh rather thin in proportion to the size of the fungus, white, 
or tinged with tan, glabrous when moist, slightly flocculose when dry; 
margin involute then spreading, glabrous, rather coarsely grooved. 
Gills slightly decurrent, broad, very much crowded, branched and con- 



nected by veins, whitish then pale tan-color, not separating spontane- ciitocybe. 
ously from the hymenophore. Stem 1-2 in. long and nearly the same 
in thickness, equal, pallid, solid. Spores white, 5x3/x. 

In woods, etc. 

A very distinct species, very showy, large, subcespitose, entirely 
whitish tan-color; without close affinities. Stem solid, compact, and 
firm inside and outside, 2%. in. long, % in. thick, equal, even, glabrous. 
Pileus depressed from the first, then broadly, i. e., plano-infundibuli- 
form, thin but equally fleshy, soft, not flaccid, but easily splitting from 
the margin toward the center (almost papery and involute when old), 
upward of a foot broad, often excentric and generally sinuately lobed, 
moist and adpressedly downy when growing, slightly flocculose and 
cracked into scales when dry; margin at first very thin, involute, 
pubescent, soon spreading, glabrous, at length revolute, coarsely fur- 
rowed or radiately wrinkled. Gills slightly decurrent, closely crowded, 
almost 3 lines broad (23 times as broad as thickness of flesh of pileus), 
connected by veins, thin, fragile, straight, but sometimes varying to 
crisped and anastomosing, whitish then yellowish or tinged with rufous, 
smell weak. Fries. 

This species was placed in Ciitocybe in Syst. Myc. and Epicrisis, but 
in Hym. Europ. Fries removed it to Paxillus in which he is followed by 
Stevenson. Cooke and Massee continue it in Ciitocybe. Dr. Somers 
found one measuring over 15 inches in diameter. R. K. M. 

North Carolina, Sclnveinitz. Edible, Curtis; Wisconsin, Bundy; Cali- 
fornia, H. and M.; Nova Scotia, Dr. Somers. 

Large quantities of Ciitocybe gigantea grow in the West Virginia 
mountains, and in woods around Philadelphia. July to November. 

Its substance is coarse, but of good flavor. It should be chopped fine. 

C. max'ima Gartn and Meyer. (Fl. Wett.) greatest. (Plate 
XXIV, fig. 5, page 82.) Pileus as much as I foot broad, becoming 
pale-tan or whitish, fleshy, compact at the disk, otherwise thin, some- 
what flaccid (wA capable of being split), broadly funnel-shaped, gib- 
bous with a central ^tmbo, always very dry, the surface becoming silky- 
even or squamulose ; margin involute, pubescent, always even. Flesh 
white, at length soft. Stem as much as 4 in. long, i in. thick, solid, 
compact, but internally spongy, elastic, attenuated upward, fibrillose- 



cntocybe. striate, whitish. Gills deeply decurrent, pointed at both ends, some- 
what crowded, soft, simple, whitish, not changeable. 

The pileus is always very dry because the surface absorbs moisture. 
Odor weak, pleasant, almost that of A. infundibuliformis. On account 
of its gigantic stature and color, it has often been interchanged with A. 
gigantea Sow. ; it is in no wise, however, allied to that species, but is so 
closely allied to A. infundibuliformis that it might be taken for a very 
luxuriant form of it. Stevenson. 

Spores 6x4^ Massee; 5x3/01 W.G.S. 

New England, Frost; California, H. and M. 

Common in the West Virginia mountains, mixed woods in New Jer- 
sey and Pennsylvania. June to November. Mcllvaine. 

It is coarse, dry, hard, but chopped fine and cooked in various ways, 
either by itself or with meats, it is a good food. 

C. infundibulifor'mis Schaeff . infundibulum t a funnel ; forma, form. 
(Plate XXIV, fig. n, p. 82.) The Funnel-form clitocybe, Clitocybe 
infundibuliformis, is a neat and pretty species easily recognized by the 
funnel shape of its mature cap and by its pale red color. When very 
young the cap is slightly convex and often adorned with a slight umbo 
in its center. As it matures the margin becomes elevated so that the 
cap assumes a shape somewhat resembling that of a wine glass. The 
margin is sometimes wavy. The flesh is thin and white. The gills are 
close, thin, white or whitish and decurrent. The stem is smooth, col- 
ored like or a little paler than the cap and mostly tapering from the 
base upward. 

The cap is 2-3 in. broad, the stem I % 3 in. long and K-> in. thick. 

The funnel-shaped mushroom grows in woods or copses in summer 
and autumn, especially in wet seasons. It is somewhat variable in color, 
but is usually a pale-red, tinged with buff, and sometimes becoming 
more pale with age. It delights to grow among fallen leaves, and often 
there is an abundant white cottony mycelium at the base of the stem. 
When it grows in clusters the caps are apt to be irregular because of 
mutual pressure. "Mushrooms and Their Use." Peck. 

Spores 5-6x3-4 B. 

Very common and in plenty after rains, when large patches of it may 
be found. I have usually found the light pinkish-buff color to abound, 



and the stem thinner than described by Prof. Peck. Size of cap from cutocybe. 
1-3 in. 

It is a good, reliable food species. The stem should be removed, and 
the caps well cooked. 

** Pileus colored or pallid, smooth, moist in wet weather. 

C. Sllbzonal'isPk. sub, under; zonalis, pertaining to a zone. Pileus 
thin, centrally depressed or subinfundibuliform, marked with two or 
three obscure zones, with a slight appressed silkiness, pale yellow. Gills 
close, narrow, equally decurrent, some of them forked, pallid or yellow- 
ish. Stem equal, slightly fibrillose, stuffed, pale yellow. 

Plant 2 in. high. Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-3 lines thick. 

Ground in woods. Croghan. September. Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Found in oak woods, Angora, West Philadelphia, growing singly. 
Specimens few. Edible; pleasant. 

C. gil'va Pers. gilvus, pale brownish-yellow. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, 
pale yellowish*, fleshy , compact, convex then depressed, very obtuse, even, 
smooth, dampish when fresh, polished and shining when dry, here and 
there spotted as with drops, the margin remaining long involute. Flesh 
compact, not laxly floccose, but at length fragile, somewhat of the same 
color as the pileus. Stem 1-2 in. and more long, > in. and more thick, 
solid, fleshy, stout, not elastic, somewhat equal, smooth, paler than the 
pileus, villous at the base. Gills decurrent, thin, very much crowded, 
often branched, arcuate, narrow, pallid then ocJiraceous. 

Odor not remarkable. The stem has been noticed aj: length also 
hollow, perhaps eroded by larvae. It corresponds with the Paxilli. 
The primary form, which is very different from all the rest, is curt, 
obese, robust, scarcely ever infundibuliform. Stevenson. 

Spores 4-5x5/1 K.; 4-5^ Massee. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; New 
York, Peck, R. 51, under pines. July to September. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. July, 1898, ground, mixed woods. Mcllvaine. 

Pileus 12% in. across, depressed, almost infundibuliform, smooth. 
Color varied lemon to bright orange. Flesh lemon color throughout. 
Gills varying in color, usually same color as pileus. Stem all of one 



ciitocybe. color, same as pileus, stuffed, sometimes short, and pointed, sometimes 
thickened at base. Taste and smell pleasant. Edible; good. 

C. Sllbinvolu'ta Batsch. turned under at the margin. PileilS 
brick color, convex, depressed, smooth, margin closely involute. Flesh 
pallid. Stem paler, stout, straight, somewhat equal, veined on the 
lower part with oblique coalescing slightly elevated wrinkles, tomentose 
and inclining to flesh color above toward the gills, base obtuse. Gills 
decurrent, rather broad, of the same color as the pileus. 

The stem is rough on the surface and destitute of luster. It resem- 
bles Paxillus involutus in size and habit, in the crenate and involute 
margin of the pileus, and in the stem being obsoletely veined at the 
base and tomentose toward the gills. Stevenson. 

New England, Frost; New York, Peck, Rep. 22. 

Edible, Cooke. 

C. geo'tropa Bull.; Gr. the earth; Gr. to turn. From the turned 
down margin. Pileus 2-5 in. across. Flesh thick, white convex, 
then plane and finally more or less depressed, obtusely umbonate, the 
prominence remaining after the pileus becomes depressed, very smooth, 
even, margin thin, incurved, downy, pale pinkish-tan or buff. Gills 
decurrent, crowded, narrow, simple, white, then colored like the pileus. 
Stem 3-5 in. long, i in. or more thick at the base, slightly attenuated 
upward, compact, fibrillose, colored like the pileus or paler, solid. 
Spores elliptical, 6-7x4-5^. Massee. 

In woods and on their borders. Often in rings or troops. 

Differs from C. maxima in being firmer, glabrous, and color much 
more variable; from C. gilva in the thinner pileus, less crowded gills, 
and white flesh. 

Spores 5-7/* W.G.S. 

In England and on the continent it is considered excellent and supe- 
rior to most edible fungi. 

Found in West Virginia, 1881; Haddonfield, N. J., 1891. Spring 
and autumn. Mcllvaine. 

Edible, coarse, dry. In stews and mixed to form croquettes or pat- 
ties, it is a desirable species, owing to its plentifulness. 

C. splen'dens Pers. splendens, shining. Solitary. Pileus 2-3 in. 
across, flesh rather thick, white, plane then depressed or funnel- 



shaped, glabrous, shining, yellowish. Gills deeply decurrent, narrow, ciitocybe. 
crowded, simple, white. Stem about I in. long, 3 lines thick, gla- 
brous, colored like the pileus, solid, slightly thickened at the base or 
equal. Massee, 

In woods, among pine leaves, etc. 

Intermediate between C. gilva and C. flaccida. The typical form of 
C. gilva differs in the compact pileus, often with drop-like markings, 
the very much crowded, somewhat branched, pale ochraceous gills and 
flesh. Fries. 

Sent to me from Trenton, N. J., by E. B. Sterling. 

Edible; quality good, deficient in flavor. 

C. inver'sus Scop. inverto, inverted. Pileus 2-3 in. across. Flesh 
thin, fragile; convex, soon funnel-shaped, margin involute, glabrous, 
even, reddish or dull brownish-orange. Gills decurrent, simple, pallid 
then reddish. Stem about I % in. long, 2 lines thick, glabrous, rather 
rigid, paler than the pileus, stuffed, soon hollow. Spores subglobose, 
4/u, diameter. Massee. 

Among leaves, etc. 

Gregarious, subcespitose, forming very large tufts, especially late in 
the autumn, deformed. Smell peculiar, slightly acid. Stem sometimes 
stuffed, usually hollow, hence compressed, rather rigid and corticated 
outside, not elastic, without a bulb, glabrous, whitish; the somewhat 
rooting base with white down, and often growing together in tufts, 
variously deformed, curved, ascending, etc. Fries. 

Spores subglobose, 4/1 Massee; 3/u, W.G.S. 

Closely resembles C. infundibuliformis, but differs from it in the color 
of gills and flesh. The entire plant is dark in color. Solitary ; in troops ; 

Found in mixed woods. Haddonfield, N. J. Summer and autumn. 

That part of the plant which readily breaks away from the stem is 
tender and of good flavor. The remainder is tough. 

C. flac'cida Sow. ftaccidus, limp. Pileus 23 in. across, flaccid, 
orbicular, umbilicate, umbo persistently absent, margin spreading, 
arched, glabrous, even, rarely cracking into minute squamules, tawny- 
rust colored, shining, not becoming pale. Flesh thin, pallid, rather 
fragile when fresh, but quite flaccid when dry. Gills deeply decurrent, 



Clitocybe. arcuate, crowded, narrow, about I line broad, white, then tinged yel- 
lowish. Stem imperfectly hollow, elastic, tough, 1-2 in. long, 2-3 
lines thick somewhat equal, polished, naked, reddish-rust color, base 
thickened, downy. Spores subglobose, 4-5x347*. 

Among leaves, etc. Gregarious, stems often grown together at the 
base. Sometimes solitary and regular. Summer and autumn. Massee. 

Spores subglobose, 4-5x3-4/1.. 

Found in 1886 in West Philadelphia oak woods. Since in New 
Jersey, North Carolina, and interior of Pennsylvania. 

Edible. Well cooked it compares favorably with C. infundibuliformis 
and others of like texture. 

*** Pileus shining white. 

C. cati'na Fr. catinus, a bowl. Pileus 2 in. broad, at first white, 
in no wise hygrophanous, then passing into pale flesh-color during rain, 
and into tan-color in dry weather, fleshy, moderately thin, plane then 
funnel-shaped, always obtuse, even, smooth. Flesh thin, flaccid, white. 
Stem 3 in. long, i / in. thick, stuffed, internally spongy, elastic, tough, 
thickened and tomentose at the base. Gills decurrent, straight, de- 
scending, not horizontal, broad, not much crowded, persistently white. 

Ray Brook, Adirondack mountains. August. The pileus is at first 
white, but in wet weather it becomes pallid or discolored with age. The 
plants were found growing among pieces of bark of arbor vitas lying on 
the ground. Peck, 43d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Quite common in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Woods 
among dead leaves. August until frost. 

Edible. Excellent in flavor and quality. 

Series B. 


C. cyathifor'mis Bull. cyathus, a cup; formis, form. Pileus I ^-3 
in. across, flesh thin, piano-depressed when young, then infundibuli- 
form, even, glabrous, hygrophanous, rather slimy and usually dark 
brown when moist, becoming pale and opaque when dry, undulate in 



large specimens, the margin remains involute for a long time. Flesh cutocybe. 
watery, similar in color to the pileus, splitting. Gills adnate, becoming 
decurrent with the depression of the pileus, joined behind, distant, gray- 
ish-brown, sometimes branched. Stem spongy and stuffed inside, elas- 
tic, at length often hollow, 2-4 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, attenuated 
upward, brownish-fibrillose, fibrils forming an imperfect reticulation, 
colored like the pileus or a little paler, apex naked (not mealy), base 
villous. Massee. 

On the ground in pastures and woods, rarely on rotten wood. 

Usually blackish-umber, but varies to paler grayish-brown, pinky- 
tan, pale cinnamon or brownish; then dingy-ochraceous or tan-color. 
Margin expanded when old, and also indistinctly striate. Fries. 

Var. cineras'cens Fr. Pileus up to I in. across, thin, infundibuli- 
form, pale smoky-brown. Gills decurrent, yellowish-white. Stem I 2 
in. long, iM line thick, grayish, reticulately fibrillose, hollow. 

Spores 8x5 /A W.G.S.; I o- 12x5-6/1 B. ; 9x6^ Morgan. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Among leaves in woods. September to October. 
Gregarious. Mcllvaine. 

Fair in quality. 

C. bruma'lis Fr. bruma, winter. From its late appearance. Pileus 
about i in. across. Flesh thin, expanded, umbilicate then infundibuli- 
form and usually variously waved and lobed, glabrous, flaccid, hygroph- 
anous, livid, whitish or yellowish when dry, disk often darker. Gills 
decurrent, about I line broad, crowded, pallid. Stem up to 2 in. long 
and about 2 lines thick, nearly equal, slightly curved, glabrous, whitish, 
often compressed, imperfectly hollow. Spores 4-5x3-4/4. 

In woods, etc. 

Truly autumnal, being most abundant in November. There are 
two forms: (#) on pine leaves in pine woods; (<) among heather. 
(#) Stem rather firm, hollow, about 2 in. long, 2 lines thick, equal or 
slightly thickened at the apex, at length compressed, somewhat in- 
curved, glabrous, naked, becoming livid, white when dry, base white 
and -downy. Flesh of pileus membranaceous, at first convex, umbilicate, 
margin reflexed, about I in. across, then funnel-shaped, often irregular 
and undulate, up to 2 in. broad, glabrous, even, livid when moist, 
whitish then becoming yellowish when dry, disk at first usually darker. 
Gills decurrent, at first arcuate, then descending, I line broad, crowded, 



ciitocybe. distinct, livid then yellowish-white, smell weak, not unpleasant. () 
Entirely watery white; stem hollow, somewhat striate, base glabrous; 
pileus infundibuliform, margin deflexed, milky-white when dry. Gills 
less crowded, but rather broader, whitish. Fries. 

Spores 3/A W.G.S.; 4-5x3-4^ Massee. 

Edible. Cooke. 

C. morbi'fera Pk. morbus, disease ; fero, to bear. Pileus thin, frag- 
ile, glabrous, convex, becoming plane or centrally depressed, slightly 
hygrophanous, grayish-brown when moist, whitish or cinereous when 
dry, sometimes slightly umbonate. Gills narrow, close, adnate or 
slightly decurrent, whitish or pallid. Stem short, equal, hollow, col- 
ored like the pileus or a little paler. Spores minute, broadly elliptical, 
4/x long, almost as broad. 

Pileus .5-1.5 in. broad. Stem about I in. long, ^-\ in. thick. 

Grassy ground and lawns. November. Washington, D. C. F. J. 

The species seems related to C. expallens, but the margin of the 
pileus is not striate as in that fungus. The taste is very disagreeable 
and remains in the mouth a long time. Two persons were made ill by 
eating it, but their sickness lasted only about three hours. Peck. 

I have not seen this species. Its reputation is bad. Caution should 
be observed. 

** Pileus bright, of one color. 

C. trullisa'ta Ellis. Pileus fleshy, plano-convex, at length depressed 
in the center, innate fibrous-scaly, becoming smoother on the disk, mar- 
gin thin. Gills unequal, not crowded, coarse and thick, adnate with a 
decurrent tooth, at length white pulverulent, purple-violet at first, be- 
coming dark brick-red. Stem stuffed, fibrillose, with a long club- 
shaped base penetrating deeply into the sand. Spores large, cylindric- 
oblong, I5-2O/A. 

In old sandy fields. September to October. 

The interior of the stem in the young plant is like the gills, violet- 
purple, and the club-shaped base is covered with a tomentose coat, to 
which the sand adheres tenaciously. 

1 06 


Related to A. laccatus and A. ochropurpureus B. ciitocybe. 

Resembles the larger forms of A. laccatus, but it has a stouter habit, 
the pileus is more squamulose, the stem is bulbous or thickened at the 
base, the mycelium is violet-colored and the spores are oblong. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club, November, 1874. 

New Jersey, Ellis; New York, Peck, Rep. 33. 

Haddonfield, Watertown, N. J. Sandy soil in pine woods. Mcll- 

Densely cespitose. Caps and stems brown, glutinous and so in- 
crusted with sand that it is almost impossible to clean them. Edible, 
but not desirable. 

C. lacca'ta Scop. made of lac. (Plate XXIV, fig. 10, p. 82.) 
Pileus thin, fleshy, convex, sometimes expanded, even or slightly um- 
bilicate, smooth or minutely tomentose-scaly, hygrophanous when moist, 
dull reddish-yellow or reddish flesh-colored, sometimes striatulate when 
dry, pallid or pale dull ochraceous. Gills broad, rather thick and dis- 
tant, attached, not decurrent, flesh-colored. Stem slender, firm, fibrous, 
stuffed, equal, concolorous. 

Height 1-6 in., breadth of pileus 6 lines to 2 in. Common. June 
to October. 

An extremely variable and abundant species occurring almost every- 
where throughout the season. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 8-9/u. Massee; 8-io/tt B, 

Var. pallidi folia Pk. pallidus, pale; folium, leaf. Gills whitish or 
pallid, decurrent. 

Var. stria tula Pk. stria, a furrow. Pileus moist, smooth, thin, 
showing shading radiating lines, extending from near the center to the 
margin. In wet or damp places. 

A form occurs with a decidedly bulbous base. Gills appearing emar- 
ginate with a decurrent tooth. 

Ciitocybe laccata is made the type of a new genus by Berkeley and 
Broome. Massee accepts the genus but it is not generally accepted by 
the standard authors. It is a well defined genus, and a fitting place for 
C. laccata, C. amethystina, C. ochropurpurea, C. tortilis, which it 
puzzles anyone to identify as Ciitocybe. 

C. amethys'tina Bolt. amethystinus, color of an amethyst. (Plate 



ciitocybe. XXIV, fig. 8, p. 82.) Pileus 1-2% in. across, dark-purple, umbili- 
cate, smooth, minutely tomentose, involute. Gills dark-purple, decur- 
rent, broad. Stem 23 in. high, fibrillose, purple, streaked with white 
fibrils, equal, densely covered with white tomentum at base. 

Also written Ciitocybe laccata amethystina Sacc. 

"In my opinion it is a good species and should be kept distinct as 
Bolton gave it, and not be tacked on to C. laccata as a variety. I should 
write it Ciitocybe amethystina Bolt." Peck, letter September 17, 1897. 

New York, Peck, Rep. 41; New Jersey, Sterling; Mt. Gretna, Pa., 
on wood soil, June to frost, 1897-1898, Mcllvaine. 

Generally included in C. laccata as a variety, and has therefore been 
reported under that name. 

Great quantities of C. amethystina grew in troops on beds made up 
of wood earth about the cottages at Mt. Gretna, Pa. The woods over 
them is dense. 

The caps are tough, but they cook readily and make a pleasing dish. 

C. tor'tilis Bolt. tortilis, twisted. PileilS membranaceous, convexo- 
plane then depressed, obscurely marked with radiating striae. Stem 
hollow, twisted, fragile. Gills adnate, thick, distant, fleshy-rose, ces- 
pitose, small, irregular, pileus and stem rusty in color. 

Hard ground in an old road. Sandlake. August. A species closely 
allied to C. laccata and appearing like an irregular dwarf form of that 
species. Sometimes cespitose. Peck, 4ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Excepting that this fungus is frequently found with C. laccata, and 
might be taken for a new species if not here described, it would not be 
separated from C. laccata. 

Its edible qualities are similar. 

C. ochropurpu'rea Berk. ochra, ocher; purpureus, purple. (Plate 
XXIV, figs, i, 2, 3, 4, p. 82.) Pileus subhemispherical, at length 
depressed, fleshy, compact, tough, pale yellow, slightly changing to 
purplish, cuticle easily separable ; margin inflexed, at first tomentose. 
Stem paler, here and there becoming purplish, solid, swollen in the 
middle, occasionally equal. Grills thick, purple, broader behind, de- 
current. Spores white or pale yellow. 

Pileus 2 in. broad. Stem 2% in. high, % in. thick in the center. 

August. On clayey soil in woodlands. 



Its spores darken when shed in quantity, have a granulated and light- ciitocybe. 
lilac appearance. It is a solitary grower, sometimes reaching the height 
of six inches. The upturned, wavy pileus, showing the purple gills in 
contrast with the pale Naples-yellow of the cap is markedly attractive. 
The stem is often rough with fibers, hard and tough. The caps are 
tough. It grows in grassy woods and open places. The novice, even 
the expert, will be puzzled to place it in its genus. 

Specimens were sent to me by Miss Lydia M. Patchen, Westfield, 
N. Y., and E. B. Sterling, Trenton, N. J. I afterward found many at 
Mt. Gretna, Pa. I reported their edible qualities to Prof. Peck who 
wrote, September 3, 1897: "I have often wished it was edible, but it 
has such a disagreeable flavor when fresh that I have never ventured to 
eat it. I have known it to be mistaken for the common mushroom, 
but not eaten." 

Though tough it cooks tender and is excellent. Stew and put in 
patties or croquettes. 


* Gills becoming ash-colored. 

C. di'topa Fr. Gr. twofold ; Gr. a foot. Probably from stems 
growing two together. PileilS thin, submembranaceous, convex, rarely 
with a small umbo, smooth, hygrophanous, brown when young and 
moist, grayish-white when dry. Gills grayish, close, thin, attached, 
not decurrent. Stem slender, equal, smooth, hollow. 

Height 1-2 in., breadth of pileus 6-18 lines. Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Pine woods. West Albany. October. 

The plant has the odor and taste of new meal. I have seen no speci- 
mens with the pileus depressed. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

C. meta'chroa Fr. Gr. changing color. Separated from C. ditopa 
by its thicker, depressed pileus, its thicker, less close gills, and the ab- 
sence of odor. 

Pine woods. West Albany. October. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Moderately plentiful in New Jersey pines. September to October. 

Edible, tough; when well stewed of good flavor. 



** Gills whitish, 

ciitocybe. Q, COmpres'sipeS Pk. comprcssus, pressed together; pes, a foot, 
Pileus thin, convex or expanded, umbilicate, glabrous, hygrophanous, 
brownish when moist, whitish or pale yellow when dry, margin thin. 
Gills close, subarcuate or horizontal, adnate or subdecurrent, whitish. 
Stem firm, hollow, generally compressed, slightly pruinose. Spores 
elliptical, 5-6. 5x4-4. 5ft. Flesh white when dry, odor slight, farinaceous. 

Plant gregarious, 11.5 m - high- Pileus 6 16 lines broad. Stem 
1-2 lines thick. 

Grassy places. Albany. July. 

The moist pileus is sometimes obscurely zonate. The odor is not 
always perceptible unless the pileus is moist or broken. The stem is 
sometimes compressed at the top only, sometimes at the base only, and 
rarely it is wholly top-shaped. Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Found on open lots in West Philadelphia. Though small it usually 
grows in troops which yield fair quantity. The caps are tender and of 
good flavor. 

C. fra'grans Sow. fragrans, fragrant. Smell strong, spicy. Pileus 
about i in. across. Flesh rather thick; convex, soon expanded and 
slightly depressed or umbilicate, even, glabrous, hygrophanous, uniform 
watery-white, disk not darker, whitish when dry. Gills slightly decur- 
rent, rather crowded, I line broad, distinct, whitish. Stem about 2 in. 
long, equal, slightly curved, elastic, glabrous, whitish, stuffed then 

In woods among moss, etc. 

Distinguished from other species resembling it in color and size, by 
the fragrant smell resembling aniseed. Massee. 

Spores 6x41". W.G.S. 

Found in West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. July to severe 
frosts. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. The strong taste of anise is not lost in cooking. 

C. pino'phila pine loving. Pileus thin, convex, umbilicate or cen- 
trally depressed, glabrous, moist, pale tan-color, paler or alutaceous 
when dry. Gills moderately close, subarcuate, adnate or slightly de- 
current, whitish. Stem equal, stuffed or hollow, glabrous or subprui- 



nose, colored like the pileus. Spores nearly elliptical, 4-6/x long; odor ciitocybe. 
and taste resembling that of fresh meal. 

Plant 1-2 in. high. Pileus about I in. broad. Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Ground under pine trees. Albany and Ticonderoga. July and 
August. Peck, 3 ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Quite plentiful in pine woods of New Jersey. Edible; pleasant. 




Gr. a small coin. 

CoUybia. PileilS fleshy, usually thin, margin incurved at first, not corrugated. 
Stem different in substance from the pileus, but confluent with it; hol- 
low, with a cartilaginous bark, internally cartilaginous or soft, often 
rooting. Gills free or obtusely adnexed, membranaceous, soft. 

Growing on the ground, wood, leaves and decaying fungi. 

In Clitocybe and Tricholoma the substance of the stem and pileus is 
alike; they differ in the character of the stem. Tricholoma has no 
distinct bark-like coat, and in Clitocybe the stem is covered with mi- 
nute fibers. In Mycena as in Collybia the stem is different in substance 
from the pileus, but is distinguished by the margin of the pileus being 
straight. It is most closely allied to Marasmius, which is characterized 
by its tough coriaceous substance, which when dried fully revives and 
expands on being moistened. The line between them can not always 
be closely drawn, and there are numerous species which it is difficult to 
place with certainty in either genus. This does not apply to the fleshy 
edible species of this genus as they are quite distinct from Marasmius. 

Peck's 49th Report contains a monograph of the New York species 
of Collybia, supplemented by one of those found in other states. 

Several common, prolific, long-season, delicious fungi occur in this 
genus. They vary in size from " a small coin " to five inches across. 
They grow in woods, on wood, on ground, on leaves, on lawns and 
among moss and grass in shaded places. The writer has tested many 
species raw, and eaten small quantities cooked, which are not herein 
described for the reason that not enough of a species was found to test 
to full extent. So far as is reported and as his experience goes, there is 
not a poisonous species in Collybia. Many of them are strong in odor. 


STRlyEPEDES (striate-stemmed ). Page 113. 

Stem stout, hollow or imperfectly filled with a spongy pith ; grooved 
or striate with fibers. 



Photographed by Dr. J. R. Weist. 



* Gills broad, rather distant. Coiiybia. 
** Gills narrow, crowded. 

VESTIPEDES (clothed-stemmed). Page 118. 

Stem thin, equal, hollow or with a pith, even, velvety, downy or cov- 
ered with a bloom. 

* Gills broad, rather distant. 

* Gills very narrow, closely crowded. 

IWEVIPEDES (even-stemmed). Page 120. 

Stem thin, equal, hollow, naked, smooth except the base appar- 
ently not striate, but some species are minutely striate under a lens. 

* Gills broad, lax, usually more or less distant. 
** Gills narrow, crowded. 



Color brownish becoming gray. Allied to the last section of Tricho- 
loma and Clitocybe, but distinguished from them by the cartilaginous 

Some are strong scented. None known to be edible. 

* Gills broad, rather distant. 

C. radica'ta Relh. radix, a root. (Plate XXIX, p. 112.) Pileus 
i >2-4 in. across, from convex to nearly plane, broadly umbonate, fre- 
quently wrinkled toward and at the umbo, glutinous when moist. Color 
variable, usually brown in grayish shades, from dark to almost white. 
Flesh thin, white, elastic. Gills white, thick, tough, distant, ventricose, 
adnexed, rounded or notched behind like Tricholoma, sometimes with 
a decurrent tooth. Stem 4-8 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, smooth, firm, 
same color as pileus, tapering upward, becoming vertically striate or 
grooved, often twisted, ending in a long, tapering, pointed root deeply 
planted in the earth. 

Spores elliptical, 14-15x8-9/4 Massee; IIXI//A W.G.S.; nxp/x, W. 
P.; 16-17x10-1 ip. B, 

8 113 


C!oiiybia. Often sombre, but erect, neat and handsome. Growing solitary and 
in troops in woods, usually near stumps, if much decayed, sometimes 
on them, or on shaded lawns and grassy places. June to October. 

Var. furfu'racea Pk. Stem furfuraceous, less distinctly striate. 

Var. pusil'la Pk. Plant small. Pileus about i in. broad, passing 
gradually into the typical form. Stem slender. 

Professor Peck says: "The variety furfuracea is common and connects 
this species with C. longipes, which has a villose stem and dry velvety 
pileus." 49th Rep. 

Common to the United States. Edible. Curtis, according to Dr. F. 
Peyre Porcher of Charleston, S. C., was the first to declare this edible. 

A very attractive species. The purity of its gills is especially notice- 
able. I began eating it in 1881, and it has continued to be a favorite. 
The caps should be broiled or fried. They are sweet, pleasing in texture, 
and delicately flavored. 

C. platyphyl'la Fr. Gr. broad; a leaf. (Plate XXIXa, fig. i, 
p. 114.) Pileus 3-4 in. broad, dusky and gray then whitish, fleshy- 
membranaceous, thin, fragile, soon flattened, obtuse, watery when moist, 
streaked with fibrils. Stem 3-4 in. long, ,^ in. thick, stuffed, soft, 
equal, fibrilloso-striate, otherwise smooth, naked or obsoletely powdered 
at the apex, whitish, shortly and bluntly rooted at the base. Gills ob- 
liquely cut off behind, slightly adnexed, / in. and more broad, distant, 
soft, white. 

Odor not remarkable. It inclines toward the Tricholomata in the 
somewhat membranaceous cuticle of the soft stem. Fries. 

Spores i3xi9/* W.G.S. 

Solitary, gregarious, rarely clustered. On rotten wood, roots, ground 
near stumps, among leaves, etc. June to October. 

Distinguished by the very broad and deeply emarginate gills, which 
frequently slope up behind to near the cap then with a short turn down- 
ward connect with the stem which is either stuffed or hollow, and by 
the abundant, cord-like rooting mycelium. The gills are very broad. 
Professor Peck says: "The species is quite variable. The pileus is 
sometimes irregular and even eccentric, the thin margin may be slightly 
striate, is often split and in wet weather may be upturned or revolute. 
The lamellae are sometimes 3 in. broad or more and transversely split. 
They may be obscurely striated transversely and even veiny above with 



Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 

F -{ G - _, PAGE. FIG. 





venose interspaces. Occasionally a slight anise-like odor is perceptible, Coiiybia. 
but in decay the plants have "a very disagreeable odor and disgusting 
appearance." 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, 1880-1885; Haddonfield, N. J., 1896. Gregari- 
ous, and in large bunches. Mt. Gretna and Eagle's Mere, Pa., 1897, 

When fresh, in good condition, the caps are good, but they are not 
nearly equal in substance or flavor to C. radicata and C. longipes. They 
are best broiled or fried. 

Var. re'pens Fr. PileilS more fleshy, depressed. Stem hollow, 
compressed, pruinate at the apex, with a creeping, string-like mycelium. 

It is best distinguished by its white, villous, anastomosing, very 
much branched mycelium which creeps a long distance in a rooting 
string-like manner. The so-called roots are quite different from the 
stem, not a prolongation of the stem itself. Fries. 

Clearly a variety of C. platyphylla. C. platyphylla is quite variable, 
even puzzling. Edible qualities the same. 

C. longfipes Bull. longus, long; pes, a foot. Pileus 1-2 in. across, 
conical then expanded, umbonate, dry, minutely, beautifully velvety. 
Color from pale to date-brown, sometimes umber. Flesh white, thin, 
elastic. Gills white, broad, tough, thick, adnexed, distant, ventricose, 
rounded behind, emarginate. Stem 46 in. long, 24 lines thick, taper- 
ing upward, usually densely and minutely velvety like the cap, nearly 
same color, with a long, tapering root. 

On much decayed stumps and logs. July to October. Closely re- 
sembles C. radicata. It is readily distinguished by its velvety cap and 
stem. It is more glutinous. 

Spores spheroid, 12/u. Q. 

California. Edible. H. and M. 

West Virginia mountains, 1880-1885; Cheltenham, Pa., 1889. Mc- 

Excepting from California, C. longipes has not previously been re- 
ported as found in the United States. It is not plentiful in the forests 
of West Virginia, yet I often found it upon rotting stumps and logs, 
solitary, but up to a dozen in the same vicinity. It is unmistakable. Its 
rich yet dull velvety cap and stem and the purity of its gills hold the 
finder's admiration. 


Cuiiybia. The caps fried or broiled are delicious, resembling in every way those 
of C. radicata. 

C. fu'sipes Bull. fusus, a spindle; pes, a foot. (Plate XXIXa, 
fig. 4, p. 112.) PileilS 13 in. broad, reddish-brown, becoming pale 
and also dingy-tan, fleshy, convex then flattened, umbonate (the umbo 
at length vanishing), even, smooth, dry, here and there broken up in 
cracks when dry. Stem 3 in. and more long, commonly %. in., but 
here and there as much as I in. broad, fibrous-stuffed then hollow, re- 
markably cartilaginous externally, swollen, ventricose in the middle, at- 
tenuated at both ends, often twisted, longitudinally furrowed, red or 
reddish-brown, rooted in a spindle-shaped manner at the base. Gills an- 
nulato-adnexed (joined into a ring), soon separating, free, broad, dis- 
tant, firm, connected by veins, crisped, white then becoming somewhat 
of the same color as the pileus, often spotted. Stevenson. 

Spores 6x3^ W.G.S.; 4-5x2-4^ B. 

Solitary, gregarious, usually densely clustered on decaying wood, 
roots, etc. August until after heavy frosts. 

West Virginia, 1882, Mcllvaine. 

In the West Virginia mountains C. fusipes is frequent. Caps in the 
clusters rarely exceed I %. in. across. They show an auburn or bur- 
gundy shade of brown in their color. When young they are smooth 
and appear to remain so unless rained upon or moistened, when they 
crack more or less finely in drying. At first the connection of the gills 
with the stem is peculiar they join in a collar-like ring at the top of the 
stem. As the cap expands the gills part more or less and separate 
from the stem. The stem is markedly spindle-shaped, though variously 
flattened by compression in dense clusters; the outside often splitting, 
breaking and turning out from the stem. 

The caps, alone, are good, the stem being hard and refractory. The 
caps are very fine, cooked in any way. 

The caps dry well, and are a pleasant addition to gravies, soups and 
other dishes. They make a choice pickle. 

** Gills narrow, crowded. 

C. macula'ta A. and S. macula, a spot. Pileus fleshy, firm, con- 
vex or nearly plane, even, glabrous, white or whitish, sometimes varied 



with reddish spots or stains. Flesh white. Gills narrow, crowded, Coiiybia. 
adnexed, sometimes nearly or quite free, white or whitish. Stem gen- 
erally stout, firm, equal or slightly swollen in the middle, striate, white, 
stuffed or sometimes hollow, commonly narrowed at the base, rooting, 
often curved at the base, rarely slightly thickened and blunt. Spores 
subglobose, 4 6/A broad, sometimes showing a slight point at one end. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Var. immacula'ta Cke. This differs from the type in having no red- 
dish spots or stains. 

This species is easily recognized by its large size, firm or compact 
substance and white color. It grows in soil filled with decaying vegeta- 
ble matter or on much decayed wood. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Philadelphia, Pa. Weed grown lot near University of Penn- 
sylvania. September to frost. Grew gregariously over a large lot. 
The plants varied greatly in size and appearance. The gills of most 
were crenulate (scalloped). Assorted specimens were sent Professor 
Peck who wrote: "They are all forms of C. maculata." 

The caps were stewed and eaten in abundance by many, and pro- 
nounced "Fine." 

C. butyra'cea Bull. butyrum, butter; buttery to the touch. PileilS 
2-3 in. broad, normally reddish- (Plate XXX.)^ 
brown, but becoming pale, fleshy, 
convex then expanded, more or less 
ninbonate, dry, even, smooth. Flesh 
buttery, soft, somewhat hygrophan- 
ous, flesh-color then white. Stem 
2-3 in. long, attemiated upward from 
the thickened white downy base, 
hence much thinner at the apex, 2-3 
lines only, but at the base %-\ in. 
thick, externally covered over with a 
rigid cartilaginous cuticle, internally 
stuffed with soft spongy pith, or hol- 
low only when old, striate, reddish. 


commonly smooth, but varying with 

white deciduous scales, and occasionally wholly downy with soft hairs. 



Coiiybia. Gills slightly adnexed, somewhat free, thin, crowded, notched at the 
edge, white, never spotted-reddish. Stevenson. 

Spores 6-IOX3-5/A B.; elliptical, 7-9x4-5/11. 

Cap greasy looking. Umbo dark. 

The color of the cap is variable. The species differs from C. dry- 
ophila in having an umbonate pileus, slightly uneven gill-edges and 
stem which tapers upward. 

Solitary and in troops under coniferous trees. Spring, autumn. 

West Virginia, Chester county and Eagle's Mere, Pa., Mcllvaine. 

The caps cook quickly, are tender and have a good flavor. 

* Gills broad, rather distant. 

C. vein' tipes Curt. velutum, velvet; pes, afoot. Pileus 1-4 in. broad 
(Plate XXXI.) in the same cluster, tawny, some- 
times paler at the margin, moder- 
ately fleshy at the disk, but thin at 
the circumference, convex then soon 
becoming plane, often eccentric, ir- 
regular and bent backward, smooth, 
viscous; margin spreading and at 
length slightly striate . Flesh watery, 
soft, slightly tawny-hyaline. Stem 
1-3 in. long, 1-4 lines thick, tough, 
externally cartilaginous, umber then 
becoming black, densely, minutely vel- 
vety, commonly ascending or twisted, 
commonly equal, even, internally 
fibrous-stuffed and hollow. Gills 
broader and rounded behind, slightly 
adnexed, so as at first sight to appear 
free, somewhat distant, very unequal, 
becoming pallid-yellow or tawny . Fr. 

Spores ellipsoid, 7/u. W.G. S.; 6x41* B. ; elliptical, 7x3-3.5/1* Massee. 

Our American plant, common to the states, is rarely found attaining 
such dimensions. Its usual size is from 1-2 in. across, more frequently 



Natural size. 


at i-i K . It is generally found in clusters more or less dense. The CoUybia. 
color varies from yellowish to a dark yellowish-brown. The center is 
darker than the margin. The cap viscid when moist, often irregular 
from crowding. Gills may be rounded or notched at their attachment 
to the stem, whitish or yellowish. Stem usually hollow, 1-4 in. long, 
1-3 lines thick, whitish when young becoming colored with the dense 
brownish velvety hairs. 

It grows on stumps, roots in the ground, trunks and earth heavily 
charged with wood matter. I have found it in every month of the year. 
The heavier crop appears in September, October and November, and 
lasts until long after heavy frosts. Then sporadic clusters spring up 
wherever the winter sun gives them encouragement. 

It sometimes does considerable damage to the tree so unfortunate as 
to be its host. It begins its growth upon some injured or decayed spot 
and by continually insinuating itself under the surrounding bark it, by 
its mycelium and growth, pries the bark away from the wood until the 
tree is entirely denuded. 

It is a valuable species, not only on account of its continuous growth, 
but because of its plentifulness and excellent substance. 

** Gills very narrow, closely crowded. 

C. COn'flliens Pers. Pileus %i % in. broad, thin, tough, flaccid, 
convex or nearly plane, obtuse, rarely somewhat umbonate, glabrous, 
hygrophanous, reddish grayish-red or reddish-brown and often striatu- 
late on the margin when moist, pallid, whitish or grayish when dry. 
Lamellae narrow, crowded, free, whitish or yellowish-gray. Stem 2-5 
in. long, i-2 lines thick, equal, cartilaginous, hollow, clothed with a short 
dense somewhat pulverulent whitish pubescence or down. Spores 
minute ovate or subelliptical, slightly pointed- at one end, 56x34/1. 

Among fallen leaves in woods. Common. July to October. 

The plants commonly grow in tufts, but sometimes in lines or arcs of 
circles or scattered. They revive under the influence of moisture and 
thereby indicate an intimate relationship to the genus Marasmius. The 
pileus varies much in color, but commonly has a dull reddish or russety 
tinge when moist, sometimes approaching bay-red. It fades in drying 
and becomes almost white or grayish-white, but sometimes the center 
remains more deeply colored than the margin. The stem is commonly 



Coiiybia. rather long in proportion to the width of the pileus. Occasionally it is 
somewhat flattened either at the top or throughout its entire length. 
Sometimes the stems become united at the base which union is sug- 
gestive of the specific name. Peck, 49th Rep. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. July to frost. 

The caps of C. confluens are of excellent substance and flavor. Their 
quantity makes up for their small size. I have gathered them 2 in. 
across, but their average size is about i in. They dry well. 

* Gills broad, more or less distant. 

C. esculen'ta Wulf . esculent. Pileus % in. and more broad, ochrace- 
ous-clay, often becoming dusky, slightly fleshy, convex then plane, 
orbicular, obtuse, smooth, even or when old slightly striate. Flesh 
tough, white, savory. Stem I in. and more long, scarcely I line 
thick, or thread-like and wholly equal, obsoletely tubed, tough, stiff and 
straight, even, smooth, slightly shining, clay-yellow, with a long perpen- 
dicular, commonly smooth, tail-like root. Grills adnexed, even decur- 
rent with a very thin small tooth, then separating, very broad, limber, 
somewhat distant, whitish, sometimes clay-color. 

Gregarious but never cespitose. The tube of the stem is very narrow. 

The smallest edible Collybia. Cooke. Edible. In dense woods. 
Curtis. It is dried and preserved. Cordier. 

In pastures and grassy places. Spring and early summer. 

Edible, but rather bitter flavor. In Austria, where it is in great 
plenty in April, large baskets are brought to market under the name of 
Nagelschwamme nail mushrooms. 

Professor Peck describes C. esculentoides Pk., 49th Rep. N. Y. State 
Bot., which he states: "Differs from the type in its paler and more 
ochraceous color and in its farinaceous flavor, and is related to the 
European C. esculenta from which it differs essentially in the umbilicate 
pileus and in the absence of any radicating base to the stem." 

** Gills narrow, crowded. 

C. dryophil'aBull. Gr. oak-loving. (Plate XXIX0, fig, 3, p. 112.) 
Pileus 1-3 in. across, bay-brown-rufous, etc., becoming pale, but not 

1 20 


hygrophanous, slightly fleshy, tough, convexo-plane, obtuse, commonly Coiiybia. 
depressed in the center, even, smooth; margin at first inflexed then flat- 
tened. Flesh thin, white. Stem 1-3 in. long, 1-3 lines thick, car- 
tilaginous, remarkably tubed, thin, even, smooth, somewhat rooting, 
commonly becoming yellow or reddish. Gills somewhat free, with a 
small decurrent tooth, but appearing adnexed when the pileus is de- 
pressed, crowded, narrow, distinct, plane, white or becoming pale. 

There are numerous monstrous forms which are very deceiving: a. 
Stem elongated, waved, decumbent, inflated at the base ; pileus broader, 
lobed; gills white, b. Fnnicnlaris , larger, cespitose, the lax and de- 
cumbent stem equal and hairy at the base, gills sulphur-yellow. These 
forms, analagous with A. repens Bull., occur on heaps of leaves, c. 
Countless specimens growing together in a large cluster; stems thick, 
inflated, irregularly shaped, sulcate, brown, the mycelium collecting the 
soil in the form of a ball ; pileus very irregularly shaped, full of angles, 
undulated, blackish then bay-brown. In gardens. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptic-fusiform, 7-8x4^; 6//. W.G.S. 

Professor Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot., gives the following: 
Pileus thin, convex or nearly plane, sometimes with the margin elevated, 
irregular, obtuse, glabrous, varying in color, commonly some shade of 
bay-red or tan-color. Flesh white. Lamellae narrow, crowded, ad- 
nexed or almost free, white or whitish, rarely yellowish. Stem equal 
or sometimes thickened at the base, cartilaginous, glabrous, hollow, yel- 
lowish or rufescent, commonly similar in color to the pileus. Spores, 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 1-2 lines thick. 

Woods, groves and open places. Common. June to October. 

West Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Mcll- 

C. dryophila is so common and variable that descriptions would fail 
to cover it in its eccentricities. The writer has eaten it in all the forms 
obtained since 1881. A very pretty form grew in large quantities 
among pine needles at Eagle's Mere, Pa., in August, 1897. It was 
cooked and served at the hotel table. Many ate it and were delighted. 

Dr. Badham refers to a case in which illness was caused by eating it. 
In my eighteen years' experience with it, knowing it to have been en- 
joyably eaten by scores of persons, I have not heard of the slightest 
discomfort from it. 



Coiiybia. C. spinillifera Pk. spinula, a little thorn. Pileus fleshy, thin, con- 
vex or nearly plane, glabrous, hygrophanous reddish tan-color tinged 
with pink and slightly striatulate on the margin when moist, paler when 
dry, adorned with minute colored spinules or setae. Gills narrow, close, 
rounded behind and free, pale cinnamon-color, becoming somewhat 
darker with age, spinuliferous. Stem slender, tough, glabrous, shining, 
hollow, reddish-brown, often paler or whitish at the top, especially in 
young plants, with a whitish myceloid tomentum at the base. Spores 
elliptical or nearly so, 47*. 

Plant cespitose. Pileus 8-16 lines broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, about 
I line thick. 

Prostrate trunks and ground among leaves in woods. Lewis county. 

In this species the lamellae, under a lens, appear to be minutely 
pubescent or velvety. This is due to the colored spinules or setae which 
clothe them. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Angora, Pa. September, 1897. Among moss in mixed woods. 
September to frost. Mcllvaine. 

Specimens identified by Professor Peck. Stems of some tapered at base. 

Excepting the extreme base of stems the whole plant is tender and 

of good flavor. 
( Plate XXXIo.) 


C. acerva'ta Fr. acervus, a heap. 
Pileus fleshy but thin, convex 
or nearly plane, obtuse, glabrous, 
hygrophanous, pale tan-color or 
dingy pinkish-red and commonly 
striatulate on the margin when moist, 
paler or whitish when dry. Gills 
narrow, close, adnexed or free, whit- 
ish or tinged with flesh-color. Stem 
slender, rigid, hollow, glabrous, red- 
dish, reddish-brown or brown, often 
whitish at the top, especially when 
young, commonly with a white 
matted down at the base. Spores 
elliptical, 6x3-4/x.. 

Plant cespitose. PileilS 1-2 in. 
broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, about I 
line thick. 


Decaying wood and ground among fallen leaves in woods. Adirondack Coiiybia 
mountains. August and September. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

This very pretty plant resembles forms of C. dryophila. The color- 
ing of the stems is often extremely delicate, like paintings upon rice 

West Virginia mountains; Eagle's Mere, Pa. August to frost. Mc- 

The entire plant is tender, delicate and of fine flavor. In these quali- 
ties it is not distinguishable when cooked from the smaller forms of C. 




Gr. a fungus. 

Mycena. PileuS regular, rarely depressed in the center, thin, usually streaked 

(Plate XXXII.) 


with longitudinal lines, at first con- 
ico-cylindrical, margin at the first 
straight, closely embracing the stem 
which is attenuated upward. Stem 
hollow, slender, cartilaginous. Gills 
adnate or adnexed, sometimes with a 
small tooth, never decurrent. Spores 

Generally small and slender, grow- 
ing on branches, twigs, heaps of 
leaves, sometimes on the ground, 
some minute species on single dead 
leaves. Long, rooting stems are not 
uncommon. Clitocybe and Ompha- 
lia are separated by their decurrent 
gills and in Collybia the margin is 
at first incurved. 

In this genus the species of the various sections are not always dis- 
tinguished by single sharply defined characteristics, so that it will some- 
times be necessary to pay attention to all the features. Species with a 
thread-like stem are found in other sections than Filipedes and some of 
the Lactipedes are slippery when moist, but not truly viscous. 


CALODONTES (kalos, beautiful; odontes, teeth). Page 126. 

Stem juiceless, not dilated into a disk at the base. Edges of gills 
darker, minutely toothed. 

ADONIDE^E (Adonis, referring to beauty). Page 126. 

Stem juiceless, not dilated at the base. Gills of one color, not chang- 
ing color. Color pure-colored, bright, not becoming brownish or gray. 
On the ground. 



RlGlPEDES (rigid-stemmed). Page 126. Mycena. 

Stem firm, rigid, rather tough, juiceless, more or less rooting. Gills 
changing color, white, then gray or reddish, generally at length con- 
nected by veins. 

Tough, persistent, inodorous, usually on wood, very cespitose, but 
individuals of the same species sometimes grow singly on the ground. 

FRAGILIPEDES (fragile-stemmed). Page 130. 

Stem fragile, juiceless, fibrillose at the base, scarcely rooting. Pileus 
hygrophanous. Gills becoming discolored , at length somewhat connected 
by veins. 

Thin, fragile, often soft, normally growing singly on the ground. A 
few strong smelling, cespitose on wood. 

FlLIPEDES (thread-stemmed). Page 130. 

Stem thread-like, flaccid, somewhat tough, rooting, juiceless, generally 
extremely long in proportion to the pileus. Gills becoming discolored, 
paler at the edge. 

Straight, growing singly on the ground; inodorous. Pileus dingy- 
brown, becoming paler. 

LACTIPEDES (milky-stemmed). Page 130. 
Gills and rooting stem milky when broken. 

GLUTINIPEDES (glutinous-stemmed). Page 131. 

Stem juiceless but externally sticky with gluten. Gills at length de- 
current with a tooth. 

BASIPEDES (base-stemmed). Page 131. 

Stem dry, rootless, the base naked and dilated into a disk or small 
hairy bulb. Growing singly, slender, soon becoming flaccid. 

(insero, to insert or graft). Page 131. 

Stem very thin, dry, growing as if inserted in the supporting surface, 
not downy, not disk-like at the base. 

Gills adnate with a small decurrent tooth. Small, very tender, be- 
coming flaccid with the first touch of the sun. 



Mycena. Mycena is a large genus composed of small species. About sixty 
members have been found in America. They are from % to I in. 
across the cap, with thin stems and altogether delicate appearance. Yet 
the flesh of most of them has a gummy consistency in the mouth, and 
they shrink but little in stewing. Heretofore not any appear to have 
been reported as edible, probably because the size of the species has not 
attracted experimenters. While some have a strong odor and taste of 
radishes, and one species is bitter, it is probable that all are edible. 
The writer has eaten, raw and cooked, small quantities (all he has found) 
of many species not here reported as edible, which will, when further 
tested, be reported upon. 

The substance and flavor of those here given is remarkably pleasant. 
Their late coming, hardiness and abundance are commendable qualities. 

I. CALODON'TES. Stem juiceless. Gills minutely toothed. 

None tested. 

II. ADONI'DE/E. Stem juiceless. Gills of one color, etc. 

None tested. 

III. RlGIDl'PEDES. Stem rigid. Gills at first white, changing 

color, etc. 

M. prolifera Sow. proles, offspring; fero, to bear. (Plate X, figs. 
6, 7, p. 28.) PileilS %-iK in. across, slightly fleshy, expanded bell- 
shape, dry, the broad umbo darker (dingy-brown), slightly striate, and 
at length furrowed or rimosely split at the margin (pale yellowish or 
becoming brownish-tan). Stem 2^-3 in. long, firm, rigid, smooth, 
shining, slightly striate, rooted. Gills adnexed, somewhat distinct, be- 
coming pale white. 

Inodorous, only at length nauseous. Very closely allied to M. galeri- 
culata, in habit approaching nearest to M. cohserens. The stems are 
pallid at the apex, but slightly tawny-bay-brown below, and glued to- 
gether by hairy down at the base. There is a white form with trans- 
parent stem on trunks. Fries. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. On ground in grass. Mycelium spreading on 
leaves . Mcllvaine . 



Found in great plenty. Base of stems is sometimes white when in Mycena. 
dense tufts. 

The whole plant is tender, cooking in fifteen minutes, and is of fine 
flavor. No one will want a better fungus. 

M. mgo'sa Fr. ruga, a wrinkle. PileilS ash-color but becoming 
pale, very tough, slightly fleshy at the disk, otherwise membranaceous, 
bell-shaped then expanded, at length rather plane, somewhat obtuse, 
more or less corrugated (unequal with elevated wrinkles), always dry, 
not moist even in rainy weather, striate at the circumference. Stem 
commonly short, remarkably cartilaginous, tubed, rigid, tough, straight, 
at length compressed, even, smooth, pallid, with a short oblique hairy 
root. Gills arcnato-adnate , with a decurrent tooth, united behind in a 
collar, somewhat distant, connected by veins, broad, ventricose, white 
then gray, edge sometimes quite entire, sometimes with saw-like teeth. 

Always inodorous. Formerly connected with M. galericulata. M. 
rugosa is arid, very tough, more rarely cespitose, the pileus firm, some- 
what obtuse, wrinkled but without striae, the gills arcuato-adnate with 
a hooked tooth, white then ash-color. The genuine M. galericulata is 
fasciculato-cespitose, somewhat fragile, the pileus thinner, at first con- 
ical and umbonate, striate without wrinkles, the gills adnate, with a de- 
current tooth, white then flesh-color. Between these there is a long 
series of intermediate forms. Fries. 

California, H. and M. ; Kansas, Cragin; Wisconsin, Bundy; New 
York, September, Peck, 46th Rep.; West Virginia, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania. On decaying wood and ground near stumps. August to 
November. Mcllvaine. 

The tenacity frequently occurring in Mycena is well shown in this spe- 
cies. The caps and stem cook tender, but it is better to discard the 
stems, as the two do not become tender at the same time. 

M. galericula'ta Scop. -galericulum, a small peaked cap. (Plate 
X, fig. 5, p. 28.) Pileus somewhat membranaceous, conical bell- 
shaped then expanded, striate to the umbo, dry, smooth, becoming 
brownish-livid or changeable in color. Stem rigid, polished, even, 
smooth, with a spindle-shaped root at the base. Gills adnate, decurrent 
with a tooth, connected by veins, whitish and flesh-colored. 

Very protean. Normally growing in bunches, the numerous stems 



Mycena. (never sticky) glued together with soft hairy down at the base. But it 
occurs also solitary, larger, pileus as much as 2 in. broad, wrinkled- 
striate. The essential marks by which it is distinguished from A. rugosa 
are these : Stem in general thinner, less tense and straight, often curved, 
more fragile. Pileus membranaceous, conico bell-shaped, umbonate, 
striate but not corrugated, moist in rainy weather. Gills adnate, with 
a decurrent tooth, more crowded, whitish then flesh-colored. The color 
both of the pileus (normally dingy-brownish then livid) and of the stem 
(normally becoming livid-brownish) is much more changeable than that 
of A. rugosa, becoming yellow, rust colored, etc. It is not so tough 
and pliant as A. rugosa. Forms departing from the type are very nu- 
merous; the most beautiful is var. calopus (6V., beautiful; Gr. , afoot) 
with chestnut-colored stems, united in a spindle-shaped tail. Fries. 

Spores spheroid or subspheroid, 9-iox6-8ft K.; 8- 1 1x4-6/1, B.; 
6-7x41* Mas see 

Common. Autumnal. Very variable. On trunks, fallen leaves. 

Two well-marked varieties of this very variable species were observed 
the past season. One grows on the ground among fallen leaves. It has 
a dark brown pileus, close lamellae and a very long stem, generally of a 
delicate pink color toward the top. It might be called var. longipcs. 
The other grows under pine trees, has a broadly convex or expanded 
grayish-brown pileus and a short stem. It might be called var. expansns. 
Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

' 'M. alcalina is closely allied to it (M. galericulata), but has a stronger 
alkaline odor and a rather more fragile stem. In one of your specimens 
I detect a slight incarnate tint to the gills, and this is pretty conclusive 
evidence that it belongs to M. galericulata. Species of Mycena are not 
generally reckoned among edible fungi or even promising fungi; I sup- 
pose on account of the thin flesh of the cap, but of course it is possible 
to make up in numbers what is lacking in size. I am glad to know you 
have found this to be an esculent one. " Letter Professor Peck to C. 
Mcllvaine, October 5, 1893. 

The caps and stems when young make as good a dish as one cares to 
eat. The substance is pleasant, and the flavor delicate. They are best 
stewed slowly in their own fluids, after washing, for ten minutes and 
seasoned with pepper, salt and butter. 

M. parabo'lica Fr. shaped like a parabola. Pileus becoming black 



at the disk, inclining to violaceous, otherwise becoming pale, whitish, Mycena. 
somewhat membranaceous, at first erect and oval, then parabolic, obtuse, 
never expanded, moist, somewhat shining when dry, smooth, even, striate 
toward the entire margin. Stem 2-3 in. long, I line thick, tubed, tense 
and straight but not very rigid, thickened and bearded-rooted at the 
base, pale below, dark violaceous above, when young white-mealy, 
otherwise even, smooth, dry. Gills simply adnate, ascending, some- 
what distant, rarely connected by veins, quite entire, white, somewhat 
gray at the base. 

Stem less rigid than that of A. galericulatus. Truly gregarious or 
cespitose. Fries. 

Spores I2x6/u. B.; elliptical, Ii-i2x6/i Massee. 

Trenton, N. J. June. E. B. Sterling; West Virginia, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, on decaying stumps, trunks of oak, chestnut, poplar, pine. 
June until far into the winter. Mcllvaine. 

Plant up to 2%. in. high. Caps usually about / in., but reaching 
K in. 

A neat, attractive plant, whether single or in dense tufts. Its smell 
is strong of fresh meal, and taste of that delicate flavor one finds in the 
succulent base of the round, swamp rush, when pulled from its sheath 
one that every country school boy and girl knows. It is pleasant raw, 
and delicious when cooked. 

M. latifo'lia Pk. lattis, broad; folium, a leaf. Pileus convex, 
rarely somewhat umbonate, striatulate, grayish-brown. Gills white, 
broad, hooked, decurrent-toothed. Stem slender, smooth, hollow, sub- 
concolorous, white-villous at the base. 

Height 1-1.5 m -, breadth of pileus 4-6 lines. Stem -5 lines thick. 

Under pine trees. Center. October. 

A small species with quite broad gills, growing among the fallen 
leaves of pine trees. Gregarious. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Among pine needles, scattered, sometimes four or 
five in a cluster. September to October. Mcllvaine. 

Autumnal. Not rare. The caps though small are tenacious in the 
mouth and lose little in cooking. The substance is agreeable and flavor 



IV. pRAGILl'PEDES. Stem fragile, juiceless, etc. None tested. 

V. FILI'PEDES. Stem thread-like, etc. 

Mycena. M. collaria'ta Fr. collare, a collar. Pileus % in. and more broad, 
typically dingy-brown, but becoming pale, commonly gray-whitish, be- 
coming brownish only at the disk, membranaceous, bell-shaped then 
convex, somewhat umbonate, striate, when dry rigid, smooth, not soft 
nor slightly silky. Stem about 2 in. long, tubed, tliread-like but almost 
i line thick, tough, dry, smooth, even or slightly striate under a lens, 
becoming pale. Gills adnate, _/W/ in a collar behind, thin, crowded, 
hoary-whitish or obsoletely flesh-colored. 

The gills are somewhat distant when the pileus is expanded. There 
is not a separate collar as in Marasmius rotula; the gills are only joined 
in the form of a collar, and remain cohering when they separate from 
the stem. Fries. 

Spores 8-IOX4-6/U, B. 

New York. Old stumps and rotten logs. June. Peck, 23d Rep. 
Mt. Gretna, Pa. Cespitose on decaying wood. July, September and 
October. Mcllvaine. 

Very much like M. galericulata, but gills not connected by veins. 
The caps usually have a pinkish hue, often brownish. The stems are 
not as tender as the caps. The flavor is excellent. 

VI. LACTI'PEDES. Stem and gills milky, etc. 

M. hsema'topa Pers. Gr. blood; Gr. a foot. Pileus about i in. 
broad, white flesh-color, fleshy-membranaceous. slightly fleshy chiefly 
at the disk, conical then bell-shaped, obtuse, nay convex and spuriously 
umbonate, naked, even or slightly striate at the margin, which is at the 
first elegantly toothed. Stem 2-4 in. long, i line and more thick, re- 
markably tubed, rigid, normally everywhere powdered with whitish, 
delicate, soft hairy down, sometimes, however, denuded of it. Gills 
adnate, often with a small decurrent tooth, the alternate ones shorter, 
in front disappearing short of the slight margin of the pileus, whitish 
and wholly of the same color at the edge. 

Cespitose (very many of the stems conjoined and hairy at the base), 



firm, stature almost that of M. galericulata, wholly abounding with Mycena. 
dark blood-colored juice. 

On stumps. Frequent. September. Stevenson. 

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid, 10x6-7/1*, K. 

I find a non-cespitose form of this species with red-margined gills. 
Its red juice, however, will serve to distinguish it and show its true re- 
lations. Peck, 3 ist Rep. 

Common in tufts like M. galericulata and of about the same size, but 
is readily distinguished by its red juice. This pretty plant can often be 
gathered in considerable quantity, and well repays the collector. 

VII. GLUTINI'PEDES. Stems gelatinous, etc. 
None tested. 

VIII. BASI'PEDES. Stem dilated at base, etc. 
None tested. 

IX. iNSm'Tl^E. Stem inserted. 
None tested. 


Agaric aceee 


Hio, to gape. 


(Plate XXXIII.) 

time placed by Fries. Massee. 

Pileus symmetrical, very thin, 
without a distinct pellicle, formed by 
the union of the backs of the gills, 
splitting when expanded. Gills 
almost or quite free, white. Stem 
central. Spores white. 

Allied to Lepiota in the thin pi- 
leus and free gills, but differing in 
the entire absence of a ring. Not 
at all deliquescent as in the genus 
Coprinus, near to which it was at one 
Reported from North Carolina. 

(Plate XXXIV.) 


Gr. belonging to an umbilicus. 

omphaiia. Pileus generally thin, usually umbilicate at first, then funnel-shaped, 

often hygrophanous, margin incurved 
or straight. Gills truly decurrent 
from the first, sometimes branched. 
Stem distinctly cartilaginous, pol- 
ished, tubular, often stuffed when 
young. Flesh continuous with that of 
the pileus but differing in character. 
Spores white, somewhat elliptical, 

Generally on wood, preferring 
hilly woods and a damp climate. 

Resembling Collybia and Mycena 
in the flesh of stem and pileus being 
different in texture and in the exter- 
nally cartilaginous stem. It is per- 

Enlarged about two sizes. 

fectly separated by the gills being markedly decurrent from the first. 



The American species of Omphalia number between thirty-five and Omphaiia. 
forty. Many of them are common. Few woods are free from them. 
Several of them are beautiful. They are usually small and lacking in 
substance. Raw, the writer has not found one that is objectionable in 
any way; a few have a woody taste. But two species have been found 
by him in sufficient quantity to make a dish. It is probable that all are 
edible. At best the species of Omphalia are valuable in emergency only. 


Pileus dilated from the first, margin incurved. 

Pileus campanulate at first, margin straight and pressed to the stem. 

* Pileus dilated from the first; margin incurved. 

0. onis'cus Fr. Gr. a wood-louse. From the ashy color. Pileus 
scarcely I in. broad, dark ashy becoming pale, gray-hoary when dry, 
somewhat membranaceous, or slightly fleshy, flaccid, fragile when old. 
convexo-umbilicate or funnel-shaped, often irregular, undulato-flexuous, 
even-lobed, smooth, even, margin striate. Stem I in. long, I line and 
more thick, stuffed then tubed, slightly firm, moderately tough, some- 
times round, curved, sometimes unequal, compressed, ascending, un- 
dulated, gray . Gills shortly decurrent, somewhat distant, quaternate, 
ash-color. Not cespitose. Fries. 

Spores 12x7-8)* B. 

Massachusetts, Sprague; California, H. and M., who record it as 

0. umbellif era umbella, a little shade ; fero, to bear. From its um- 
brella-like shape. (Plate XXXIV, p. 132.) Pileus about % in. broad, 
commonly whitish, slightly fleshy-membranaceous, convex then plane, 
broadly obconic with the decurrent gills, not at all or only slightly um- 
bilicate, hygrophanous, when moist watery, rayed with darker stria, 



Omphaiia. when dry even, changeable in appearance, silky, flocculose, rarely 
squamulose, the margin, which is at first in flexed, crenate (scalloped). 
Stem short, not exceeding I in. long, almost I line thick, stuffed then 
soon tubed, slightly firm, equal or dilated toward the apex into the 
pileus, of the same color as the pileus, commonly smooth, but varying 
pubescent, white villous at the base. Gills very broad behind, triangu- 
lar, decurrent, very distant, edge of the gills straight. 

Cosmopolitan. The common form is to be found everywhere from 
the sea level to 4,000 feet, Stevenson. 

Spores 3x4^ W.G.S.; 10x4^ W. P ; green variety iox6/x, W. P.; 
broadly elliptical, 8-iox5-6/x Peck. 

O. umbellifera is known the world over. It is very variable in size 
and color. With us it is seldom over K in. broad. Stem K-i line 
thick. It grows on decaying wood and ground full of decaying ma- 
terial. There are several varieties. All are edible, but not worth de- 
scribing. This description is given that the student may recognize one 
of our common plants, and eat it, if very hungry. 


0. campanel'la Batsch. campana, a bell. PileilS thin, rather tough, 
hemispherical or convex, glabrous, umbilicate, hygrophanous, rusty 
yellow-color and striatulate when moist, paler when dry. Gills moder- 
ately close, arcuate, decurrent, yellowish, the interspaces venose. Stem 
firm, rigid, hollow, brown, often paler at the top, tawny-strigose at the 
base. Spores elliptical, 6-7x3-4^. 

Pileus 4-8 lines broad. Stem about I in. long, scarcely i line thick. 

Much decayed wood of coniferous trees. Very common. May to 
November. Peck, 45th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores ellipsoid, 6-8x3-4^ C.B.P.; 7x3^ W.P.; 6-9x3-4^ B. 

The quantity alone, in which this small species can be found, makes 
it worth mentioning as an edible species. It is common over the United 
States where coniferous trees abound. Its favorite habitat is upon the 
rotting debris of these trees. Occasionally it grows from the ground, 
but only from that which is heavily charged with woody material. It 
is social in troops, or affectionate in clusters, or maintains a single ex- 

It is edible, of good substance when stewed, tender and of fair flavor. 



Photographed by Dr. J. R. Weist. 




Gr. a side ; Gr. an ear. 

Stem excentric, lateral or none. Epipliytal (very rarely growing on pieurotus. 
the ground}, irregular, fleshy or membranaceous. Fries. 

The excentric, generally lateral stem, absent in some of the species, 
separates this from other genera of the white-spored series. 

Pileus varying from fleshy in the larger to membranaceous in the 
smaller forms, but never becoming woody. Veil generally wanting, 
when present its remains sometimes appear on the margin of the pileus, 
or as an evanescent ring on the stem. Gills, edge acute, generally de- 
current, in some species with a well-marked tooth, rarely simply adnate. 
Stem fleshy, confluent and homogeneous with the pileus. 

Wood, dead or alive; a few species appear on the ground. 

P. ulmarius and others of the larger forms, when growing in an up- 
right position, may have the stem central and the pileus horizontal. 
The stems of some species of Clitocybe and Omphalia if growing later- 
ally are sometimes excentric and oblique. 

This genus is analogous to Claudopus, pink-spored, and Crepidotus, 

Spores white, but those of P. sapidus are faintly tinged with lilac, 
and of P. ostreatus, var. euosmus, with purple. 

EXCENTRICI. Page 137. 

Pileus entire, laterally extended, excentric, not truly lateral. 

* Veil fugacious, fragments adhering to stem or margin of pileus. 

* Veil none ; gills sinuate or obtusely adnate. 
*** Veil none, gills very decurrent, stem distinct, almost vertical. 

* Veil none, gills very decurrent, stem proper absent, pileus lat- 
eraj, extended behind into a short, stem-like oblique base. 

DIMIDIATI. Page 144. 

Pileus not at first resupinate, lateral, prolonged without a definite 
margin behind, into a very short lateral, stem-like base. 



RESUPINATI. Page 146. 
Pileus resupinate from the first, then reflexed. 

Pieurotus. If any odium attaches to the word toadstool, it should be forgotten 
and forever banished in presence of this cleanly, neat, handsome genus, 
choice in its growing places from lichen-covered stumps, or bark-clad 
boles, or highly perched limbs, or the scented surfaces of decaying 
wood. Several of its species perfume themselves throughout with pleas- 
ant spicy odors. Many are most accommodating in their constant 

Mr. H. I. Miller, superintendent Terre Haute and Indianapolis Rail- 
road, writes: "Most of the mushroom books give greatest space to the 
A. campester. For some parts of the country this may be desirable, 
but for Indiana and Ohio, considering the food value, the P. ostreatus 
is the best fungus we have in these states, from the fact that anybody 
wanting a mess can nearly always obtain a basketful of this variety, 
whereas the others depend upon a good many weather conditions. 
Having located a few logs and stumps in the spring, where the P. ostre- 
atus grows, these same stumps and logs can be used all season. The 
crops are successive, and while some of the spots seem to be barren for 
a few days at a time, the others will be bearing. It does not make 
much difference what the kind of log or stump, whether it be beech, 
oak or elm, or what the species of tree. I think I have found them on 
all our forest trees, and it is not necessary for the tree to be dead. If 
there is a decaying portion, the spores seem to be carried by the little 
black beetle that infests the ostreatus, from one place to another, and 
wherever a small spot of dead wood is found we are likely to find the P. 
ostreatus. This being the only edible mushroom that we can find in 
large quantities all through the season in this neck of the woods, it 
seems to me that a general knowledge of it will serve the economic pur- 
pose more than any other fungi." 

The presence of the P. ostreatus and its esculent companions is noted 
from our northern boundary to the gulf. Poplar, maple, birch, hick- 
ory, ash, apple, laburnum and oak trees are its favored residences. 
Deer feed upon it, and kine are attracted by its scent even when deep 
under snow. When properly selected and slowly cooked, the Pleuroti 
are toothsome. 

From the fact that the spores of this fleshy and valuable genus find 



fostering lodgment in many trees when in decay, it is more than prob- Pieurotus. 
able that the several species can be propagated by planting their spores 
upon such decaying woods, or by transplanting the mycelium. 

Growths of P. ostreatus, P. sapidus, P. salignus, and probably other 
species of Pieurotus, can be forced, by watering the spots upon which 
they are known to grow. Dr. Kalchbrenner mentions that the P. 
sapidus is in this way cultivated in Hungary. Acting upon this men- 
tion the writer had good success with P. ostreatus. Experiments in 
this direction are likely to be interesting and rewarding. 

No species is suspected of being noxious. 

An analysis of P. ostreatus is given by Lafayette B. Mendel, Shef- 
field Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University, as follows : 

Water 73-7% 

Total solids 26.30 

The dry substance contained: 

Total nitrogen 2.40 

Extractive nitrogen 1.27 

Protein nitrogen 1.13 

Ether extract 1.6 

Crude fiber 7.5 

Ash 6.1 

Material soluble in 85$, alcohol 31.5 

American Journal of Physiology, Vol. I, No. n, March I, 1898. 

* Veil fugacious, etc. 

P. dry'inus Pers. Gr. oak. PileilS 2 in. broad, whitish, variegated 
with spot-like scales which become dingy-brown, lateral, oblique, rather 
plane. Flesh thick. Stem very curt and obese, commonly i in. long^ 
and thick, somewhat lateral, somewhat woody, squamulose, white, with 
a short, blunt root. Veil scarcely conspicuous on the stem, but 
appendiculate round the margin of the pileus when young. Gills not 
very decurrent, somewhat simple, not anastomosing behind, narrow, 
white, becoming yellow when old. 

On trunks, oak, ash, willow, etc. Stevenson. 

Spores iox4ft Massee. 

Edible. Cordier, Cooke. 

When young the caps are tender; of the consistency, when cooked, of 



Pieurotus. Polyporus sulphureus. In taste and smell the species varies from other 
Pleuroti, in having a distinct musk-like flavor. This is agreeable, 
reminding one of the common mushroom A. campester. 

** Veil none, gills sinuate, etc. 

P. ulma'rius Bull. ulmus, an elm. Pileus 3-5 in. and more broad, 
becoming pale-livid, often marbled with round spots, fleshy, compact, 
horizontal, moderately regular although more or less excentric, convex 
then plane, disk-shaped, even, smooth. Flesh white, tough. Stem 
2-3 in. long, i in. thick, solid, firm, elastic, somewhat excentric, curved- 
ascending, thickened and tomentose at the base, not rarely villous 
throughout, white. Gills horizontal, emarginate or rounded behind, 
slightly adnexed, broad (broader in the middle), somewhat crowded, 

The pileus is sometimes cracked in a tessellated manner. Stevenson. 

Spores nearly globose, 5/* long Morgan; 5-6. 5/* broad Peck; 6/u. 

Var. aceri'cola acer, maple; colo, to inhabit. Plant smaller, cespi- 

Trunks and roots of maple trees. Adirondack mountains. September. 

Var. populi 'cola populus, poplar; colo, to inhabit. Plant subcespi- 
tose, stem wholly tomentose. West Albany. Peck, Monograph, N. Y. 
Species of Pieurotus, Rep. 39. 

The gills are sometimes torn across like those of Lentinus. 

The historic elms of Boston Common have borne copious crops of 
this well-known and easily distinguished species from time immemorial. 
Every fall, about the first of September, if the season is favorable, later 
if not, copious crops appear decorating the trunks, and branches, some- 
times at a height of thirty or forty feet. Growth takes place where 
branches have broken off or the trees have been wounded from other 
causes. They occur very generally on elms in the outlying districts of 
the city, but are rare in the country, seeming to be distinctly urban in 
their tastes. No damage is apparent from their growth. 

Immediately in the rear of Independence Hall, Philadelphia, a fine 
cluster appears with equal autumnal regularity. 

Though the elm tree is the chosen habitat of this fungus, it is little 
less select in its choice than other members of its genus. 



When young and small P. ulmarius is tender and of acceptable flavor. Pieurotus. 
The stems and centers of older specimens should be cut away, and the 
tender parts of the caps, only, used. 

P. tessula'tus Bull. tessela, a small cube for pavement. PileilS 
becoming pale-tawny , horizontal, compactly fleshy, convex then plane, 
and in a form which is somewhat lateral depressed behind, irregular, 
even, smooth, variegated with round and hexagonal paler spots. Flesh 
thick, white. Stem short, I in. or little more long, solid, compact, 
equal or attenuated at the base, very excentric, curved-ascending, even, 
smooth, white. Grills sinuate behind, uncinato-adnate, thin, crowded, 
white or becoming yellow. 

Solitary; according to some cespitose. The pileus is not cracked in 
a tessellated manner, as one might easily imagine from the name, but 
variegated with spots. Smaller than A. ulmarius (to which it is too 
closely allied), but almost more compact, with a smell of new meal. 

On trunks. Stevenson. 

North Carolina, Scliweinitz. Edible. Curtis. Edible. Cordier. 

On specimens growing cespitose and singly, found at Haddonfield, 
N. J. September, 1895, on trunk of apple tree, and at Eagle's Mere, 
Pa., singly on sugar maple, August, 1898, the margin of caps were 
beautifully marked, but not cracked. 

In quality it is better than P. ulmarius. 

P. Sllbpalma'tllS Fr. sub and palma, a palm. Pileus 3-5 in. across. 
Flesh thick, soft, variegated; convex then more or less flattened, ir- 
regularly circular, obtuse, wrinkled, smooth, with a gelatinous cuticle, 
rufescent. Stem excentric or almost lateral, but the pileus is always 
marginate behind, fibrillose, short, equal, flesh fibrous, soft. Gills ad- 
nate, 3-4 lines broad, crowded, joined behind, dingy. Massee. 

On old trunks, squared timber, etc. 

Very remarkable for having the flesh variegated as in Fistulina he- 
patica. Pileus, especially when young, covered with a viscid pellicle. Fr. 

Spores minutely echinulate, nearly globose, 5.6x71". Morgan. 

Ohio, Morgan; Wisconsin, Bundy. 

I frequently found this species in North Carolina, growing from oak 
ties and standing oak timber. I did not notice distillation of rufescent 
drops from the cap. The soft flesh had good flavor. The gelatinous 



Pieurotus. cuticle imparts its character to the dish. Mixed with Lentinus lepideus, 
a much tougher plant, which grows in great abundance in the same lo- 
calities, it makes toothsome food. 

P. lignati'lis Fr. lignum, wood. Dingy whitish. Pileus 1-4 in. 

broad, rarely central, commonly more or less excentric, occasionally 
wholly lateral, often kidney-shaped, fleshy, thin, but compact and 
tough, fissile, convex then plane, obtuse and often umbilicate, flocculoso- 
pruinate, at length denuded with rain, repand, margin at first involute 
then expanded, undulato-lobed when luxuriant. Stem sometimes 2-3 
in., sometimes 3-4 lines long (even obliterated), stuffed then hollow, 
always thin, unequal, curved, curved or flexuous, tough and flexile, 
whitish, everywhere pruinato-villous, rooting and somewhat tomentose 
at the base. Gills adnate, very crowded and narrow, unequal, diverg- 
ent in the lobes, shining white. Fries. 

Exceedingly variable, wholly inconstant in form ; substance thin and 
pliant; commonly densely cespitose, but also single. Odor strong of 
new meal. 

On wood, beech, etc. Stevenson. 

Parasitic on a rotten plant of Polyporus annosus on elm. W.G.S. 

White and grayish-white, margin faintly striate; white-spotted, odor 
distinctly farinaceous. C.M. 

Spores 3-4^ long, Morgan, Cooke, W.G.S./ 4-5/x K. 

Var. abscon'dens Pk. obscure. New York, Peck, Rep. 31, 39. 

On trunks, scattered, sometimes loosely clustered. Griffins, Delaware 
county, N. Y. September. New York, Peck, Rep. 31, 39. 

Kingsessing, near Philadelphia; Mt. Gretna, Pa. Mcllvaine. 

This is a good species in every way. I have not found it in extended 
quantity, but it is probable that it will be found in plenty when closer 
observed and better known. 

P. circina'tus Fr. to make round. Wholly white, not hygrophanous. 
Pileus about 3 in. broad, orbicular, horizontal, fleshy, tough, convex 
then plano-disk-shaped, obtuse, even, but covered over with a shining 
whitish slightly silky luster. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, 
stuffed, elastic, equal, central or slightly excentric, commonly straight, 
smooth, bluntly rooted at the base. Gills adnate, slightly decurrent, 
crowded, broad (as much as 3 lines), white. Fries. 



An exceedingly distinct species. Regular, solitary, with a weak, Pieurotus. 
pleasant, not mealy odor. The pileus is a little thicker than that of 
A. lignatilis, but less compact; the gills are twice as broad. As A. 
lignatilis is changeable, this is always constant in form. 

On rotting birch stump. Stevenson. 

California, H. and M . 

Found at Eagle's Mere, Pa., August, 1898, on birch trees. Generally 
solitary; sometimes six or eight on one tree, beautifully shining white, 
at a distance resembling young Polyporus betulinus. Large quantities 
of it grow in the extensive birch forests at Eagle's Mere, yielding a 
ready food supply. Its flavor is pleasant, and texture, when cooked, 
quite tender. 

P. pubes'cens Pk. pubes, down or soft hair. PileilS fleshy, con- 
vex, suborbicular, pubescent, yellowish. Grills broad, subdistant, 
rounded behind, sinuate, pallid tinged with red. Stem short, firm, 
curved, eccentric, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, 8ft broad. 

PileilS about 2 in. broad. Stem scarcely i in. long. 

Trunks of trees. Lyndonville. C. E. Fairman. Peck 3 44th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, on oak trunks. Mcllvaine. 

High, agreeable flavor; texture about as in P. ostreatus. 

*** Gills deczirrent; stem distinct, etc. 
P. sa'pidllS Kalchb. savory. Cespitose, or several pilei appearing 

to spring from a common branched 
stem. Pileus 1-3 in. across. Flesh 
thick, excentric, regular, convex or 
obtusely gibbous then depressed, 
glabrous, white or brownish. Stem 
stout, solid, several usually spring- 
ing from a thickened knob, whitish, 
1-2 in. long, expanding upward into 
the pileus. Gills decurrent, rather 
distant, narrow, whitish. Spores el- 
liptical, 10-1 1x4-5/4. 

On elm trunks. 

A very variable species; accord- 


(Plate XXXVI.) 

One-half natural size. 


pieurotus. ing to Kalchbrenner, the spores have a faint tinge of lilac, and the pileus 
is white, tawny, brownish, or umber on the same trunk. The white 
form only has been met with in this country. Massee. 

Spores with a lilac tinge, oblong or a little curved and pointed, 
8.3x3.7^ Morgan; oblong, 9-1 1 .5x4-5/4 Peck; IO-1 1x4-5^ Massee. 

Not observed in England until 1887. 

Quite common throughout the United States, growing upon decaying 
wood, whether above or under ground. It has few distinct features. 
The only positive one distinguishing it from P. ostreatus is its lilac- 
tinted spores. The tint is faint but noticeable upon white background. 
Excepting for purposes of the student, its separation, as a species, from 
P. ostreatus is not necessary. When old it has more body than the 
latter, but is equally superior as a food fungus. 

Professor Peck remarks of it: "A stew made of it is a very good 
substitute for an oyster stew." 

It can be cultivated by watering the places upon which it is known to 

P. pome'ti Fr. pometum, an orchard. PileilS white, fleshy, soft, 
sub-flaccid, irregular, involute, convex, even, smooth, disk depressed. 
Gills decurrent, crowded, separate behind. Stem 2-3 in. high, 3-4 
lines thick, excentric, solid, tough, ascending, rooting. 

On trunks of pear and apple trees. 

Especially distinguished by the rooting stem. 

North Carolina, edible, Curtis; California, H. and M. 

**** Gills decurrent. Stem lateral, etc. 

P. OStrea'tus Jacq. ostrea, an oyster. (Plate XXXV, p. 134, 
XXXVtf, p. 142.) Pileus 3-5 in. broad, when young almost becom- 
ing black, soon becoming pale, brownish-ash color, passing into yellow 
when old, fleshy, soft, shell-shaped, somewhat dimidiate, ascending, 
smooth, moist, even, but sometimes with the cuticle torn into squam- 
ules. Stem shortened or obliterated, firm, elastic, ascending obliquely, 
thickening upward, white, strigoso-villous at the base. Gills decurrent, 
anastomosing behind, somewhat distant, broad, white, sometimes turn- 
ing light yellow, and without glandules. 

For the most part cespitose, imbricated, very variable, sometimes 










almost central. The pileus is at first convex and horizontal, then pieurotus. 
expanded and ascending. Stevenson. 

Spores 10-12x4-5/4 Massee; 7.5-10x41", Peck. 

General over the United States. 

Var. glanduldsus Ag. g. Bull. With the habit of the typical form, 
but larger. Pileus dark brown, becoming pale. Gills white, with scat- 
tered small wart-like or glandular bodies. 

On trunks. A very constant but somewhat rare variety ; easily known 
by the dark-brown pileus. The gland-like bodies on the gills are due 
to the outward growth of the hyphae of the trama in minute patches 
here and there. Massee. 

Var. euosmus Berk. strong-smelling. Strong scented, imbricate. 
Pileus fleshy, depressed, shining, silky when dry, at first white with a 
tinge of blue, then brownish. Stem short or obsolete. Gills decurrent, 
ventricose, dingy, white. Spores 12-14x5^, pale pinkish-lilac. 

On elm trunks. Pilei very much crowded, 2 in. or more across, 
deeply depressed, unequal, at first white, invested with a slight blue 
varnish, at length of a pale brown. Stems distinct above, connate be- 
low. Gills rather broad ; running down to the bottom of the free por- 
tion of the stem. Spores oblong, narrow, oblique, white, tinged with 
purple. The whole plant smells, when first gathered, strongly of tarra- 
gon. B. and Br. 

Found at Richmond, Ind., Dr. J. R. Weist. On hickory stump at 
Mt. Gretna, Pa., Mcllvaine; Haddonfield, N. J., T. J. Collins. 

This esculent fungus closely allied to P. ostreatus, and differing only 
in having lilac spores, has been followed from book to book by a bad 
reputation, probably because of its "rosy" or lilac spores all fungi 
having pink spores having been, until recently, ignorantly branded by 
authors as poisonous. The writer has eaten meals of it many times, as 
have his friends. It is in every way equal to P. ostreatus. 

The rare qualities of this species are stated in the descriptive heading 
of the genus. Its very name implies excellence. The camel is grate- 
fully called the ship of the desert ; the oyster mushroom is the shell- 
fish of the forest. When the tender parts are dipped in egg, rolled in 
bread crumbs, and fried as an oyster they are not excelled by any vege- 
table, and are worthy of place in the daintiest menu. 

P. salig'nus Schwam. salix, willow. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, sooty 



Pieurotus. ash-color or ochraceous, fleshy, compact, spongy, somewhat dimidiate, 
horizontal, at first pulvinate, even, at length depressed behind and here 
and there strigose, the incurved margin entire. Stem always short, 
firm, more or less tomentose. Gills horizontal, hence less manifestly 
decurrent, separate behind, but branched in the middle, crowded, dingy, 
often eroded at the edge, not glandular. 

Among the larger and firmer species. Solitary, scarcely ever cespi- 
tose. It is commonly confounded with A. ostreatus, but is certainly a 
different species. Although the stature is in general the same, it is 
easily distinguished by the pileus being more compact, and more pul- 
verulent when young, then depressed, by the gills being thinner, more 
crowded, somewhat branched, but not anastomosing behind, and dingy 
soot-color; the spores also are dingy. Stevenson. 

Spores oblong or cylindrical-oblong, 8x4/4 W.G.S.; 8-10x3-4/1^. 

Dr. Curtis wrote of this: "Indeed I have found several persons who 
class this among the most palatable species. To such persons a dish 
of fresh mushrooms need seldom be wanting, as this one can be had 
every month of the year in this latitude." 

In New Jersey, in the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pa., I have found P. 
salignus in quantity. It has been sent to me by Dr. J. R. Weist, of 
Richmond, Ind., who writes, "I have eaten it with great enjoyment." 

In 1 88 1 I found it frequently on water beeches and willows, and thor- 
oughly tested its edible qualities. R. K. Macadam, Boston. 

When young or fresh, it is quite equal to any Pieurotus. When old, 
as with others of the Pleuroti, it is tough. Nevertheless their margins 
are always edible unless decaying. 


P. petaloi'des Bull. petal V>f a flower. PileilS 1-2 in. long, dingy- 
brown, becoming pale, dimidiate, fleshy, but in no wise compact, rather 
plane, somewJiat spatliulate, continuous with the stem and depressed be- 
hind, hence the villous down of the stem ascends to this point (the disk) 
of the pileus, otherwise smooth, even, margin at first involute then ex- 
panded. Stem about % in. long, sometimes however very short, solid, 
firm, compressed, channeled when larger, more or less villous, whitish. 
Gills decurrent, very crowded, very narrow (scarcely beyond 2 mm. 
broad), linear, very unequal, white then ash-color. 



Taste bitter. The form on wood is somewhat horizontal, gregarious Pieurotns. 
here and there imbricated. Stevenson. 

Spores 9-IOX4//, Massee; 8x4/u, W.G.S.; minutely globose, 3-41". 

Edible. Cooke, Cordier. 

P. spatlmla'tus Pers. shaped like a spathula. PileuS rather thin, 
1-2 in. broad, ascending, spathulate, tapering behind into the stem, 
glabrous, convex or depressed on the disk and there sometimes pubes- 
cent, alutaceous or brownish tinged with gray, red or yellow. Grills 
crowded, linear, decurrent, whitish or yellowish. Stem compressed, 
sometimes channeled above, grayish-tomentose. Spores elliptical, 7.6x 
45^ broad; odor and taste farinaceous. 

Ground. Sandlake. June. Edible. 

It grows singly or in tufts and is an inch or more in height. The 
margin is thin and sometimes striatulate and reflexed. Toward the 
base the flesh is thicker than the breadth of the gills. The cuticle is 
tough' and separable. The flesh is said by Gillet to be tender and 
delicate. Persoon describes the disk as spongy-squamulose, but in our 
specimens it is merely pubescent or tomentose. Peck, 39th Rep. N. Y. 
State Dot. 

Recorded as edible by Professor Peck. At Eagle's Mere, Pa., I 
found many specimens agreeing with this description. They grew from 
decaying wood under ground, yet had the appearance of growing from 
the earth. It is probable that others have been deceived. In quality 
I found this to be one of the best. 

P. sero'tinus Fr. late. PileuS fleshy, 1-3 in. broad, compact, 
convex or nearly plane, viscid when young and moist, dimidiate kid- 
ney-shaped or suborbicular, solitary or cespitose and imbricated, vari- 
ously colored, dingy-yellow, reddish-brown, greenish-brown or olivace- 
ous, the margin at first involute. Gills close, determinate, whitish or 
yellowish. Stem very short, lateral, thick, yellowish beneath and min- 
utely tomentose or squamulose with blackish points. Spores minute, 
elliptical, 5/x long, 2.5/x. broad. 

Dead trunks of deciduous trees. Peck, 39th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1887, an d at Mt. Moriah, near Philadelphia, from 
August until November, 1898. Upon these findings the pileus was 
tomentose at base, as was the short stem. 
10 145 


pienrotns. The species is not noticeably viscid after its youth. The viscidity 
can be detected in old specimens by moistening the pileus. Its flavor 
is not marked, nor is its texture as pleasing as most others of its genus, 
but being a late species it satisfies the longing of the mycophagist for 
his accustomed food. 

P. pulmona'rillS Fr. pulmo, lung, from texture. PileilS 2-3 in. 
broad, ash-colored, continuous with the stem, fleshy, soft, but tough, 
flaccid, obovate or kidney-shaped, plane or reflexo-conchate at the mar- 
gin, even, smooth. Flesh thin, soft, white. Stem very short, solid, 
exactly lateral, horizontal or ascending, round, villous, expanded into 
the pileus. Gills decurrent but ending determinate ly , moderately broad, 
distinct, not branched or anastomosing at the base, livid or ash-color. 

The primary form is solitary. The pileus is ashy-tan when dried. It 
differs from A. salignus alike in the definitely lateral stem and in the 
thin flaccid pileus. Fries. 

Not previously reported. 

Found by Miss Madeleine Le Moyne, Washington, Pa., September, 
1898, and sent to writer. Gills 3 lines broad, not narrow in proportion 
to flesh. 

Taste and smell similar to P. ostreatus. Cooked it is tender, and 
more succulent than P. ostreatus. 


P. mastruca'tus Tic.~mastnica, a sheepskin. Pileus up to 2 in. 
long and I in. broad, sessile, at first resupinate then expanded and 
horizontal, often lobed, upper stratum of pileus gelatinous, brown, 
bristling with squarrose or erect squamules. Flesh thickish. Gills 
radiating from the point of attachment, broad, rather distant, grayish- 

On old trunks. Imbricated. Readily distinguished by the brown, 
squarrosely scaly pileus. Massee. 

Spores oblong, oblique, 8x5ft Morgan. 

In June, 1886, the writer found this species in oak woods near Phila- 
delphia. It grew on fallen trunks and on decaying spots of living 

It is edible, and of good flavor, but is rough in the mouth. If found 
in quantity, the extract of it would make a delicate soup. 



Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 









Gr. moist; Gr. to bear. 

Pileus regular or undulated and wavy, often viscid or moist. Flesh Hygrophorus. 
of the pileus continuous with that of (Plate XXXVIII.) 

the stem and descending as a trama 
into the gills. Gills adnate or ad- 
nexed, more or less decurrent, waxy, 
often thick and forked, edge always 
tliin and sharp, often branched. 

On the ground. Many species are 
brightly colored. Spores white. 

This genus differs from the pre- 
ceding genera in the manifest trama, 
the substance of which is similar to 
that of the pileus ; from Lactarius 

and Russula by the trama not being vesicular, but somewhat floccose 
with granules intermixed ; from Cantharellus, its nearest ally, by the 
sharp edge of the gills. The Cortinarii, Paxilli and Gomphidii are at 
once distinguished from it by their colored spores and the changing color 
of their gills, as well as by other marks. From all the other genera of 
Agaricini it is distinguished by a mark peculiar to itself, viz., by the 
hymeneal stratum of the gills changing into a waxy mass, which is at 
length removable from the trama. This altogether singular character is 
specially remarkable in H. caprinus, coccineus, murinaceus, etc. Hence 
the gills seem full of watery juice, but they do not become milky like 
those of the Lactarii. Fries. 

From the description by Fries, the author of the genus, it is manifest 
that one has to wait the ripening of the fungus before the peculiar char- 
acteristic mark of the genus, i. e. gills turning into a waxy mass, 
easily removable from the cap can be observed. Many of the species 
are difficult to determine when fresh. Nevertheless, there is an inde- 
scribable, watery, waxy, translucent appearance about the gills which 
catches the eye of the expert, and is soon learned by the novice. The 
white spores readily separate the genus from kindred shapes in the col- 
ored-spored genera. 

So far as tested none of the species is poisonous. One English spe- 



Hygrophoms. cies is fetid. It is probable that they are all edible, varying in quality 
only. Fries well, and is superior in croquettes and patties. 


LIMACIUM {Umax, a slug). Page 148. 

Universal veil viscid, with occasionally a floccose partial one, which 
is annular or marginal. 

* White or becoming yellowish. 
** Reddish. 

** Tawny or yellow. 
**** Olivaceous-umber. 
***** Dingy cinereous or livid. 

None known to be edible. 

CAMAROPHYLLUS (Gr. a vault; a leaf). Page 152. 
(From the arched shape of the gills.) 

Veil none. Stem even, smooth or fibrillose, not rough with points. 
Pileus firm, opaque, moist after rain, not viscid. Gills distant, arcuate. 

* Gills deeply and at length obconically decurrent. 
** Gills ventricose, sinuately arcuate or plano-adnate. 

HYGROCYBE (Gr. moist; Gr. the head). Page 155. 

Veil none. Whole fungus thin, watery, succulent, fragile. Pileus when 
moist viscid, shining when dry, rarely floccoso-scaly. Stem hollow, soft, 
without dots. Gills soft. Most of the species are brightly colored and 
shining. This tribe is the type of the genus. 

* Gills decurrent. 

** Gills adnexed, somewhat separating. 

* White or yellowish-white. 

H. chry'sodon Fr. Gr. gold; a tooth. From tooth-like squamules. 
Pileus 2-3 in. broad, white, shining when dry, but commonly yellowish 
with minute adpressed squamules at the disk, light yz\\<yw-/locculose at 
the involute margin, fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, viscid. Flesh 



white, sometimes reddish. Stem 2-3 in. long, about >2 in. thick, Hygrophoms. 
stuffed, soft, somewhat equal (sometimes, however, irregularly shaped 
or thickened at the base), white, with minute light yellow sqttamules, 
which are more crowded and arranged in the form of a ring toward the 
apex. Gills decurrent, distant, 3 lines broad, thin, white, somewhat 
yellowish at the edge, sometimes crisped. 

Odor not unpleasant. There is a manifest veil, not woven into a 
continuous ring, but collected in the form of floccose squamtiles at the 
apex of the stem and the margin of the pileus. Var. leucodon with 
white squamules. Fries. 

In woods. 

The lamellae are said to be crisped, and when young, to have the 
edge yellow-floccose ; but I have seen no such specimens. Peck, 23d 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 8x4/1, Cooke. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Mcllvaine. 

A pleasant, excellent species, whose rarity is regrettable. 

H. ebur'neus Bull. Fr. ebur, ivory. Wholly shining white. Pileus 
fleshy, sometimes thin, sometimes somewhat compact, convexo-plane, 
somewhat repand, even, very glutinous in rainy weather, margin soon 
naked. Stem sometimes short, sometimes elongated, stuffed then 
hollow, unequal, glutinous like the pileus, rough at the apex with dots 
in the form of squamules. Gills decurrent, distant, veined at the base, 
3-4 lines broad, tense and straight, quite entire. Fries. 

Odor mild, not unpleasant. Very changeable. The veil is absent, 
unless the very plentiful gluten which envelops the stem be regarded 
as a universal veil; margin of the young pileus involute, only at the first 
pubescent, soon naked. The stem is soft internally, at length hollow, 
attenuated toward the base. 

In woods and pastures. Frequent. September to October. Stevenson. 

The whole plant is pure white when fresh, but in drying the gills 
assume a cinnamon-brown hue. Peck, Rep. 26. 

Spores 6x5/A Cooke; 4x5/01 W.G.S.; 5-6/x, K.; 6x4/4 C.B.P. 

A common and wide-spread species frequenting woods and pastures. 

Edible. Curtis. 

The author ate it in West Virginia, in 1882; at Devon, Pa., 1887; 



Hygrophorus. Haddonfield, N. J., 1890. It is well flavored but in texture is not of 
first quality. 

H. pena'rius Fr. penus, food. Pileus tan-color, opaqiie, fleshy, 
especially when young, at first umbonate, then very obtuse, hemis- 
pherical then flattened, even, smooth, commonly dry, margin at first 
involute, exceeding the gills, undulated when flattened. Flesh thick, 
hard, whitish, unchangeable. Stem curt, I }'* in. or more long, about 
y% in. thick at the apex, solid, compact, hard, attenuated at the base 
into a spindlc-sliaped root, ventricose to the neck, again attenuated 
upward or wholly fusiform-attenuated, pale-white, smeared with tena- 
cious, easily dried slime, warty. Flesh firm, but externally more rigid, 
cuticle somewhat fragile. Veil not conspicuous. Gills adnato-decurrent, 
acute behind, distant, thick, 3-4 lines broad, veined, tan inclining to 
pale. Fries. 

Odor pleasant, taste sweet. The fusiform root is as long as the stem. 

In mixed woods. Stevenson. 

Spores 7-8x4-5/A. 

Edible. Cooke. 

Large specimens occurred in mixed woods, in November, 1898, at 
Mt. Gretna. The caps varied from I >-5 in. across. The color was 
white, tinged with yellow, much lighter than described. The caps look 
coarse and the stems are not inviting ; but the caps have a pleasant odor. 
When stewed for twenty minutes they are meaty and tasty. 

** Reddish. 

H. erubes'cens Fr. erubesco, to become red. Pileus 2-4 in. and more 
broad, white becoming everywhere red, fleshy, gibbous then convexo- 
plane, viscid, adpressedly dotted with sqnamules or becoming smooth, 
sometimes wholly compact, sometimes thin towards the margin which 
is at the first naked. Flesh firm, white. Stem sometimes short, robust, 
2 in. long, i in. thick and attenuated upward, sometimes elongated, 4 
in. long, equal or attenuated at the base, solid, flexuous, with red fibrils, 
dotted with red upward. Gills decurrent, distant, soft, white, with red 
spots. Fries. 

Veil none. The ground color is white, as it is also internally, but it 



everywhere becomes red and the pileus often rosy blood-color. Hand- Hygrophoms. 
some, growing in troops, commonly forming large lax circles. 

In pine woods. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid, very obtuse at both ends, 8-10x4-5^1 K.; 8x4/01 

Edible. Cooke. 

*** Tawny or yellow. 

H. ni'tidus B. and Rav. shining. Pileus thin, fleshy, convex, 
broadly umbilicate, smooth, shining, viscid, pale yellow with the margin 
striatulate when moist, nearly white when dry. Gills arcuate, decurrent, 
yellow. Stem slender, brittle, smooth, viscid, hollow, yellow. Flesh 

Height 2-4 in., breadth of Pileus 8-12 lines. Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Swamps. Sandlake. August. 

The cavity of the stem is very small. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Found in many states and places, usually on moist ground beside 
streams, or spring heads. It sometimes parades itself in irregular pro- 
cessions, at others in sparse patches. It is delicate in flavor, and tender 

**** Olivaceous-umber. 

H. limaci'nus Fr. Umax, a slug. Pileus i/ 2/ in. broad, disk 
^lmber then sooty, paler round the margin, fleshy, convex then flattened, 
obtuse, smooth, viscid. Flesh rather firm, white. Stem 2-3 in. long, 
% in. thick, solid, firm, ventricose, sticky, flocculose, fibrilloso-striate, 
roughened with squamules at the apex. Gills adnate, then decurrent, 
somewhat distant, thin, white inclining to ash-color. Fries. 

Veil entirely viscous, not floccose. 

In woods among damp leaves. Stevenson. 

Spores I2X4/A Cooke. 

New York, Peck, Rep. 34. Thin woods and open places. 

Reported edible Bulletin No. 5, 1897, Boston Mycological Club. 

H. hypotll'ejus Fr. Gr. under; Gr. sulphur (under gluten). 
Pileus 1-2 in. broad, at first smeared with olivaceous gluten, ash-col- 
ored, when the gluten disappears, becoming pale and yellowish, orange 


Hygrophorus. or rarely (when rotting) rufescent, fleshy, thin, convex then depressed, 
obtuse, even, somewhat streaked. Flesh thin, white then becoming 
light yellow. Stem 2-4 in. long, 2-3 lines and more thick, stuffed, 
equal, even, viscous, but rarely spotted with the veil, at length hollow. 
Partial veil floccose, at the first cortinate and annular, soon fugacious. 
Gills decurrent, distant, distinct, at first pallid (even whitish) soon yel- 
low, sometimes flesh-color. Fries. 

Very protean, changeable in color and variable in size. Stem not 
scabrous. There is no trace of the veil when the plant is full grown. 
Appearing after the first cold autumn nights, and lasting even till snow. 

In pine woods. Frequent. Stevenson. 

Spores iox6ju, Cooke; I2X4/U. W.G.S. 

Hollis Webster, in Bulletin No. 5, 1897, Boston Mycological Club, 
writes: "H. hypothejus Fr., when dried, is crisp and nutty, and very 
good to carry in the pocket for occasional nibble." 

* Gills deeply decurrent, etc. 

H. praten'sis Fr. pratum, a meadow. (Plate XXXVII, figs. I, 2, 
3, p. 146. Plate XXXVIII, p. 147.) Pileus 1-2 in. and more 
broad, somewhat pale yellowish, compactly fleshy especially at the disk, 
thin toward the margin, convex then flattened, almost top-sJiaped from 
the stem being thickened upward, even, smooth, moist (but not viscous) 
in rainy weather, when dry often rimosely incised, here and there split 
regularly round. Flesh firm, white. Stem \%2 in. long, % in. and 
more thick, stuffed, internally spongy, externally polished-evened and 
firmer, attenuated downward, even, smooth, naked. Gills remarkably 
decurrent, at first arcuate, then extended in the form of an inverted cone, 
very distant, thick, firm, brittle, connected by veins at the base, very 
broad in the middle, of the same color as the pileus. Fries. 

Very protean. Veil none. The flesh of the pileus is formed as it 
were of the stem dilated upward. The typical form resembles the 
Cantharelli. Everywhere becoming light yellow-tawny, but varying with 
the stem and gills pale-white. 

In pastures. Common. Stevenson. 

Spores 6x4/i Cooke; 6- 10x4-6/0. K. 



Common over the United States. West Virginia, 1881, North Caro- Hygrophoms. 
lina, 1890, Pennsylvania, 1887, Mt. Gretna, 1897-1898. Mcllvaine. 

Gregarious, and often in tufts, sometimes in partial rings. 

An exceedingly variable species. White, buff, smoky, pinkish colors 
are common. The cap shapes are also diverse. The margins of some 
are incurved; of others repand. The weather seems to have much to 
do with their shapes. 

M. C. Cooke says: " It requires careful cooking, as it is liable to be 
condemned as tough, unless treated slowly, but it is a great favorite 
abroad." He calls them "Buff Caps." 

All fungi are the better for slow cooking. The H. pratensis in all its 
forms is excellent, but particularly so in croquettes and pates. 

H. virgin'eus Fr. virgo, a virgin. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 6, p. 146. ) 
Wholly white. Pileus fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, moist, at length 
depressed, cracked into patches, floccose when dry. Stem curt, stuffed, 
firm, attenuated at the base, externally becoming even and naked. Gills 
decurrent, distant, rather thick. Fries. 

Flesh sometimes equal, sometimes abruptly thin. Commonly con- 
founded with H. niveus, but it is more difficult to distinguish it from 
white forms of H. pratensis. It is distinguished chiefly by its smaller 
stature, by the color being constantly white, sometimes becoming pale, 
by the obtuse pileus being scarcely turbinate, at length cracked into patches 
and floccose when dry, and by the gills being thinner, etc. 

In pastures. Common. Stevenson. 

Spores i2x5-6/u, 'Cooke . 

Tastes like M. oreades. M.J.B. Delicious broiled or stewed. Cooke. 

"Mony littles make muckle," says the Scotch proverb. It applies 
well to the brave little toadstool looking through the first grass of lawns 
for the coming of spring, and coming again in the autumn, defiant of 
early frosts. Small though it be, its numbers soon fill the basket. 

The "Ivory Caps" are plentiful, and extend their haunts to the 
woods, where thick mold or grassy places abound. 

H. ni'veus Fr. niveus, snow-white. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 7, p. 146.) 
Wholly white. Pileus scarcely reaching I in. broad, somewhat mem- 
branaceous, and without a more compact disk, hence truly umbilicate, 



Hygrophoras. bell-shaped then convex, smooth, striate and viscid when moist, not 
cracked when dry. Flesh thin, everywhere equal, white, hygrophanous. 
Stem 2 in. or a little more long, 1-2 lines thick, tubed, equal, even, 
smooth, tense and straight. Gills decurrent, distant, thin, scarcely 
connected by veins, arcuate, quite entire. 

Thinner, tougher, and later than H. virgineus, etc. Being hygroph- 
anous the pileus is shining white when dry. Very tender forms occur. 

In pastures. Stevenson. 

Spores /X4/U, Cooke. 

The H. niveus, H. virgineus, "Ivory Caps" as M. C. Cooke calls 
them, are pretty and plentiful in some sections. In the West Virginia 
mountains, along grass-grown road-sides, their purity and exquisite 
perfume attracted me in 1 88 1. I have them and a few others to thank 
for seducing me into becoming a mycophagist. I think of them affec- 
tionately. I have seldom met with them since. They are found on 
lawns and in pastures and on grassy edges of woods, early in spring and 
late in autumn. 

H. boreal'is Pk. northern. PileilS thin, convex or expanded, 
smooth, moist, white, sometimes striatulate. Gills arcuate-decurrent, 
distant, white. Stem smooth, equal or tapering downward, stuffed, 

Plant 2 in. high. PileilS 8-12 lines broad. Stem I line thick. 

Ground in woods. Croghan and Copake. September and October. 

The species is related to H. niveus but the pileus is not viscid. Peck, 
26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Found at Mt. Gretna, Pa., October 20, 1898, ground in mixed 
woods. The cap is white, silky, smooth, not viscid. Stem likewise. 

A neat species pleasant in every way. 

** Gills ventricose, adnate, etc. 

H. dis'tans Berk. distant (of the gills). PileilS about 2 in. broad, 
white, with a silky luster, here and there stained with brown, somewhat 
fleshy, plane or depressed, viscid. Stem white above, gray below, and 
attenuated, not spotted. Gills decurrent, few, very distant, somewhat 
ventricose, pure white then tinged with ash-color, interstices obscurely 



Often umbilicate. Remarkable for the few and distant gills. Stevenson. Hygrophorus. 
Spores loxSfj. Cooke. 

Caps white, shaded to light pinkish-brown toward center. Gills very 
distant. Leaves adhere to cap. 

Specimens tested were of mild, pleasant flavor. 

H. sphsero'sporus Pk. Pileus fleshy and thick in the center, sub- ; 

obconic, convex, obtuse or slightly umbonate, whitish, inclining to red- 
dish-brown, the margin incurved. Flesh firm, white. Gills rather 
broad, subdistant, adnate or slightly decurrent, white. Stems tufted, 
flexuous, solid, glabrous, often slightly thickened at the base, colored 
like the pileus. Spores globose, 6 Sp, broad. 

Pileus 6-12 lines broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Iowa. October. Communicated by C. Mcllvaine. 

The fresh plant is said to have no decided odor, but when partly dried 
it emits a slight but rather unpleasant odor. It belongs apparently to 
the section Camarophyllus, and is related to Hygrophorus Peckii. 
Peck, Torr. Bull., Vol. 22, No. 12. 

Received by the writer from Hon. Thomas Updegraff, MacGregor, 
Iowa, and forwarded to Professor Peck as a new species. 

The fungus has but slight taste and is without odor when fresh. 

It is probably edible. Not received in sufficient quantity to test. 

* Gills decurrent. 

H. cera'ceus Fr. cera, wax. Pileus about i in. broad, waxy-yel- 
low, shining, slightly fleshy, thin, but slightly firm, convexo-plane, 
obtuse, slightly pellucid-striate, viscid. Stem 1-2 in. and more long, 
about 2 lines thick, hollow, often unequal, flexuous and at length com- 
pressed, even, smooth, of the same color as the pileus, never darker at 
the apex. Gills adnato-decurrent , broad, almost triangular, distinct, 
yellow. Fries. 

Fragile ; easily distinguished from others by its waxy (not change- 
able) color. Stevenson. 

Spores 8x6/A Cooke. 

Eaten in Germany. 



Hygrophorus. Found at Angora and Kingsessing, Philadelphia, 1887. August to 
October. Open grassy places in woods, and in pastures. Scattered 
and in troops. Excellent. Stew slowly. 

H. cantharel'lus Schw. Gr. a small vase. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 
5, p. 146.) PileilS thin, convex, at length umbilicate or centrally de- 
pressed, minutely squamulose, moist, bright red, becoming orange or 
yellow. Gills distant, subarcuate, decurrent, yellow, sometimes tinged 
with vermilion. Stem smooth, equal, subsolid, sometimes becoming 
hollow, concolorous, whitish within. 

Height 2-4 in., breadth of pileus 6-12 lines. Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Swamps and damp shaded places in fields or woods. July to Sep- 
tember. Common. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Var. fldva. Pileus and stem pale yellow. Gills arcuate, strongly 

Var. flavipes. Pileus red or reddish. Stem yellow. 

Var. ftdviceps. Pileus yellow. Stem red or reddish. 

Var. Ro sea. Has the pileus expanded and the margin wavy scal- 
loped. Swamps. Sandlake. Peck, 2$d Rep. 

Common in the Adirondack region, and throughout Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, in all its varieties. 

The resemblance to H. miniatus in color is great, but there is a marked 
difference in the gills, which extend further down the thinner stem. It 
is tougher, and takes longer to cook. It has a flavor of its own which 
is enjoyed by some and condemned by others. 

H. COCCl'neilS Schaeff. of a scarlet color. (Plate CXXXVI, fig. 6, 
p. 508.) Pileus 1-2 in. and more broad, at first bright scarlet, then 
soon changing color and becoming pale, slightly fleshy, convex, then 
plane and often unequal, obtuse, at first viscid and even, smooth, not 
floccose-scaly. Flesh of the same color as the pileus. Stem 2 in. long, 
34 lines thick, hollow, then compressed and rather even, not slippery, 
scarlet upward, always yellow at the base. Gills wholly adnate, decur- 
rent with a tooth, plane, distant, connected by veins, watery-soft as if 
fatty, when full grown purplish at the base, light yellow in the middle, 
glaucous at the edge. Fries. 

Flesh of the pileus descending into the gills and forming a trama of 
the same color. Fragile. Varying in stature, easily mistaken for some 



of the following species which are of the same color. Pileus at length 
becoming yellow. Stevenson. 

Spores 10 i2x6/A Cooke; 7x4/1* Morgan. 

Edible. Cooke, Peck. 

In woods and pastures. In troops. Common in West Virginia, Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey. Mcllvaine. 

Excellent when stewed for twenty minutes. 

H. fla'vo-dis'cus Frost flavus, yellow; discus, disk. Pileus convex 
or plane, smooth, glutinous, white (Plate XXXIX.) 
with a pale-yellow or reddish-yellow 
disk. Flesh white. Gills adnate or 
decurrent, subdistant, white, some- 
times with a slight flesh-colored tint, 
the inter-spaces sometimes veiny. 
Stem subequal, solid, glutinous, 
white, sometimes slightly stained with 
yellow. Spores elliptical, 6-8x4;*. 

Plant 2-3 in. high. Pileus 1-3 in. 
broad. Stem 2-8 lines thick. 

Pine woods. West Albany. No- 

This, like H. fuligineus, has a 

short white space at the top of the stem, free from the viscidity that 
exists elsewhere. It resembles in many respects Hygrophorus spe- 
ciosus, which has the pileus red, fading to yellow with advancing age. 
Perhaps the three may yet prove to be forms of one very variable 
species, for the most conspicuous differences between them consist in 
the colors of the pileus. The constancy with which the three styles of 
coloration has thus far been maintained indicates a specific difference, 
but color alone is not generally regarded as having any specific value. 
Peck, 35th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 6.4-7.6x4^ Peck. 

I find this very good but its dirty pellicle should be peeled before 
using. Peck, in letter, 1896. 

Mr. Hollis Webster writes of H. flavo-discus (Yellow Sweet Bread) 
in Bull. No. 45, of the Boston Mycological Club, 1897: "This is a 
mushroom worth going a long way to get. It is abundant in rich woods 


About two-thirds natural size. 


Hygrophorus. under pines in certain localities, and is a great favorite with those who 
know it. It is easily prepared and requires little cooking." 

I have eaten en joy ably of it since 1881. 

Plentiful in the Jersey pines, in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, and 
equal to any toadstool of its size. 

H. fuligi'neilS Frost resembling soot. Pileus convex or nearly 

plane, glabrous, very viscid or glu- 
tinous, grayish-brown or soot-color, 
the disk often darker or almost black. 
Gills subdistant, adnate or decurrent, 
white. Stem solid, viscid or gluti- 
nous, white or whitish. Spores ellip- 
tical, 7 9x5 /A. 

The Sooty hygrophorous resembles 
the Club-stemmed clitocybe in the 
color of its cap, but in nearly every 
other respect it is different. When 
moist the cap is covered with an abun- 
dant gluten which when dry gives it a 
shining appearance as if varnished. 
The color varies from grayish-brown 
to a very dark or sooty-brown with 
the central part usually still darker or 

almost black, but never with an umbo. The flesh and the gills are white. 

The stem also is white or but slightly shaded toward the base with the 

color of the cap. It is variable in length and shape, being long or short, 

straight or crooked, everywhere equal in thickness or tapering toward 

the base. It is glutinous and unpleasant to handle. 

The cap is 1-4 in. broad, the stem 2-4 in. long, and 4-8 lines thick. 

The plants grow either singly or in tufts. In the latter case the caps 

are often irregular from mutual pressure. 

The plants occur early in October and November, in pine woods or 

woods of pine and hemlock intermixed. 

This mushroom is tender and of excellent flavor, but its sticky and 

often dirty covering should be peeled before cooking. Peck, 49th Rep. 

N. Y. State Bot. 

About one-half natural size. 

I 5 8 


Found at Angora, near Philadelphia, August I, 1897. Densely ces- Hygrophorus. 

Raw it tastes like dead leaves. Tender and of fine flavor when cooked. 

H. minia'tllS Fr. minium, red lead. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 4, p. 
146.) PileilS thin, fragile, at first convex, becoming nearly plane, gla- 
brous or minutely squamulose, often umbilicate, generally red. Gills 
distant, adnate, yellow, often tinged with red. Stem slender, glabrous, 
colored like the pileus. Spores elliptical, white, 8/x. long. 

Cap Yz-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 1-2 lines thick. Peck, 48th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Var. lutes' cens. Pileus yellow or reddish-yellow. Stem and gills yel- 
low. Plant often cespitose. Peck, 4ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores iox6/A Cooke ; elliptical, white. 

Grows where it pleases and abundantly throughout the land. In wet 
weather I have found it in July and late in autumn. 

Professor Peck says : It is scarcely surpassed by any mushroom in 
tenderness of substance and agreeableness of flavor. 

The gunner for partridges will not shoot rabbits ; the knowing toad- 
stool seeker will pass all others where H. miniatus abounds. 

** Gills adnexed, etc. 

H. puni'ceus Fr. blood-red. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, glittering blood- 
scarlet, in dry weather and when old becoming pale especially at the 
disk, slightly fleshy for its breadth, at first bell-shaped, obtuse, commonly 
repand or lobed, very irregular, even, smooth, viscid. Flesh of the same 
color, fragile. Stem 3 in. long, %-\ in. thick, solid when young, at 
length hollow, very stout (not compressed), ventricose (attenuated at 
both ends), striate, and for the most part squamulose at the apex, when 
dry light yellowish or of the same color as the pileus, always white and 
often incurved at the base. Gills ascending, ventricose, 2-4 lines 
broad, thick, distant, white-light yellow or yellow and often reddish at 
the base. Fries. 

The largest of the group and very handsome. It certainly differs 
from H. coccineus, for which it is commonly mistaken, in stature, in 
the adnexed gills, and in the white base of the striate stem. The attach- 
ment of the gills varies, but from the form of the pileus they ascend to 
the base of the cone and appear free. 



Hygrophorus. In pastures. Stevenson. 
Spores 8x5/4 Cooke. 

Edible. Cooke. No harm would come of confusing it with the ver- 
milion mushroom H. miniatus Pk. 

H. COn'icilS Fr. conical. Pileus thin, submembranaceous, fragile, 
smooth, conical, generally acute, sometimes obtuse, the margin often 
lobed. Gills rather close and broad, subventricose, narrower toward 
the stem, free, terminating in an abrupt tooth at the outer extremity, 
scarcely reaching the margin, yellow. Stem equal, fibrous-striate, yel- 
low, hollow. 

Height 3-6 in., breadth of pileus 612 lines. Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Ground in woods and open places. North Elba and Center. August 
to October. 

The color of the pileus is variable. I have taken specimens with it 
pale sulphur-yellow and others with it bright red or scarlet. The plant 
turns black in drying. Peck, Rep. 23, New York State Bot. 

Spores lOx/ju. Cooke; iox6/A Morgan. 

An old-time cure-all had medicinal virtues proportionate to its offen- 
siveness. Old-time writers, contrariwise, gave every toadstool a bad 
name which changed color or displeased their noses. The pretty little 
Hygrophorus conicus, for these reasons, has, until now, been under the 
ban of suspicion. M. C. Cooke, in his handy book, Edible and Poison- 
ous Mushrooms, was the first to lighten its sentence and make it a sort 
of ticket-of-leave culprit. 

The writer has frequently eaten it, and is glad to vouch for its harm- 
lessness and testify to its eminent respectability. 

H. cllloroph'anus Fr. Gr. greenish-yellow. PileilS I in. broad, 
commonly bright sulphur-yellow, sometimes, however, scarlet, not 
changing color, somewhat membranaceous, very fragile, at first convex, 
then plane, obtuse, orbicular and lobed, and at length cracked, smooth, 
viscid, striate. Stem 2-3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, hollow, equal, 
round, rarely compressed, wholly even, smooth, viscid when moist, 
shining when dry, wholly unicolorous, rich light yellow. Gills emar- 
ginato-adnexed, very ventricose, with a thin decurrent tooth, thin, dis- 
tant, distinct. Fries. 

Very much allied to H. conicus, but never becoming black, and other- 






wise certainly distinguished by its convex, obtuse, striate pileus, by its Hygrophoms. 
even and viscous stem, and by its emarginato-free, thin, somewhat dis- 
tant, whiter gills. Like H. ceraceus in appearance. 

In grassy and mossy places. Common. August to October. Steven- 

Spores 8x5/u, Cooke; 8/* Q. 

Received from E. B. Sterling, Trenton, N. J., August, 1897. 

Open grassy woods. 

But three specimens were tested. They were in everyway agreeable. 


Giving lac (milk). 

hymenophore continuous with the stem. PileilS Lactarins. 
- I somewhat rigid, fleshy, becoming more or less de- 
^^ pressed, often marked with concentric zones. Gills 

unequal, membranaceous-waxy, slightly rigid, 
milky, edge acute, decurrent or adnate and often 
branched. Stem stout, central, rarely excentric 
except in those growing on trunks. Spores globose, minutely echinu- 
late, white, rarely yellowish. 

Nearly all grow on the ground. 

Distinguished from all other fungi by the presence of a granular milk 
which pervades every part of the plant and especially the gills ; it is 
commonly white, sometimes changing color and in section Dapetes 
highly colored from the first. The nature of the milk, especially its 
taste, whether acrid, subacrid or mild, must be carefully noted in dis- 
tinguishing species, as it is the most useful characteristic. 

In Russula, the only allied genus, the milk-bearing cells are present, 
but their contents do not appear as milk. 

Many of the species are peppery, acrid, astringent; some mildly so, 
others will be long remembered if tasted raw. Yet not a species is hot- 
ter than some radishes, onions, and others of our favorite vegetables. 
Who would condemn them because they are peppery? There is not a 
single species of Lactarius which retains its pepperiness after cooking. 
This quality has to be and is supplied by one of our favorite condiments 
ii 161 


Lactarius. pepper itself . Simply because they are toadstools and hot, they have 
been condemned without trial. It is remarkable that not one of the 
fungi known to be deadly gives any warning by appearance or flavor of 
the presence of a poison. The day will probably come when it can be 
said that if toadstool eaters will confine themselves to hot species, other- 
wise attractive, they will run no risk. Panus stypticus is astringent, 
not hot. 


PlPERITES (peppery, after piperitis, pepperwort). Page 163. 

Stem central. Gills unchangeable, not pruinose nor becoming dis- 
colored. Milk white at first, usually acrid. 

* TRICHOLOMOIDEI inclining to Tricholoma. Pileus moist, viscid, 
margin incurved and downy at first. 

** LlMACINl Umax, a slug. Pileus viscid when moist, with a pel- 
licle, margin naked. 

*** PIPERATI. Pileus without a pellicle, hence absolutely dry, often 
more or less downy or unpolished. 

DAPETES (daps, a feast). Page 170. 
Stem central. Gills naked. Milk highly colored from the first. 

RUSSULARIA (inclining to Russula). Page 173. 

Stem central. Gills pallid then discolored, at length dark and pow- 
dered with the white spores. Milk at first white, mild, or from mild 
becoming acrid. 

* VlSClDI viscidus, viscid, sticky. Pileus viscid at first. 

** IMPOLITI impolitus, unpolished. Pileus squamulose, downy or 

*** GLABRATI glaber, smooth. Pileus polished, smooth. 

PLEUROPUS (pleura, side; pous, a foot). 

Stem excentric or lateral. Growing on trunks. None known to be 



* TRICHOLOMOI'DEI. Pileus viscid, margin incurved, etc. 

L. tormino'silS Fr. tormina, gripes. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, convex, Lactarius. 
then depressed, viscid when young or moist, yellowish-red or pale- 
ochraceous tinged with red or flesh color, often varied with zones or 
spots, the at first involute margin persistently tomentose-hairy . Gills 
thin, close, narrow, whitish, often tinged with yellow or flesh color. 
Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g> 4-8 lines thick, equal or slightly tapering down- 
ward, hollow, sometimes spotted, whitish. Spores subglobose or 
broadly elliptical, 9-io/>t. Milk white, taste acrid. 

Woods. Adirondack mountains and Sandlake. August. Peck, 
38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Poisonous, and Gillet declares it to be deleterious and even danger- 
ous, and that in the raw state it is a very strong drastic purgative. On 
the other hand, Cordier states that almost all authors agree in stating 
that it is eaten with impunity, and that Letellier has eaten it more than 
once without inconvenience. 

Cooke states: "Whether it is poison is rather uncertain, and prob- 
ably assumed from its acridity." 

Bulliard says: "It is very acrid and this is changed by heat into an 
astringent of such power that a very little suffices to produce the most 
terrible accidents." On the other hand, Boudier says that the pres- 
ence of an acrid milk is an indication of no importance, that in cer- 
tain parts of the country they eat such Lactaria as even L. piperatus 
and do not experience any trouble. Certain Russulae as acrid as any 
Lactaria are known to be inoffensive. 

The Russians preserve it in salt and eat it seasoned with oil and vine- 

L. tur'pis Fr. turpis, base, from its ugly appearance. Pileus large, 
as much as 3-12 in. broad, olivaceous inclining to timber, fleshy, rigid, 
convex becoming plane, disk-shaped or umbilicate, at length depressed, 
innately hairy at the circumference or wholly covered over with tena- 
cious gluten, zoneless, sometimes tawny toward the margin, at length 
entirely inclining to umber; margin for a long time involute, at the first 
villous, olivaceous-light-yellow, then more or less flattened, at length 



Lactarius. often densely furrowed. Flesh compact, white, then slightly reddish. 
Stem 1% 3 in. long, % I in. and more thick, solid, hard, equal or 
attenuated downward, even or pitted and uneven, but not spotted, viscid 
or dry, pallid or dark olivaceous, ochraceous-whitish at the apex. Gills 
adnato-decurrent, thin, 1-2 lines broad, much crowded, forked, white 
straw-color, spotted brownish when broken or bruised. Milk acrid, 
white, unchangeable. Fries. 

Gregarious, rigidly and compactly fleshy; habit almost that of Paxillus 
involutus. It varies with the stem hollow, and the pileus somewhat 

Spores spheroid or subspheroid, uniguttate, echinulate, 6-8/u. K.; 
minutely spinulose, 6-8/x. Massee. 

New Jersey, Trenton, E, B. Sterling; North Carolina, Curtis, 
Schweinitz; Mt. Gretna, Pa. September, 1898. Along road in woods, 
moist places. Mcllvaine. 

The species is attractive by its very homeliness and odd individuality. 
It is not inviting. Cooked it is coarse and resembles L. piperatus. An 
emergency species. 

L. COntrover'silS Fr. contra, against; verto, to turn. PileilS 3 in. 
and more broad, fleshy, compact, rigid, at the first convex, broadly 
umbilicate, when fuller grown somewhat funnel-sJiaped , oblique, on 
emerging from the ground dry, flocculose, whitish, then with rain 
smooth, viscid, reddish, with blood-colored spots and zones (especially 
toward the margin), margin acute when young, closely involute, more 
or less villous. Flesh very firm. Stem commonly I in. long and thick, 
sometimes, however, 2 in. long and then manifestly attenuated toward 
the base and often excentric, solid, obese, even but pruinate and as if 
striate at the apex from the obsoletely decurrent tooth of the gills, 
wholly white, never pitted. Gills decurrent, thin, very crowded, 12 
lines broad, with many shorter ones intermixed, but rarely branched, 
pallid-white-flesh-color. Milk white, unchangeable, plentiful. Fries. 

Odor weak but pleasant, taste very acrid. Allied to L. piperatus. 

In woods. Uncommon. August to October. Stevenson. 

Spores echinulate, 8x6/* W.G.S.; globose, rough, 6-8/* Massee. 

California, H. and M . 

Edible, rather deficient in aroma and flavor. Cooke. 



L. blen'nius Fr. Gr. slimy. PileilS 3~5 in- across. Flesh thick, Lactarios. 

farm ; soon expanded and more or 

( Plate XLIa.) 

less depressed, glutinous, dingy 

greenish-gray, often more or less 

zoned with drop-like markings ; mar- 

gin at first incurved and downy. 

Gills slightly decurrent, crowded, 

narrow, whitish or with an ochrace- 

ous tinge. Stem 1-2 in. long, up to 

I in. thick at the apex, where it ex- LACTARILS BLENNIUS. 

pands into the thick flesh of the pi- About one - fourth natural * iz e- 

leus, often attenuated at the base, viscid, colored like the stem or paler, 

soon hollow. Milk persistently white, very acrid. Spores subglobose, 

In woods, on the ground, very rarely on trunks. 

L. turpis somewhat resembles the present species but differs in the 
darker olive-brown pileus and the yellow down on the incurved margin, 
especially when young. Massee. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad, fleshy, rarely subzonate, convex, the margin 
generally involute and adpresso-tomentose (quite smooth, Fries] ; at 
length more or less depressed, dull cinereous-green, at first viscid, more 
or less pitted. Milk white, not changeable. Gills rather narrow, pale 
ochraceous, scarcely forked, not connected by veins. Stem I in. long, 
/-> in. thick, paler than the pileus, attenuated downward, obtuse, 
smooth, at length hollow, sometimes pitted, very acrid. Berk, 

Edible. Coarse. 

**LIMACI'NI. Pileus viscid, etc. 

L. inSUl'silS Fr. tasteless. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, convex and um- 
bilicate, then funnel-shaped, glabrous, viscid, more or less sonate, yellow- 
ish, the margin naked. Gills thin, close, adnate or decurrent, some of 
them forked at the base, whitish or pallid. Stem 1-2 in. long, 4-6 
lines thick, equal or slightly tapering downward, stuffed or hollow, 
whitish or yellowish, generally spotted. Spores 7.6-9/1*. Milk white, 
taste acrid. 

Thin woods and open, grassy places. Greenbush and Sandlake, N.Y. 
July and August. 



.Lactarius. Our plant has the pileus pale yellow or straw color, and sometimes 
nearly white, but European forms have been described as having it 
orange-yellow and brick-red. It is generally, though often obscurely, 
zonate. The zones are ordinarily more distinct near the margin, where 
they are occasionally very narrow and close. The milk in the Green- 
bush specimens had a thin, somewhat watery appearance. Peck, 38th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. July to September. Com- 
mon in mixed woods and grassy places. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Cordier, Curtis. 

L. insulsus is another peppery member of Lactarius which has 
suffered unjustly. I have eaten it since 1881, and think it the best of 
the hot milk species. Its flesh is not as coarse as others, and is of 
better flavor. There is little difference in quality between it and L. 

L. hys'ghlUS Fr. Gr. a crimson dye. PileilS 2-3 in. broad, rigid, 
at first convex, then nearly plane, umbilicate or slightly depressed, even, 
viscid, zoneless or rarely obscurely zonate, reddish-incarnate, tan-color 
or brownish-red, becoming paler with age, the thin margin inflexed. 
Gills close, adnate or subdecurrent, whitish, becoming yellowish or 
cream-colored. Stem 1-2 in. long, 48 lines thick, equal, glabrous, 
stuffed or hollow, colored like the pileus, or a little paler, sometimes 
spotted. Milk white, taste acrid. 

Woods. Sandlake and Canoga, N. Y. July and August. Not 

The reddish hue of the pileus distinguishes this species from its allies. 
The gluten or viscidity of the pileus in our specimens was rather tena- 
cious and persistent. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores subglobose, whitish on black paper, yellowish on white paper, 
9-io/x. Peck; IOX7-8/A Massee. . 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1897. Mixed woods. August, September. 

Not very acrid. The entire acridity disappears in cooking Several 
specimens were found and eaten, enough to prove it esculent and of 
good quality. 

1 66 

*** PiPERATI. Pileus dry, etc. 

L. plum'beus Fr. like plumbum, lead. Pileus 25 in. broad, com- Lactarius. 
pact, convex, then infundibuliform, dry, unpolished sooty or brownish- 
black. Gills crowded, white, or yellowish. Stem 1-5-3 m - l n g 3-6 
lines thick, solid, equal, thick. Milk white, acrid, unchangeable. 
Spores 6.3-7.6)".. 

The specimens which I have referred to this species were found in the 
Catskill mountains several years ago, growing in hemlock woods, under 
spruce and balsam trees. I have not met with the species since. The 
pileus in the larger specimens had a minutely tomentose appearance, 
but in the dried specimens this has disappeared. They also varied in 
color from blackish-brown to pinkish-brown and grayish-brown, but 
they can scarcely be more than a mere form or variety of the species 
the description of which, as given by Fries, I have quoted. In the 
Handbook the pileus is described as dark fuliginous-gray or brown, and 
Gillet describes it as black-brown, dark fuliginous or lead color, and 
adds that the plant is poisonous and the milk very acrid and burning. 
Cordier says that the flesh is white and the taste bitter and disagreeable. 
Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Poisonous. Gillet. 

L. pergame'nilS Fr. parchment. White. Pileus fleshy, pliant, 
convex then piano-depressed, spread, zoneless, slightly wrinkled, 
smooth. Stem stuffed, smooth, changing color. Gills adnate, very 
narrow, horizontal, very crowded, branched, white, then straw-color. 
Milk white, acrid. 

Very much allied to L. piperatus, but differing in the stem being 
stuffed, at length softer internally, elongated, 3 in., unequal, attenu- 
ated downward and here and there ascending, quite smooth; in \hepilens 
being thinner, pliant, elastic, most frequently irregular and excentric, 
for the most part flexuous, at first convex (not umbilicate), then rather 
plane, the surface very smooth, but unpolished and wrinkled in a pecu- 
liar manner ; and in the gills being adnate, not decurrent, very crowded, 
very narrow (scarcely I line broad), always straight and horizontal , not 
arcuate or extended upward, soon straw-color : The flesh is very milky, 
but the gills are sparingly so. Fries. 

In woods. October. 



Lactarius. Spores subglobose, rather irregular, 6-8/u. C.B.P.; broadly elliptical, 
echinulate, 7x5-6/4 Massee. 

Eaten on the continent and Nova Scotia. Edible. Cooke. 
North Carolina, Curtis; New England, Frost; Ohio, Morgan. 

L. pipera'tus Fr. -piper, pepper. (Plate XLI, fig. I , p. 160.) Pileus 
49 in. broad, white, fleshy, rigid, umbilicate when young, reflexed (mar- 
gin at first involute) at the circumference, when full grown wholly funnel- 
shaped, for the most part regular, even, smooth, zoneless. Flesh white. 
Stem 1-2 in. long, 1-2 in. thick, solid, obese, equal or obconical, even, 
obsoletely pruinose, white. Gills decurrent, crowded, narrow, scarcely 
broader than I line, obtuse at the edge, dividing by pairs, arcuate then 
all extended upward in a straight line, white, here and there with yellow 
spots. Milk white, unchangeable, plentiful and very acrid. 

Compact, firm, dry, inodorous. The pileus becomes obsoletely yellow 
when old. Although the gills are spotted with yellow, they do not 
change to straw color like those of L. pergamenus. Fries. 

Spores white, nearly smooth, 6.3-7.6^ Peck; subglobose, 8-9/4 dia- 
meter Massee; 5x6/* W.G.S. 

Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 1881-1885. New Jersey, Pennsylvania 
in woods and on grassy places. July to October. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Curtis. 

L. piperatus is a readily distinguished species. It is very common. 
In 1 88 1, after an extensive forest fire in the West Virginia forests, I saw 
miles of the blackened district made white by a growth of this fungus. 
It was the phenomenal growth which first attracted my attention to 
toadstools. I collected it then in quantity and used it, with good results, 
as a fertilizer on impoverished ground. 

It has been eaten for many years in most countries, yet a few writers 
continue to warn against it. It is the representative fungus of its class 
meaty, coarse, fair flavor. It is edible and is good food when one is 
hungry and can not get better. It is best used as an absorbent of 

L. decepti'vus Pk. deceiving. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, compact, at 
first convex and umbilicate, then expanded and centrally depressed or 
subinfundibuliform, obsoletely tomentose or glabrous except on the mar- 
gin, white or whitish, often varied with yellowish or sordid stains, the 

1 68 


margin at first involute and clothed with a dense, soft or cottony tomentu m , Lactarius. 
then spreading or elevated and more or less fibrillose. Gills rather 
broad, distant or subdistant, adnate or decurrent, some of them forked, 
whitish, becoming cream-colored. Stem 1-3 in. long, 8-18 lines thick, 
equal or narrowed downward, solid, pruinose-pubescent, white. Spores 
white, 9-12. 7/1. Milk white, taste acrid. 

Woods and open places, especially under hemlock trees. Common. 
July to September. 

Trial of its edible qualities was made without any evil conse- 
quences. The acridity was destroyed by cooking. Peck, 38th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Alabama, U. and E.; New York, Peck, 38th Rep.; West Virginia, 
1881-1885, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Woods and open places. July 
to October. Mcllvaine. 

In common with all peppery Lactarii the present species loses the 
quality in cooking. The edible qualities then depend upon texture, 
substance, flavor. The species is coarse but meaty and of fair flavor. 

L. velle'reus Fr. vellus, fleece. Pileus 2-5 in. broad, compact, at 
first convex and umbilicate, then expanded and centrally depressed or 
subinfundibuliform, the whole surface minutely velvety-tomentose , soft to 
the touch, white or whitish, the margin at first involute, then reflexed. 
Gills distant or subdistant, adnate or decurrent, sometimes forked, 
whitish becoming yellowish or cream-colored. Stem .52 in. long, 
6- 1 6 lines thick, firm, solid, equal or tapering downward, pruinose- 
pubescent, white. Milk white, taste acrid. Spores white. 

Woods and open places. Common. July to September. Peck, 38th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores white, nearly smooth, 7-9^ Peck; 4x8/1 W.G.S. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Woods and open places. 
July to October. Mcllvaine. 

Poisonous according to some authors. Cordier. Edible. Leveille. 
Eaten it for eighteen years. Mcllvaine. 

This common, very acrid species is characterized by the downy 
covering of its cap. 

It is a coarse species, but meaty. Its acridity is lost in cooking, 
when it makes a fair dish. 



Lactarius. L. involu'tus Soppitt. involved. Every part white or with a very 
slight ochraceous tinge. Pileus i 2 in. across, flesh about i/4 lines 
thick, equal up to the margin, compact, rigid, convex, soon becoming 
plane or slightly depressed, margin strongly and persistently involute, 
extreme edge minutely silky, remainder even and glabrous. Gills very 
slightly decurrent, densely crowded, not % line broad, sometimes forked. 
Stem %i in. long, 2-3 lines thick, equal, or slightly thickened at the 
base, glabrous, even, solid, very firm. Milk white, unchangeable, not 
scanty, very hot. Spores obliquely elliptical, smooth, 5x3/01. 

Very firm and rigid, resembling in habit L. vellereus in miniature. 
Most nearly allied to L. scoticus, but known at once by the exceedingly 
narrow, densely-crowded gills and the smooth, elliptical spores. Massee. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885, plentiful. Angora, West Philadelphia. 
August, September, 1897. In mixed woods. Mcllvaine. 

Much smaller than L. piperatus. Pileus convex, then plane with 
depressions in center, margin involute. Gills slightly decurrent, densely 
crowded, very narrow. Stem short, firm, solid. Milk white, very hot. 

L. involutus is readily mistaken for small forms of L. vellereus and 
L. piperatus. The extremely narrow gills, so close and firm that it takes 
sharp eyes to follow them, are a distinguishing mark. 

Its flesh is of same consistency as L. piperatus hard and coarse. It 
loses its pepperiness in cooking and is a good emergency plant, or 

II. DAPETES daps, food. Milk highly colored, etc. 

America is rich in this section. Fries records but two species, L. 
deliciosus and L. sanguifluus, while America has four. The edible 
properties of three are known to be good ; L. subpurpureus has not come 
under observation, but is added to complete the series as it is probably 
edible and is well marked by its dark-red milk. Mcllvaine. 

L. delicio'sus Fr. delicious. (Plate XLI, fig. 3, p. 160.) Pilens 
2-6 in. broad, orange-brick-color, yellowish or grayish-orange, becom- 
ing pale, fleshy, when quite young depressed in the center, margin 
naked, involute, then piano-depressed or broadly funnel-shaped with 
the margin unfolded, smooth, slightly viscid, zoned (zones sometimes 
obsolete). Flesh soft, not compact, pallid, colored at the circumfer- 



ence only by the juice. Stem 1-2 in. and more long, i in. thick, Lactarius. 
stuffed then hollow, at length fragile, equal or attenuated at the base, 
spotted in a pitted manner, of the same color as the piieus or paler. 
Gills somewhat decurrent, crowded, narrow, arcuate, often branched, 
typically saffron-yellow, but becoming pale and always becoming green 
when wounded. Milk aromatic, from the first red-brick-saffron. Fries. 

Spores white, spheroid, echinulate 7-8/x K.; 6/x, W.G.S.; echinulate, 
9 iox7-8/A Massee; subglobose, 7.6-io/x, Peck. 

In woods, under firs, etc. 

Pileus dingy orange-red becoming pale, often greenish. Every part 
turns to a homely green when bruised. It is from 3 to 5 in. across, 
thick, convex, then depressed in center, margin at first curved in. Gills 
decurrent, narrow, saffron-color. Milk saffron-red or orange changing 
to green; sweet scented but slightly acrid. I have never seen but one 
specimen with milk distinctly orange, and changing to green. The 
milk in this species varies in color, much depending upon moisture. It 
grows in patches, sometimes in clusters. 

Edible. Curtis. 

There is no question of its edibility. Old and modern writers applaud 
it. Each cooks to his liking and thinks his own way best. It requires 
forty minutes' stewing or baking; less time if roasted or fried. It can 
be cooked in any way, but, like all Lactarii, it must be well cooked. 

L. in'digO Schw. (Plate XLI, fig. 2, p. 160.) Pileus 2-5 in. 
broad, at first umbilicate with the margin involute, then depressed or 
infundibuliform, indigo-blue with a silvery-gray luster, zonate, especially 
on the margin, sometimes spotted, becoming paler and less distinctly 
zonate with age or in drying. Gills close, indigo-blue, becoming yel- 
lowish and sometimes greenish with age. Stem 1-2 in. long, 6-10 
lines thick, short nearly equal, hollow, often spotted with blue, colored 
like the piieus. Milk dark-blue. 

Dry places, especially under or near pine trees. Not rare but seldom 
abundant. July to September. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores subglobose, 7.6-9/* long Peck. 

West Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Solitary 
and in groups, in pine and mixed woods. July to September. Mcllvaine. 

The exceptional color of L. indigo will halt anyone with ordinary 
observing power. It is unnecessary to describe it further. Being a 



Lactarius. large, stout plant it frequently lifts the leaf mat as it pushes upward, 
making leaf-mounds under which it is hidden, as do many of the Cor- 
tinarii. But even in such instances there are usually a few solitary 
plants standing prominently forth as sentinels. 
It is edible, but coarse. Good flavor. 

L. chelido'nium Pk. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, at first convex, then 
nearly plane and umbilicate or centrally depressed, grayish-yellow or 
tawny, at length varied with bluish and greenish stains, often with a few 
narrow zones on the margin. Gills narrow, close, sometimes forked, 
anastomosing or wavy at the base, grayish-yellow. Stem 1-1.5 in. 
long, 46 lines thick, short, subequal, hollow, colored like the pileus. 
Spores globose, 7.5ft. Milk sparse, saffron-yellow ; taste mild. 

Sandy soil, under or near pine trees. Saratoga and Bethlehem. 

The milk of this species resembles in color the juice of celandine, 
Chelidonium majus. It is paler than that of L. deliciosus. By this 
character and by the dull color of the pileus, the narrow lamellae, short 
stem and its fondness for dry situations, it may be separated from the 
other species. Wounds of the flesh are at first stained with the color 
of the milk, then with blue, finally with green. A saffron-color is some- 
times attributed to the milk of L. deliciosus, which may indicate that 
this species has been confused with that, or that the relationship of the 
two plants is a closer one than we have assigned to them. Peck, 38th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. In mixed woods, gravelly low ground. Septem- 
ber, October. Mcllvaine. 

A score or more solitary specimens were found and eaten. The sub- 
stance and flavor are not distinguishable from L. deliciosus, which is 
lauded to the summit of good toadstools. 

Lo subpurpu'reus Pk. sub, under; purpnretis, purple. Pileus at 
first convex, then nearly plane or subinfundibuliform, more or less 
spotted and zonate when young, and moist dark-red with a grayish 
luster. Gills close, dark-red, becoming less clear and sometimes green- 
ish-stained with age. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, soon 
hollow, often spotted with red, colored like the pileus, sometimes hairy 
at the base. Spores subglobose, 9-10/1*. Milk dark-red. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g> 3-5 l mes thick. 



Damp or mossy ground in woods and swamps. July and August. Lactarius. 

At once known by the peculiar dark-red or purplish hue of the milk, 
which color also appears in the spots of the stem and in a more subdued 
tone in the whole plant. The color of the pileus, gills and stem is 
modified by grayish and yellowish hues. In age and dryness the zones 
are less clear, and dried specimens can scarcely be distinguished from 
L. deliciosus. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

I have not seen this species. 

* VlSClDl. Pileus viscid. 

L. pal'lidus Fr. pale. Pileus 3-6 in. broad, flesh-color or clay- 
color to pallid, somewhat tan, fleshy, umbilicato-convex, depressed, 
obtuse, margin broadly and for a long time involute, smooth, gluey, 
zoneless. Flesh pallid. Stem 2 in. and more long, about X in. thick, 
somewhat equal, stuffed then hollow, even, smooth, of the same color 
as the pileus. Gills somewhat decurrent, arcuate, rather broad, i> 2 
lines and more; somewhat thin, crowded, somewhat branched, whitish 
at length of the same color as the pileus. Milk white, unchangeable. 

Taste somewhat mild. Stature that of L. deliciosus, but more lax in 
texture and always pallid. There is a variety with the pileus inclining 
to dingy-brown. Stevenson. 

Mixed woods. September to October. 

Spores echinulate, almost round, 8/u. W. G.S.; J\ IP- Coo^e/giox^-Sp- 

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Massachusetts, Frost; Minnesota, 
Johnson; Rhode Island, Bennett. 

Edible. Cooke. 

L. quie'tus Fr. calm, mild. Pileus 3 in. broad, fleshy, depressed, 
obtuse, margin deflexed, smooth, at first viscid, somewhat cinnamon, 
flesh-color, disk darker, somewhat zoned, soon dry, somewhat silky, 
opaque, becoming pale. Flesh white then reddish. Stem 2-3 in. long, 
K in. and more thick, stuffed, spongy, smooth, reddish, at length 
beautifully rust-color. Gills adnato-decurrent, somewhat forked at the 



Lactarius. base, i%2 lines broad, white then soon brick-red. Milk white, un- 
changeable, sivcet. Fries. 

In woods. August to November. Stevenson. 
Spores echinulate, 8-iox6-7/A Massee; 10-121* Cooke. 
Nova Scotia, Somers; New York, Peck, Rep. 42. 
Edible. Cooke. Eaten in France and held in estimation. 

L. theio'galllS Fr. Gr. brimstone; milk. PileilS 2-5 in. broad, 
fleshy, thin, convex, then depressed, even, glabrous, viscid, tawny- 
reddish. Lamellae adnate or decurrent, close, pallid or reddish. Stem 
13 in. long, 410 lines thick, stuffed or hollow, even, colored like the 
pileus . Spores yellowish , inclining to pale flesh-color, subglobose ,7.5 -9/u, . 
Milk white, changing to sulphur-yellow t taste tardily acrid, bitterish. 

Woods and groves. Common. July to October. 

Our plant does not fully accord with the description of the species as 
given by Fries. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores subglobose, 7-8/u. diameter Massee; subglobose, 7.5-9/1 Peck. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885; Mt. Gretna, Pa. July, 1897; New 
Jersey, common in mixed woods. July to frost. Mcllvaine. 

L. theiogalus possesses all the good qualities of the hot milk species. 
While I ate it whenever I chose in West Virginia, I did not again eat it 
until 1897 at Mt. Gretna. There several partook of it and thought it 
rather coarse, but of good flavor. It requires long cooking. 

L. fuligino'sus Fr. fuligo, soot. PileilS 1-2.5 in- broad, firm, be- 
coming soft, convex plane or slightly depressed, even, dry, zoneless, 
dingy ash-color or bnff-gray, appearing as if covered with a dingy pru- 
inosity, the margin sometimes wavy or lobed. Gills adnate or subde- 
current, subdistant, whitish then yellowish, becoming stained with pink- 
red or salmon-color where wounded. Stem 12 in. long, 35 lines thick, 
equal or slightly tapering downward, firm, stuffed, colored like the 
pileus. Spores globose, yellowish, 7.5-io/u,. Milk white, taste tardily 
and sometimes slightly acrid. 

Thin woods and open grassy places. Greenbush and Sandlake, N. Y. 
July and August. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

A form with the pileus colored like that of L. lignyotus, but with the 
gills much closer than in that species, was found in a swamp near Sevey. 
July. Peck, 43d Rep. 

POISONOUS. Barla and Reveil, Cordier. 



L. fumo'silS Pk. Pileus 1.5-2.5 in. broad, firm, convex, then ex- Lactarius. 
panded and slightly depressed in the center, smooth, dry, smoky-brown 
or sordid-white. Gills close, adnate or slightly rounded behind, white, 
then yellowish. Stem 3-5 lines thick, firm, short, smooth, stuffed, 
generally tapering downward. Spores distinctly echinulate, yellow, 6p- 
in diameter. Flesh and Milk white; taste at first mild, then acrid. 

Plant 1.5-2 in. high. 

Grassy ground in open woods. Greenbush. July. 

The peculiar smoky hue of the pileus and yellow spores enable this 
species to be easily recognized. The flesh when wounded slowly 
changes to a dull pinkish-color. Related to L. fuliginosus. Peck, 24th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

**!MPOLITI. Pileus downy, etc. 

L. ru'ftlS Fr. red. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, convex and centrally 
depressed, then funnel-shaped, generally with a small umbo, glabrous, 
sometimes slightly floccose or pubescent when young, especially on the 
margin, zoneless, bay-red or brownish-red, shining. Grills narrow or 
moderately broad, sometimes forked, close, subdecurrent, yellowish or 
reddish. Stem 2-4 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, nearly equal, firm, stuffed, 
paler than or colored like the pileus. Spores white, 7.6 lOju,. Milk 
white, taste very acrid. 

Low woods and swamps. North Elba. August. Rare. 

The red Lactarius is known by its rather large size, dark-red pileus 
and intensely acrid taste. It has been found but once in our state. The 
flesh is pinkish and the stem sometimes pruinose. It is designated by 
authors as very poisonous and extremely poisonous. Cordier even says 
that worms never attack it. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Massachusetts, Frost; New York, Peck, Rep. 23, Rep. 38. 

I have not recognized this species. It is given as markedly 

L. glycios'mus Fr. Gr. sweet; Gr. scent. Pileus K-i>* in. 
broad, thin, convex nearly plane or depressed, often with a small umbo 
or papilla, minutely squamulose, ash-colored, grayish-brown or smoky- 
brown, sometimes tinged with pink, the margin even or slightly and 
distinctly striate. Gills narrow, close, adnate or decurrent, whitish or 



Lactarius. yellowish. Stem Yz\% in. long, 1-3 lines thick, equal, glabrous or 
obsoletely pubescent, stuffed, rarely hollow, whitish or colored like the 
pileus. Milk white, taste acrid and unpleasant, sometimes bitterish, 
odor aromatic. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Smell agreeable, of melilot, as that of L. camphoratus. 

Spores spheroid, echinulate, 6-8/u. K.; subglobose, size variable, 
6-io/u, Massee. 

The American plant, so far as observed, does not have the red hues 
ascribed to the European. 

Haddonfield, N. J., T. 7. Collins; Scranton, Pa., Dr. J. M. Phillips; 
Chester county, Pa., September, 1887, on ground in woods, Mcllvaine. 

This small Lactarius was found on several occasions. Its odor is 
attractive, but its taste is not. Cooked it is of high flavor, but will 
not be liked by many. 

L. aqui'flims Pk. watery. Pileus fragile, fleshy, convex or ex- 
panded, at length centrally depressed, dry, smooth, or sometimes 
appearing as if clothed with a minute appressed tomentum, reddish tan- 
colored, the decurved margin often flexuous. Gills rather narrow, 
close, whitish, becoming dull reddish yellow. Stem more or less 
elongated, equal or slightly tapering upward, colored like the pileus, 
smooth, hollow, the cavity irregular as if eroded. Spores subglobose, 
rough, 7.6ft. Flesh colored like the pileus. Milk sparse, watery. 

Plant 3-8 in. high. Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 5-10 lines thick. 

Swamps and wet mossy places in woods. Sandlake and North Elba. 
August and September. 

The relationship of this plant is with L. serifluus, to which it was 
formerly referred, but from which I am now satisfied it is distinct. The 
hollow stem is a constant character in our plant, and affords a ready 
mark of distinction. The plant, though large, is very fragile, and 
breaks easily. The taste is mild or but slightly acrid. Sometimes there 
is an obscure zonation on the pileus, which, in large specimens, is apt 
to be irregular and much worm-eaten. The milk looks like little drops 
of water when first issuing from a wound, but it becomes a little less 
clear on exposure to the atmosphere. The decided but agreeable odor 
of the dried specimens persists a long time. Peck, 28th Rep. 

This plant is sometimes cespitose. The pileus when dry is tawny- 
gray and scaly or cracked scaly. The margin may be even or coarsely 



sulcate-striate. The flesh is grayish or reddish-gray. The color of the Lactarins. 
lamellae varies from creamy-white to tawny-yellow. The stem often has 
a conspicuous white myceloid tomentum at its base. I have never 
found this plant with a white or milky juice, and therefore I am dis- 
posed to regard it not as a variety of L. helvus, but as a distinct species. 
Its mild taste and agreeable odor suggested a trial of its edible qualities. 
It is harmless, but the lack of flavor induces me to omit it from the list 
of edible species. Peck, 5Oth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Var. brevis simus Pk. Pileus 11.5 m - broad, grayish-buff. Gills 
crowded, adnate, yellowish or cream-color. Stem very short, 68 lines 

Black mucky soil in roads in woods. Township 24, Franklin county. 

Plant fragrant ; sometimes cespitose. Peck, 5 ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Angora, West Philadelphia, in moist oak woods. August, 1897, 
Philadelphia Myc. Center. 

Flesh rather hard when cooked, and insipid. Good as an absorbent 
or in emergency. 

L. lignyo'tllS Fr. lignum, wood. Pileus 1-4 in. broad, broadly 
convex plane or slightly depressed, dry, with or without a small umbo, 
generally rugose-wrinkled, dark-brown, appearing sub pulverulent or as 
if suffused with a dingy pruinosity , the margin sometimes crenately 
lobed and distinctly plicate. Gills moderately close or subdistant, ad- 
nate, white or yellowish, slowly changing to pinkish-red or salmon color 
where wounded. Stem 1-3 in. long, 2-6 lines thick, equal or abruptly 
narrowed at the apex, even, glabrous, stuffed, colored like the pileus, 
sometimes plicate at the top. Milk white, taste mild or tardily and 
slightly acrid. 

Var. tenuipes. Pileus about I in. broad. Stem slender, 2-3 in. 
long and about 2 lines thick. 

Wet or mossy ground in woods and swamps. Adirondack mountains 
and Sandlake. July and August. Not rare in hilly and mountainous 
districts. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores globose, yellowish, 9-11.3^ Peck; pale ochraceous, subglo- 
bose, minutely echinulate, 9-10/1, diameter Massee. 

West Virginia mountains, 1881-1885; Eagle's Mere; Mt. Gretna, 

12 I 77 


Lactarius. Pa. Solitary and gregarious, moist woods and wooded places. July 
to September. Mcllvaine. 

In my long experience with the plant I have not seen any change of 
color, save that, like the white milk of other species, it darkens slightly 
to a cream color. I have found it distinctly umbilicate and quite um- 
bonate in the same patch. 

L. lignyotus is one of the best of Lactarii and quite equal to L. 

L. COrru'gis Pk. having wrinkles or folds. Pileus 3~5 in. broad, 
firm, convex, then nearly plane or centrally depressed, rugose reticulated, 
covered with a velvety pruinosity or pubescence, dark reddish-brown or 
cliestnut-color, fading with age to tawny-brown. Gills close, dark 
cream-color or subcinnamon, becoming paler when old, sordid or brown- 
ish where bruised or wounded. Stem 35 in. long, 612 lines thick, 
equal, solid, glabrous or merely pruinose, paler than but similar in color 
to the pileus. Spores subglobose, 1013^1. Milk copious, white, taste 

Thin woods. Sandlake, Gansevoort and Brewerton, N. Y. August 
and September. 

This curious Lactarius is related to L. volemus, from which it may 
be separated by its darker colors and its corrugated pileus. The flexu- 
ous reticulated rugae present an appearance similar to that of the 
hymenium of a Merulius. The pileus is everywhere pruinose-pubescent 
and the gills bear numerous spine-like or acicular cystidia or spicules, 
4 5/tx long. These are so numerous on and near the edges of the gills 
that they give them a pubescent appearance. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

I found many at Mt. Gretna, Pa., up to 6K in. in diameter. Flesh 
not so firm as L. volemus. Stem equal, rugulose, flattened in old 
specimens. Milk very slightly acrid. 

Better in taste and quality than L. volemus. 

L. lute'olllS Pk. yellowish. PileilS 2-3 in. broad, fleshy, rather 
thin, convex or nearly plane, commonly umbilicately depressed in the 
center and somewhat rugulose, pruinose or subglabrous, buff-color. 
Flesh white, taste mild. Milk copious, flowing easily, white or whitish. 
Gills close, nearly plane, adnate or slightly rounded behind, whitish, 



becoming brownish where wounded. Stem I-I-5 m - l n g. 3~5 nnes Lactanus. 
thick, short, equal or tapering downward, solid, but somewhat spongy 
within, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, 7.6/x. broad. 

Dry woods. East Milton, Mass. August. H '. Webster. 

This species is related to Lactarius volemus and L. hygrophoroides, 
but its smaller size and short stem will distinguish it from the former 
and its close gills from the latter. Its paler buff-color will separate it 
from both. Some specimens have a narrow encircling furrow or de- 
pressed zone near the margin and a slightly darker shade of color on 
the margin. The milk constitutes a remarkable feature of the species. 
According to the notes of the collector it is exceedingly copious, rather 
sticky, serous in character with white particles in suspension. It flows 
from many points as soon as the plant is disturbed and it stains the gills. 
It is impossible to collect an unstained specimen, so free is the flow of 
the milk. He, Mr. Webster, says: "I have never succeeded in pick- 
ing a specimen so quietly as to prevent an instant and copious flow of 
its milk." Torrey Bull., Vol. 23, No. 10, 1896. 

Angora, West Philadelphia, August, 1897. I* 1 oak woods. August, 
September. Mcllvaine. 

Quite frequent there. My attention was directed to it by the "nar- 
row encircling furrow or depressed zone near the margin." 

It is of like quality to L. volemus. 

L. Gcerar'dii Pk. Pileus 1.5-4 m - broad, broadly convex plane or 
slightly depressed, dry, generally rugose-wrinkled, with or without a 
small umbo or papilla, dingy-brown, the thin spreading margin some- 
times flexuous lobed or irregular. Gills distant, adnate or decurrent, 
wlute or whitish, the interspaces generally uneven. Stem 12 in. long, 
36 lines thick, subequal, stuffed or hollow, colored like the pileus. 
Spores globose, white, 9-1 1.3^. Milk white, unchangeable, taste mild. 

W 7 oods and open places. Poughkeepsie, W. R. Gerard. Green- 
bush, Sandlake and Croghan, N. Y. July to September. 

This Lactarius closely resembles the Sooty lactarius in color, but dif- 
fers from it in its more distant gills, white spores and constantly mild 
taste. Wounds of the flesh and gills do not become pinkish-red as in 
that plant. From L. hygrophoroides its darker color, hollow stem and 
more globose rougher spores separate it. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State 



Lactarius. In the color of the pileus and stem this species is like the larger forms 
of L. fuliginosus. Peck, 26th Rep. 
Edible. Boston Myc. Club Bull. 

*** GLABRA'TI. Pileus smooth. 

L. VOle'muS Fr. volema pirn, a kind of large pear. (Plate XLI, 
fig- 4, P- 1 60.) Pileus 2-5 in. broad, firm, convex, nearly plane or 
centrally depressed, rarely funnel-shaped, sometimes with a small umbo, 
generally even, glabrous, dry, golden-tawny or brownish-orange, some- 
times darker in the center, often becoming rimose-areolate. Gills close, 
adnate or subdecurrent, white or yellowish, becoming sordid or brown- 
ish where bruised or wounded. Stem 1-4 in. long, 4-10 lines thick, 
subequal, variable in length, firm, solid, glabrous or merely pruinose, 
colored like the pileus, sometimes a little paler. Milk copious, white, 
taste mild, flat. 

Var. subrugo'sus. Pileus rugose-reticulated on the margin. Peck, 
38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores globose, white, 9-11.3/4 Peck; 5-6> diameter Massee. 

Very delicious raw and celebrated from early times. Fries. 

Common over the United States, well known everywhere and dis- 
tinguished for its edible qualities. It is crisp and unless carefully cooked 
is hard and granular. It should have long, slow cooking, though it 
may be roasted or fried. 

L. hygrophoroi'des B. and C. resembling Hygrophorus. Pileus 
(Plate XLII.) ^r^^ 1-4 in. broad, firm, convex or near- 

ly plane, umbilicate or slightly de- 
pressed, rarely funnel-shaped, gla- 
brous or sometimes with a minute 
velvety pubescence or tomentum, 
dry, sometimes rugose-wrinkled and 
often becoming cracked in areas, 
yellowish-tawny or brownish-orange. 
Gills distant, adnate or subdecur- 
rent, white or cream-color, the interspaces uneven or venose. Stem 
.5-1 in. long, 4-8 lines thick, short, equal or tapering downward, solid, 
glabrous or merely pruinose, colored like the pileus. Spores subglo- 




bose or broadly elliptical, nearly smooth, 9-11.3^. Milk white, taste Lactarius. 

Grassy ground and borders of woods. Albany, Greenbush and Sand- 
lake. July and August. 

This plant has almost exactly the color of L. volemus, but differs 
from it in its distant gills, short stem, less copious milk and less globose 
spores. Its flesh is white, with a thickness about equal to the breadth 
of the gills. It is probably edible, but has not yet been tested. The 
typical L. hygrophoroides is described as having the pileus yellowish- 
red and pulverulent, and the gills luteous. It is also represented as a 
small plant; but our specimens, while not fully agreeing with this de- 
scription, approach so closely to it in some of their forms that they 
doubtless belong to the same species. We have therefore extended the 
description so that it may include our plant. In wet weather the pileus 
sometimes becomes funnel-form by the elevation of the margin. Peck, 
38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1897, grassy grounds and borders of woods. 
Mixed, moist woods and grassy borders. July to September. Me- 

Pileus up to 4 in. across. Stem 1-2 % in., tapering, equal or taper- 
ing downward. When growing in woods the stem is longer than when 
growing on borders. 

Its edible qualities are excellent. 

L. mitis'simus Fr. mitis, mild. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, golden-tawny, 
zoneless, fleshy, thin, somewhat rigid, convex, papillate, depressed, 
papilla vanishing, even, smooth, somewhat slippery when moist. Flesh 
pallid. Stem elongated, 1-3 in. long, K / in. thick, stuffed, then 
hollow, even, smooth, of the same color as the pileus. Gills adnato- 
decurrent, somewhat arcuate, then tense and straight, i-i % lines and 
more broad, thin, crowded, a little paler than the pileus, most frequently 
stained with minute red spots. Milk white, mild, plentiful. 

Thin; very much allied to L. subdulcis, but distinguished by the 
taste being mild, then somewhat bitterish, and especially by the bright, 
golden-tawny, resplendent color of the pileus and stem. Fries. 

In mixed and pine woods. August to November. Stevenson. 

Spores 6-8x5-6)". Massee; IO/A Cooke; spheroid, echinulate, 6-7/4 



(Plate XLIII.) 

Lactarius. California, H ' . and M . 

Edible. Cooke. Eaten on the continent. 

L. subdul'cis Fr. sub; dulcis, sweet. Pileus .5-2 in. broad, thin, 

convex, then plane or slightly funnel- 
shaped, with or without a small umbo 
or papilla, glabrous, even, zoneless, 
moist or dry, tawny-red, cinnamon- 
red or brownish-red, the margin 
sometimes wavy or flexuous. Gills 
rather narrow, thin, close, whitish, 
sometimes tinged with red. Stem 
12.5 in. long, i 3 lines thick, equal 
or slightly tapering upward, slender, 
glabrous, sometimes villous at the 



base, stuffed or hollow, paler than or colored like the pileus. Spores 
7.6 9/A. Milk white, taste mild or tardily and slightly acrid, sometimes 
woody or bitterish and unpleasant. Flesh whitish, pinkish or reddish 
gray, odor none. 

Fields, copses, woods, swamps and wet places. July to October. 
Very common. 

This species grows in almost every variety of soil and locality. It 
may be found in showery weather on dry, rocky soil, on bare ground 
or among mosses or fallen leaves. In drier weather it is still plentiful 
in swamps and wet, shaded places, and in sphagnous marshes. It some- 
times grows on decaying wood. It is also as variable as it is common. 
Gillet has described the following varieties : 

Var. cinnamo 'metis . Pileus cinnamon-red, sub-shining. Stem stuffed, 
then hollow; taste mild, becoming slightly acrid or bitter. 

Var. ru'fus. Pileus dull chestnut-red; becoming more concave. 
Stem spongy; taste mild. 

Var. ba'dius. Pileus bay-red, shining as if varnished, with an obtuse 
disk and an inflexed, elegantly crenulate margin. Stem very glabrous, 

The first and second varieties have occurred within our limits. The 
first also has the stem elastic and furnished with a whitish or grayish 
tomentum or strigose villosity at the base, when growing among moss 
in swamps. A form occurred in Sandlake, in which some of the speci- 



mens were proliferous. The umbo had developed into a minute pileus. Lactarius. 
With us the prevailing color of the pileus is yellowish-red or cinnamon- 
red. Sometimes the color is almost the same as that of L. volemus 
and L. hygrophoroides, and again it is a tan-color or a bay-red, as in 
L. camphoratus, from which such specimens are scarcely separable, ex- 
cept by their lack of odor. In young plants the pileus usually has a 
moist appearance, which is sometimes retained in maturity. Cordier 
pronounces the species edible, and says that he has tested it several 
times without inconvenience. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores ion Cooke; //A W.G.S. 

West Virginia mountains, 1881-1885; Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
everywhere on moist ground. July to October. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Curtis. 

The description of Fries as enlarged and modified by Professor Peck, 
together with that of the varieties placed to the credit of the species by 
Gillet, are given above in full. The species with its ascribed varieties 
is common and well known. Var. ba dins occurs in West Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. They are all edible and vary but little in quality. 
L. subdulcis requires long cooking. 

L. muta'bilis Pk. changeable. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, thin, convex 
or nearly plane, zonate when moist, reddish-brown, the disk and zones 
darker, zoneless when dry, flesh colored like the pileus. Milk sparse, 
white, taste mild. Gills narrow, close, adnate, whitish, with a yellow- 
ish or cream-colored tint when old. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, 
equal or tapering upward, stuffed or spongy within, glabrous, colored 
like the pileus. Spores subglobose, rough, 7 .6p- broad. 

Low, damp places. Selkirk and Yaphank, N. Y. June and Sep- 

The species is allied to L. subdulcis, from which the larger size and 
zonate pileus separate it. The zones disappear in the dry plant, and 
this change in the marking of the pileus suggests the specific name. 
They appear to be formed by concentric series of more or less confluent 
spots and are suggestive of such species as L. deliciosus and L. subpur- 
pureus. Peck, 43d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania. Solitary but frequent. In moist woods 
and margins of woods. June to October. Mcllvaine. 



Lactarius. I have been familiar with and eaten this plant since 1882, but thought 
it might be a variety of L. deliciosus, with light-colored milk. 
L. mutabilis is an excellent species, equal to any Lactarius. 

L. camphora'tus Fr. camphor. Pileus 1-2 in. across, 
red, somewhat zoned, sometimes zoneless, fleshy, thin, depressed, dry, 
smooth. Stem short, 1-2 in., stuffed, somewhat undulated, of the same 
color as the pileus. Gills adnate, crowded, yellowish-brick-color. Milk 
mild, white, odor agreeable, spicy. Fries. 

Strong smelling. So like L. subdulcis that it can be distinguished 
safely only by its odor of melilot when dried. Stevenson. 

Pileus .5-1.5 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 2-3 lines. Peck, 38th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores spherical, echinulate, 6-7/1* Q. ; subglobose, 8-9/t Massee ; 
7.6-9/A Peck. 

Taste and smell not of camphor, but of melilot. 

North Carolina, Curtis; South Carolina, Ravenel; Wisconsin, Bundy; 
New York, Peck, Rep. 23, Mon. 38th Rep. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, July to October, in moist places. Mixed 
woods, etc. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Gillet. 

Its mild taste distinguishes it at once from L. rufus. 

It has high but pleasant flavor. If the flavor is too evident to suit 
some tastes, it is well to mix milder species with it. 



Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 













Pileus regular, rigid, usually becoming more or less depressed. Russuia. 
Flesh of the pileus descending into (Plate XLV.) 

the gills forming a cellular trama. 
Veil and consequently the ring ab- 
sent. Stem smooth, stout, rigid, 
brittle, spongy within. Gills rigid, 
fragile, edge thin and acute. Spores 
rounded, often echinulate, white or 
yellowish. On the ground. 

Closely allied to Lactarius but 
separated by the absence of milk. 
The gills of some species exude wa- 
tery drops in moist weather. Owing 

to the similarity of form and the vari- RUSSULA 

able coloring many species are diffi- 
cult to determine ; all the characters should be carefully noted, not 
omitting that of the taste. 

Russulae are readily distinguished by the stout, short, brittle stem and 
the fragility of the pileus and gills. They especially love open woods 
and appear during the summer and fall months, some being found until 
sharp frosts occur. 

It has been claimed by mushroom growers, until within a few years, 
that the spores of the mushroom have to pass through the digestive 
apparatus of the horse before they will germinate. It has been conclu- 
sively demonstrated that such a transmission is not a necessity. It was 
for a long time my opinion following the opinion of others that such 
assistance was necessary. In my many efforts to propagate valuable 
food species of the wild toadstools I endeavored to find the method by 
which the spores were disseminated, and through what digestive medium 
they passed either of insect or animal before germination. Noticing 
that the Russulas were fed upon by a small black beetle, I planted in 
suitable places, not the toadstools, but the beetles found upon them. 
The result was that in several instances I grew the Russulae. My 
experiments, while interesting, are not conclusive, because I later found 
that the same results could be obtained from the toadstool itself when 



Bussuia. planted under its own natural life conditions. It is certain that beetles 
can not be raised by planting Russulae. 

The beetles known as tumble-bugs canthon laevis deposit eggs in 
the center of balls made of animal droppings ; dig a hole in the ground 
and drop them into it. These droppings frequently contain the spores 
of the meadow mushroom. Thus planted with the proper surrounding 
of manure, and at the proper depth, the spores germinate, spread 
mycelium, and a crop of mushrooms is the result. The beetle becomes 
a horticulturist. No wonder the Egyptians, thousands of years ago, 
made it the scarabeus their sacred emblem, and that, 'today, the 
fleur-de-lis of France, so the Rosicrucians say, perpetuates its glorious 
worth and calling. 

Most Russulae are sweet and nutty to the taste ; some are as hot as 
the fiercest of cayenne, but this they lose upon cooking. To this genus 
authors have done especial injustice ; there is not a single species among 
them known to be poisonous, and, where they are not too strong of 
cherry bark and other highly flavored substances, they are all edible; 
most of them are favorites. Where they present no objectionable ap- 
pearance or taste, their caps make most palatable dishes when stewed, 
baked, roasted or escalloped. The time of cooking should be deter- 
mined by the consistency of the variety; some will cook in five minutes, 
others not under thirty. Salt, butter and pepper are the only neces- 
saries as seasoning. 


I. COMPACTS (compingo, to put together; compact). Page 187. 

Pileus fleshy throughout, hence the margin is at first bent inward and 
always without striae, without a distinct gluey pellicle (in consequence 
of which the color is not variable, but only changes with age and the 
state of the atmosphere). Flesh compact, firm. Stem solid, fleshy. 
Gills unequal. 

II. FURCATE (furca, a fork. With forked gills). Page 191. 

Pileus compact, firm, covered with a thin, closely adnate pellicle, 
which at length disappears, margin abruptly thin, at first inflexed, then 
spreading, acute, even. Stem at first compact, at length spongy-soft 
within. Gills somewhat forked, with a few shorter ones intermixed, 
commonly attenuated at both ends, thin and normally narrow. 

1 86 


III. RlGlD/E (rigidus, rigid). Page 194. 

Pileus without a viscid pellicle, absolutely dry, rigid, the cuticle com- Eussuia. 
monly breaking up into flocci or granules. Flesh thick, compact, firm, 
vanishing away short of the margin wliich is straight (never involute), 
soon spreading, and always without strice. Stem solid, at first hard, 
then softer and spongy. Gills, a few dimidiate, others divided, rigid, 
dilated in front and winning out with a very broad, rounded apex , 
whence the margin of the pileus becomes obtuse and is not inflexed. 
Exceedingly handsome, but rather rare. 

IV. HETEROPHYLL/E (R. heterophylla, the typical species 
of the section). Page 198. 

Pileus fleshy, firm, with a thin margin which is at first inflexed, then 
expanded and striate, covered with a thin adnate pellicle. The gills 
consist of many shorter ones mixed with longer ones, along with others 
which are forked. Stem solid, stout, spongy within 

V. FRAGILES (fragilis, fragile or brittle). Page 2OI. 

Pileus more or less fleshy, rigid-fragile, covered with a pellicle which 
is always continuous, and in wet weather viscid and somewhat separ- 
able; margin membranaceous, at first convergent and not involute, in 
full-grown plants commonly sulcate and tubercular. Flesh commonly 
floccose, lax, friable. Stem spongy, at length wholly soft and hollow. 
Gills almost all equal, simple, broadening in front, free in the pileus 
when closed. Several doubtful forms occur. R. Integra is specially fal- 
lacious from the variety of its colors. 

* Gills and spores white. 

* Gills and spores white, then light-yellowish or bright lemon- 

** Gills and spores ochraceous. 


R. ni'gricans Bull. nigrico, to be blackish. Pileus 2-4 in. and 
more broad, olivaceous-fuliginous, at length black, fleshy to the margin 
which is at first bent inwards, convex then flattened, umbilicato-de- 
pressed, when young and moist slightly viscid and even (without a 
separable pellicle), at length cracked in scales. Flesh firm, white, 



Russuia. when broken becoming red on exposure to the air. Stem I in. thick, 
persistently solid, equal, pallid when young, at length black. Gills 
rounded behind, slightly adnexed, thick, distant, unequal, paler, red- 
dening when touched. Fries.. 

Compact, obese, inodorous, within and without at length wholly black, 
in which it differs from all others. The flesh becomes red when broken 
because it is saturated with red juice, although it does not exude milk. 
Sometimes a very few of the gills are dimidiate. 

Irr woods. Common. June to November. Stevenson. 

Var. albdnigra Krombh. albo, white; negro, to be black. Pileus 
fleshy, convexo-plane, depressed in the middle, at length funnel-shaped, 
viscid, whitish, smoky about the margin. Flesh white, turning black 
when broken. Stem solid, stout, dusky, becoming blackened. Gills 
decurrent, crowded, unequal, dusky-whitish. In grassy places. 

Spores papillose, 8j, W.G.S.; subglobose, rough, 8-9/u. Massee. 

New York. Our specimens agree with the description in every re- 
spect, except that the gills are not distant. Peck, 32d Rep. 

Mild when raw, but with a heavy woody taste. 

Cooked it makes a good dish, but does not equal most Russule. 

K. purpuri'na Quel. and Schulz. purple. (Plate XLV#.) Pileus 
fleshy, margin acute, subglobose, then plane, at length depressed in 
the center, slightly viscid in very wet weather, not striate, often split, 
pellicle separable, rosy-pink, paling even to light yellow. Gills crowded 
in youth, afterward subdistant, white, in age yellowish, reaching the 
stem, 2-4 lines broad in front, not greatly narrowed behind, almost 
equal, not forked. Stem spongy, stuffed, very variable, cylindrical, 
attenuated above and below the middle, rosy-pink becoming paler 
(rarely white) toward the base, color obscure in age. Flesh fragile, 
white, reddish under the skin; odor slight, taste mild. Spores white, 
globose, sometimes sub-elliptical, 4-8/x long, minutely warted. 

Pileus 1.5-2.5 in. across. Stem up to .4 in. thick, 1.2 in. long. 

"This is a beautiful and very distinct species easily known by its red 
stem, mild taste and white spores." Peck, 426 Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

R. adus'ta Fr. aduro, to scorch. Pileus pallid or whitish, grayish- 
sooty, equally fleshy, compact, depressed then somewhat infundibuliform, 
margin at first inflexed, smooth, then erect, without striae. Flesh 

1 88 









unchangeable. Stem solid, obese, of the same color as the pileus. Kussuia. 
Gills adnate then decurrent, thin, crowded, unequal, white then dingy, 
not reddening when touched. Fries. 

Spores subglobose, almost smooth, 8-9/4 Massee. 

In pine and mixed woods. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, in pine woods and in mixed 
woods. August to frost. Mcllvaine. 

R. adusta is solitary but often in small troops. It is easily recognized 
by the brownish blotches upon its cap, and the crowding of its thin gills. 

The solid flesh must be well cooked. It is then of good flavor. 

R. bre'vipes Pk. drevis, short; pes, a foot. Pileus 3-5 in. 

broad, at first convex and umbilicate, (Plate XLV.) 

then infundibuliform, dry, glabrous 
or slightly villose on the margin, 
white, sometimes varied with red- 
dish-brown stains. Flesh whitish, 
taste mild, slowly becoming slightly 
acrid. Lamellae thin, close, adnate 
or slightly rounded behind ; white. 
Stem solid, white. 

Spores globose, verruculose, 10- 


Stem 6 10 lines long, 6-10 lines 


Sandy soil in pine woods. Quogue. September. 

This species is related to Russula delica, but is easily distinguished 
by its short stem and crowded gills. The pileus also is not shining and 
the taste is tardily somewhat acrid. From Lactarius exsuccus it is 
separated by the character of the gills and the very short stem which is 
about as broad as it is long. The spores also are larger than in that 
species. The gills in the young plant are sometimes studded with 
drops of water. They are not clearly decurrent. Some of them are 
forked at the base. The pileus is but slightly raised above the surface 
of the ground and is generally soiled by adhering dirt and often marked 
by rusty or brownish stains. The plants grew in old roads in the woods 
where the soil had been trodden and compacted. Peck, 43d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 


After Prof. Peck. 


Eussuia. West Virginia. 1882; Pennsylvania, 1887-1894; New Jersey, 1892. 
Solitary in pine and hemlock woods, generally on bare, compact ground. 
August to October. Mcllvaine. 

This species is a sparse grower, but its good size and respectable num- 
bers soon fill the basket. When fresh it is of good substance and flavor. 

K. del'ica Fr. deliciis, weaned. (Milkless, juiceless in gills.) 
White. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, fleshy throughout, firm, umbilicate then 
infundibuliform, regular, everywhere even, smooth with a whitish luster, 
the involute margin without striae. Flesh firm, juiceless, not very 
thick, white. Stem curt, 1-2 in. long, %. in. and more thick, solid, 
even, smooth, white. Gills decurrent, thin, distant, very unequal, 
white, exuding small watery drops in wet weather. Fries. 

Spores minutely echinulate, white, broadly elliptical, 8-iox6-7/A 
Mas see. 

In appearance it resembles Lactarius vellereus and L. piperatus, but 
its gills do not distill milk or juice. It differs, too, in its mild taste. It 
is related to R. brevipes Pk. 

A large, coarse species, cup-shaped at maturity. I have found it in 
several localities in Massachusetts in July and August. It is of fair 
quality cooked, but much inferior to R. virescens, etc. Macadam. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, in mixed woods, August 
to October. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Taste mild. From the juiceless variety of L. vellereus its 
mild taste alone furnishes a separate character. Peck. 

I have eaten it since 1882, but it is not a favorite. Its quality is fair. 

R. sor'dida Pk. dirty. (Plate XLIV, fig. 4, P . 184.) Pileus firm, 
convex, centrally depressed, dry, sordid-white, sometimes clouded with 
brown. Gills close, white, some of them forked. Stem equal, solid, 
concolorous. Spores globose, 7- 5/*' Taste acrid. Flesh changing color 
when wounded, becoming black or bluish-black. 

Plant 4-5 in. high. Pileus 3-5 in. broad. Stem 6-12 lines thick. 

Ground under hemlock trees. Worcester. July. 

It resembles L. piperatus in general appearance. The whole plant 
turns black in drying. Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Ohio, Morgan; Pennsylvania, Herbst ; West Virginia, 18811885, 



Pennsylvania, New Jersey, pine, hemlock and mixed woods, July to Eussuia. 
September. Mcllvaine. 

It is of better quality than most coarse-grained Russulse. 


K. furca'ta Fr. furca, a fork. Pileus 3 in. broad, sometimes 
greenish, sometimes umber-greenish, fleshy, compact, gibbous then 
piano-depressed or infundibuliform, even, smooth, but often sprinkled 
with slightly silky luster, pellicle here and there separable, margin thin, 
at first inflexed, then spreading, always even. Flesh firm, somewhat 
cheesy, white. Stem 2 in. or a little more long, solid, firm, equal or 
attenuated downward, even, white. Gills adnato-decnrrent , rather thick, 
somewhat distant but broad, attenuated at both ends, frequently forked, 
shining white. Fries. 

Spores globose, echinulate, 6-7/4 C.B.P.; 7-8x9^, Massee. 

In woods, and grass under trees. 

The frequently forked gills, from which the species takes its name, 
their being thick and slightly decurrent, help to distinguish it. It is 
quite common in its several varieties. 

Taste mild at first. A slight bitter develops which disappears in 
cooking. It is then of good quality, not equal to R. virescens. Older 
writers marked it poisonous, doubtless for no other cause than its slight 
bitter. I have eaten it freely for fifteen years. 

R. sangui'nea Fr. sanguis, blood. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, blood- 
red or becoming pale round the even, spreading, acute margin, fleshy, 
firm, at first convex, obtuse, then depressed and infundibuliform and 
commonly gibbous in the center, polished, even, moist in damp weather. 
Flesh firm, cheesy, white. Stem stout, spongy-stuffed, at first con- 
tracted at the apex, then equal, slightly striate, white or reddish. Gills 
at first adnate, then truly decurrent, very crowded, very narrow, con- 
nected by veins, fragile, somewhat forked, shining white. Fries. 

Spores 9-iOju, diameter Massee. 

In pine and mixed woods. July to October. 

Color same as R. rubra but differs in its hard cheesy flesh, rigid, 
slightly yellowish gills in age. The gills of R. sanguinea are truly 
decurrent, and pointed in front. 



Bussuia. Poisonous. Stevenson. Krapp says he has experienced grave incon- 
veniences from eating it. 

Myself and very many friends eat all fresh inviting Russulae. We do 
not discriminate against a single peppery or acrid species, not even the 
R. emetica which has been severely maligned. In fact the peppery 
Russulae are usually substantial in flesh and choice in substance. 

The opinion of many is that R. sanguinea is one of the best. I have 
eaten it for years. 

R. depal'lens Pers. palleo, to be pale. PileilS 3-4 in. across, pal- 
lid-reddish or inclining to dingy-brown, etc., fleshy, firm, convex, 
then plane, more rarely depressed, but commonly irregularly shaped 
and undulated, even, the thin, adnate pellicle presently changing color, 
especially at the disk, the spreading margin even, but slightly striate 
when old. Flesh white. Stem about i2 in. long, solid, firm, com- 
monly attenuated downward, white, becoming cinereous when old. Gills 
adnexed, broad, crowded, distinct, but commonly forked at the base, 
often with shorter ones intermixed. Inodorous, taste mild. The color 
of the pileus is at first pallid-reddish, or inclining to brownish, then 
whitish or yellowish, opaque in every stage of growth. It approaches 
nearest to the Heterophyllae. Fries. 

In beech woods, pastures, etc. August to September. 

Spores subglobose, echinulate, 7-8p Massee. 

R. depallens somewhat resembles R. heterophylla. Both are edible. 
It is a solitary grower and not common, but when found it occurs in 
good quantity. It belongs to the best class of Russulae. 

R. SUbdepal'lens Pk. sub, de and palleo, to be pale. Pileus fleshy, 
at first convex and striate on the margin, then expanded or centrally 
depressed and tuberculate-striate on the margin, viscid, blood-red or 
purplish red, mottled with yellowish spots, becoming paler or almost 
white with age, often irregular. Flesh fragile, white, becoming cinereous 
with age, reddish under the cuticle, taste mild. Lamellae broad, sub- 
distant, adnate, white or whitish, the interspaces venose. Stem stout, 
solid but spongy within, persistently white. 

Spores white, globose, rough, 8/u. broad. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g. 6-12 lines thick. 

Under a hickory tree. Trexlertown, Pa. June. W. Herbst. 



Closely related to Russula depallens, from which it differs in having Russula. 
the margin of the pileus striate at first and more strongly so when ma- 
ture, also in the pileus being spotted at first, the gills more distant, the 
stem persistently white and the spores white. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 
Vol. 23, No. 10. October, 1896. 

I do not doubt its edibility. See R. depallens. 

R. ochrophyl'la Pk. ochra, a yellow earth; phyllon, a leaf. Pileus 
2-4 in. broad, firm, convex becoming nearly plane or slightly depressed 
in the center, even or rarely very slightly striate on the margin when 
old, purple or dark purplish red. Flesh white, purplish under the ad- 
nate cuticle, taste mild. Gills entire, a few of them forked at the base, 
subdistant, adnate, at first yellowish, becoming bright ochraceous buff 
when mature, dusted by the spores, the interspaces somewhat venose. 
Stem equal or nearly so, solid or spongy within, reddish or rosy tinted, 
paler than the pileus. Spores bright ochraceous buff, globose-verru- 
culose, IO/A broad. 

The ochery-gilled Russula is a large fine species, but not a common 
one. It differs but little in color and size from the European pungent 
Russula, Russula drimeia, but it is easily distinguished from it by its 
mild taste. 

The cap is dry, convex or a little depressed in the center, purple or 
purplish red, the white flesh purplish under the cuticle, which, however, 
is not easily separable. 

The gills are nearly all entire, extending from the stem to the margin 
of the cap. They are therefore much closer together near the stem than 
at the margin. They are at first yellowish, but a bright ochraceous buff 
when mature. They are then dusted by the similarly colored spores. 

The stem is stout, nearly cylindric, firm but spongy in the center and 
colored like the cap, but generally a little paler. There is a variety in 
which the stem is white and the cap deep red. In other respects it is 
like the typical form. Its name is Russula ochrophylla albipes. 

The ochery-gilled Russula grows in groups under trees, especially 
oak trees, and should be sought in July and August. Peck, 5ist Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, July to September, Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Peck, Soth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

13 193 



Russuia. R. lac'tea Fr. lac, milk. Pileus 2 in. broad, at the first milk-white, 
then tan-white, throughout compactly fleshy , bell-shaped, then convex, 
often excentric, without a pellicle, always dry, at the first even, then 
slightly cracked when dry, margin straight, thin, obtuse, even. Flesh 
compact, white. Stem 1/^-2 in. long, \% in. thick, solid, very com- 
pact, but at length spongy-soft within, equal, even, always white. Gills 
free, very broad, thick, distant, rigid, forked, white. Fries. 

Spores subglobose, echinulate, 7~9/x Massee. 

Closely allied to R. albella Pk. from which it differs in its shorter 
stem, and pileus cracking into areolae, and gills not being entire. 

In mixed woods, in patches, not common. 

Botanic creek, West Philadelphia, Pa., patches, Mcllvaine, 1887. 

Edible and of good flavor. Macadam. 

Raw, it has a raw, rather unpleasant taste and odor, a little like 
some acorns. But its firm, thick flesh, meaty gills and stem, and good 
flavor when well cooked, rank it equal to any. 

R. albella Pk. whitish. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, thin, fragile, dry, 
plane or slightly depressed in the center, even or obscurely striate on 
the margin, commonly white, sometimes tinged with pink or rosy-red, 
especially on the margin. Flesh white, taste mild. Lamellae entire, 
white, becoming dusted by the spores. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-4 lines 
thick, equal, solid or spongy within, white. 

Spores white, globose, /.6/* broad. 

Dry soil of frondose woods. Port Jefferson. July. 

Closely allied to R. lactea, but differing in its fragile texture, entire 
lamellae, more slender stem, and in the pileus not cracking into areas. 
Peck, 50th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

R. vires'cens Fr. viresco, to be green. (Plate XLIV, fig. 6, p. 
184.) Pileus green, compactly fleshy, globose then expanded, at 
length depressed, often unequal, always dry, not furnished with a pellicle, 
wherefore the flocculose cuticle is broken up into patches or warts, margin 
straight, obtuse, even. Flesh white, not very compact. Stem solid, 
internally spongy, firm, somewhat rivulose, white. Grills free, some- 



what crowded, sometimes equal, sometimes forked, with a few shorter Eussuia. 
ones intermixed, white. Fries. 

Taste mild; good, raw. 

Spores scarcely echinulate, almost globular, 6^ W.G.S. Spores 
8 IO/A Mas see; 67.61*- Peck. 

Cap round when young, very hard, then convex or becoming dished, 
sometimes repand. It is without a separable skin, covered with various 
sized areas of mouldy looking patches which are at times distinctly 
cracked. The color varies from a bright bluish-green to grayish-green, 
such shades remind one of mouldy cheese or the shades of Roquefort ; 
again the color may vary in shades of light leather brown, occasionally 
the caps are almost white, opaque in each shade of color. Flesh crisp, 
brittle, thick, white, mild, good raw. Gills and stem as described. 

R. virescens is common in the United States but not generally plenti- 
ful. It is a solitary grower, usually but few are found in a patch. 
Striking in appearance when its green colors are present, and always 
clean looking and inviting. It sometimes attains the size of 5 in. across. 
It is a hot weather Russula and rarely appears before the latter part of 
June, then after rains. 

To eat, it should be in a healthy, fresh condition. All Russulae 
impart a stale flavor if any part of gills or cap is wilting, drying or 
decaying. It requires forty minutes' slow stewing, or it can be dressed 
raw as a salad. Roasted or fried crisp in a hot buttered pan it is at its 
best. It should be well salted. 

R. lep'ida Fr. lepidus, neat, elegant. Pileus 3 in. broad, blood- 
red-rose, becoming pale, whitish especially at the disk, somewhat equally 
fleshy, convex then expanded, scarcely depressed, obtuse, opaque, un- 
polished, with a silky appearance, at length often cracked scaly , margin 
spreading, obtuse, without striae. Stem as much as 3 in. long, often 
I in. thick, even, white or rose-color. Gills rounded behind, rather 
thick, somewhat crowded, often forked, connected by veins, white, often 
red at the edge. 

Taste mild ; wholly compact and firm, but the flesh is cheesy, not 
somewhat clotted. The gills are often red at the edge, chiefly toward 
the margin, on account of the margin of the pileus being continuous 
with the gills. Fries. 

Spores 8- 1 ox6-8/u. Syll. 



Kussuia. Frequent. July to October, in mixed woods. 

A common and variable species in size and color, but the cap is 
always some shade of rose-red or lake. The flesh is compact and 
cheesy. The gills sometimes edged with pink as they near the margin. 
Taste mild. 

The crisp flesh of R. lepida requires forty minutes' slow stewing, if 
stewed. It yields a delicate pink shade to the dish. Roasted or cooked 
in a hot buttered pan it is excellent. 

R. ru'bra Fr. ruber, red. Pileus unicolorous, a cinnabar-ver- 
milion, but becoming pale (tan) when old, disk commonly darker, com- 
pact, hard but fragile, convex, then flattened, here and there depressed, 
absolutely dry, without a pellicle, but becoming polished-even, often sinu- 
ously cracked when old, margin spreading, obtuse, even, always per- 
sistent. Flesh white, reddish under the cuticle. Stem 2-3 in. long, 
about I in. thick, solid, even, varying white and red. Gills obtusely 
adnate, somewhat crowded, whitish, then yellowish, with dimidiate and 
forked ones intermixed. 

Very acrid, very hard and rigid, most distinct from all the others of 
this group in the pileus becoming polished-even, although without a pel- 
licle, in the flesh being somewhat clotted, and in the very acrid taste. 
Gills often red at the edge. Fries. 

Spores whitish, Fries; spheroid, 8-io/u. K. 

Krapp says he has experienced grave inconveniences from eating it. 
European authorities mark "poisonous." 

I do not hesitate to cook it either by itself or with other Russulse and 
serve it at my table. It is easier cooked than R. virescens and others 
of the crisp species, and has equal flavor. 

R. Linnse'i Fr. in honor of Linnaeus. Pileus 3-4 in. broad, uni- 
colorous, dark purple, blood-red or bright rose, opaque, not becoming 
pale, everywhere fleshy, rigid, piano-depressed, sometimes spread up- 
ward, even, smooth, dry, without a separable pellicle, margin spreading, 
obtuse, without striae. Flesh thick, spongy-compact, white. Stem I % 
in. and more long, I in. and more thick, stout, firm, but spongy-soft 
within, somewhat ventricose, obsoletely retictdated with fibers, intensely 
blood-red. Gills adnate, somewhat decurrent, rather thick, not crowded, 
broad (more than % in.), fragile, sparingly connected by veins, white, 



becoming yellow when dry, with a few dimidiate ones intermixed, some- 
what anastomosing behind. Fries. 

Spores wholly white, Fries; ellipsoid, spheroid, echinulate, i ip. 
Q.; 9-nx8-9/u. Massee. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885. West Philadelphia, Pa., on Bartram's 
Botanic creek. Mcllvaine. 

R. Linnaei is one of our handsomest and best Russulae. European 
authors state its habit to be exactly that of R. emetica, but though I have 
known it intimately for many years I have not been struck with this in 
the American plant. Its large size, its more or less red stem never en- 
tirely white, at times hollow, cavernous, its less solid flesh, habit of grow- 
ing in troops, sometimes parts of rings, flourishing best where the leaf 
mat is heaviest, loving the leaf drift in fence-corners, are well marked 

When young there is no better Russuia. As it ages the ,stem be- 
comes soft, spongy and should be thrown away. The caps, only, eaten. 

R. oliva'cea Fr. oliva, an olive; olivaceus, the color of an olive. 
Pileus 2-4 in. across, dingy-purple then olivaceous or wholly brownish- 
olivaceous, fleshy, convexo-flattened and depressed, slightly silky and 
squamulose, margin spreading, even. Flesh white, becoming somewhat 
yellow. Stem firm, ventricose, rose-color to pallid, spongy-stuffed 
within. Gills adnexed, wide, yellow, with shorter and forked ones 

Mild. Near to R. rubra, but certainly distinct in the stem being 
definitely spongy, in the pileus being unpolished, and in the gills being 
soft and brightly colored; corresponding with R. alutacea. Fries. 

Spores light yellow, Fries; spheroid, punctate, IO/A Q.; globose, 
minutely granulate, yellow, 9 io/x diameter Massee. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1897-1898. 

Pileus 2-4 in. across, 2-3 in. long, Yz-Y* in. thick. 

The caps are equally good with R. alutacea. They must be fresh, 
and similarly cooked. 

R.fla'vida Frost yellow. (Plate XLIV, fig. 3, p. 184.) Pileus 
fleshy, convex, slightly depressed, unpolished, bright yellow. Gills 
white, adnate, turning cinereous. Stem yellow, solid, white at the ex- 
treme apex. Frost Ms. 



Russuia. Pileus fleshy, convex, slightly depressed in the center, not polished, 
yellow, the margin at first even, then slightly striate-tuberculate. Gills 
nearly entire, venose-connected, white, then cinereous or yellowish. 
Stem firm, solid, yellow, sometimes white at the top. 

Spores yellow, subglobose, 6.5-7.6^ in diameter. Flesh white, taste 

Plant 2-3 in. high. Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 4-6 lines thick. 
Frost Mss. 

Ground in woods. Sandlake. August. Peck, 32d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

R. flavida is showy, solitary and in patches. The stem when young 
and solid is equally good with the cap. Cooks in twenty-five minutes 
and is of good flavor. 


R. ves'ca Fr. vesco, to feed. Pileus red- flesh-color, disk darker, 
fleshy, slightly firm, piano-depressed, slightly wrinkled with veins, with 
a viscid pellicle, margin at length spreading. Flesh cheesy, firm, shin- 
ing white. Stem solid, compact, externally rigid, reticulated and 
wrinkled in a peculiar manner, often attenuated at the base, shining 
white. Gills adnate, crowded, thin, shining white, with many unequal 
and forked ones intermixed, but scarcely connected by veins. 

Of middle stature. Taste mild, pleasant. Fries. 

Spores globose, echinulate, white, 9 io/, diameter Massee. 

In mixed woods. Common. August to frost. 

R. vesca is frequent in woods or margins, and under trees in the 
open. It is especially fond of growing in the grass under lone chestnut 
trees. The caps seldom exceed 2.% in. across. 

It is one of the best. 

R. cyanoxan'tha (Schaeff. ) Fr. Gr. blue; Gr. yellow. (From the 
colors.) (Plate XLIV, fig. i, p. 184.) Pileus 2-3 in. and more 
broad, lilac or purplish then olivaceous-green, disk commonly becoming 
pale often yellowish, margin commonly becoming azure-bine or livid 
purple, compact, convex then plane, then depressed or infundibuliform, 
sometimes even, sometimes wrinkled or streaked, viscous, margin 
deflexed then expanded, remotely and slightly striate. Flesh firm, 



cheesy, white, commonly reddish beneath the separable pellicle. Stem Russuia. 
23 in. long, as much as I in. thick, spongy-stuffed, but firm, often 
cavernous within when old, equal, smooth, even, shining white. Gills 
rounded behind, connected by veins, not much crowded, broad, forked 
with shorter ones intermixed, shining white. 

Allied to R. vesca in its mild, pleasant taste and in other respects, 
but constantly different in the color of the pileus, which is very variable, 
whereas in R. vesca it is unchangeable. The peculiar combination of 
colors in the pileus, though very variable, always readily distinguishes 
it. Fries. 

Spores 8-9|u,, cystidia numerous, pointed, Massee; 8-iox6-8/x Sacc. 

In mixed woods. Common. August to October. 

Pronounced one of the best esculent species by all authorities. 

R. heterophyl'la Fr. Gr. differing; Gr. a leaf. (Gills differing 
in length.) Pileus very variable in color, but never becoming reddish 
or purple, fleshy, firm, convexo-plane then depressed, even, polished, 
the very thin pellicle disappearing, margin thin, even or densely but 
slightly striate. Flesh white. Stem solid, firm, somewhat equal, even, 
shining white. Gills reaching the stem in an attenuated form, very nar- 
row, very crowded, forked and dimidiate, shining white. 

Taste always mild, as in R. cyanoxantha, from which it differs in its 
smaller stature, in the pileus being thinner, even, never reddish or pur- 
plish, with a thin closely adnate pellicle, in the stem being firm and solid, 
and in the gills being thin, very narrow, very crowded, etc. The apex 
of the stem is occasionally dilated in the form of a cup, so that the gills 
appear remote. Fries. 

Spores echinulate, 5x7/u- W.G.S.; /-8/i diameter Massee. 

Common. Woods. July to November. 

Edible, of a sweet nutty flavor. Stevenson. 

R. heterophylla is very common. Its smooth, even pileus, colored in 
some dingy shade of green, distinguishes it. It is much infested by 
grubs. Specimens for the table should be young and fresh. Wilted 
specimens are unpleasant. 

R. fffi'tens Fr. fcetens, stinking. Pileus 4-5 in. and more broad, 
dingy yellow, often becoming pale, thinly fleshy, at first bullate, then 
expanded and depressed, covered with a pellicle which is adnate, not 



Eussuia. separable, and viscid in wet weather, margin broadly membranaceous, 
at the first bent inward with ribs which are at lengtJi tubercular. Flesh 
thin, rigid- fragile, pallid. Stem 2 in. and more long, %-\ in. thick, 
stout, stuffed then hollow, whitish. Gills adnexed, crowded, connected 
by veins, with very many dimidiate and forked ones intermixed, whitish, 
at the first exuding watery drops. 

Fetid. Taste acrid. Very rigid, most distinct from all others in its 
very heavy empyreumatic odor. In very dry weather the odor is often 
obsolete. The margin is more broadly membranaceous and hence 
marked with longer furrows than in any other species. It differs from 
all the preceding ones in the gills at the first exuding watery drops. 
The gills become obsoletely light yellow, and dingy when bruised. 

Pileus fleshy, with a wide thin margin, hemispherical or convex, then 
expanded or depressed, viscid when moist, widely striate-tuberculate on 
the margin, dull pale yellow or straw color. Lamellae rather broad, 
close, venose-connected, some of them forked, whitish. Stipe nearly 
cylindrical, whitish, hollow. Spores white. Plant sometimes cespitose. 

Height 2-4 in. ; breadth of pileus 2-3 in. Stipe 4-6 lines thick. 

Pine woods. West Albany. October. 

Taste mild at first, then slightly disagreeable. Peck, 2$d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Spores minute, echinulate, almost globular, 8/x, W.G.S.; 8-io/u. 
Mas see. 

In woods. Common. July to October. 

Var. gramilata has the pileus rough with small granular scales. Peck, 
Rep. 39. 

A very coarse and easily recognized species. Reckoned poisonous, 
though eaten by slugs. W.G.S . 

The verdict is against it. Both smell and taste are usually un- 
pleasant. Cooked it retains its flavor, more closely resembling wild 
cherry bark than anything else. On two occasions I ate enough to con- 
vince me that it was not poisonous. 

R. el'egans Bresad. elegans, pretty. Mild at first, becoming acrid 
with age. Pileus 2-3 in. across. Flesh rather thick ; convex then de- 
pressed; margin tuberculose and striate when old, viscid, bright rosy 
flesh-color, soon ochraceous at the circumference, everywhere densely 



granulated. Gills adnexed or slightly rounded, narrow behind, very Bussnia. 
much crowded, equal, rarely forked, whitish, becoming either entirely 
or here and there ochraceous-orange. Stem i3^ 2 in. long, 57 lines 
thick, a little thickened at the base, rather rugulose, white, base ochra- 
ceous. Flesh white, turning ochraceous and acrid when old. 

Spores 8-io/x diameter Massee. 

Allied to R. vesca. Known by the bright rose-colored, densely gran- 
ular pileus and tuberculose margin. When old the pileus is almost en- 
tirely ochraceous. Massee. 

Frequent in the West Virginia forests, 1881-1885. Chester county, 
Pa., 1887-1890. In mixed woods. July to September. Mcllvaine. 

It differs from R. vesca in its cap being minutely granulated instead 
of streaked, and in becoming acrid with age. 

The caps are of good quality, needing to be well cooked. 

* Gills and spores white. 

R. eme'tica Fr. an emetic. (Plate XLIV, fig. 2, p. 184.) PileilS 
3-4 in. broad, at first rosy then blood-color, tawny when old, sometimes 
becoming yellow and at length (in moist places) white, at first bell- 
shaped then flattened or depressed, polished, margin at length furrowed 
and tubercular . Flesh white, reddish under tlie separable pellicle. Stem 
spongy-stuffed, stout, elastic when young, fragile when older, even, 
white or reddish. Gills somewhat free, broad, somewhat distant, shining 

Handsome, regular, moderately firm, but fragile when full grown, 
taste very acrid. Fries. 

Spores shining white, Fries; spheroid, echinulate, S-IO/A K.; 7/x. 

Maryland, Miss Banning; New York, Peck, Rep. 22; Indiana, Illi- 
nois, H. I. Miller. 

Said to act as its name implies as an emetic. Certainly poisonous. 
Stevenson . 

Krapp says he has himself experienced rare inconveniences from eating 
it. Preferred to others in Indiana and Illinois. H. I. Miller, 1898. 

The varying reports upon R. emetica are quoted above. In 1881, in 



Russuia. the West Virginia mountains, I began testing this Russula and soon 
found that it was harmless. At least twenty persons ate it in quantity, 
during its season, for four years. Yet, in my many published articles, I 
continued, out of regard for the opinions of others and in excess of 
caution, to warn against all bitter and peppery fungi. But from that 
time until the present I have eaten it, and I have made special effort to 
establish its innocence by getting numbers of my friendly helpers to eat it. 
It was suggested by one of its prosecutors that perhaps I was mis- 
taking another fungus for it. In October, 1898, I sent to Professor 
Peck a lot of the Russula I was eating. He wrote: "It seems to be 
R. emetica as you state. It certainly is hot enough for it." 

R. pectina'ta Fr. pccten, a comb. Pileus 3 in. broad, at first gluey, 
toast-brown, then dry, becoming pale, tan, with the disk always darker, 
fleshy, rigid, convex then flattened and depressed or concavo-infundi- 
buliform (basin-shaped) ; margin thin, pectinato-sulcate (deeply ribbed), 
here and there irregularly shaped. Flesh white, light yellowish under 
the pellicle, which is not easily separable. Stem curt, 2 in. long, % I 
in. thick, rigid, spongy-stuffed, longitudinally slightly striate, shining 
white, often attenuated at the base. Gills attemiato-free behind, broader 
toward the margin, somewhat crowded, equal, simple, white. 

Odor weak, but nauseous, approaching that of R. fcetens. Fries. 

Spores 8-9/n diameter Massee. 

New York, Peck, 43d Rep. West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. 
Common in woods, grassy, mossy places. July to frost. Mcllvaine. 

Named from the furrows of the margin being like the teeth of a comb. 

Both the appearance and smell of this Russula will detect it. The 
peculiar comb-like furrows of its margin, viscid or varnished-looking 
cap, and strong but more spicy smell than cherry-bark are noticeable. 

It is edible, but so strong in flavor that a piece of one will spoil a 
dish if cooked with other kinds. 

R. ochroleu'ca Fr. Gr. pale yellow ; Gr. white. Pileus yellow, 
becoming pale, fleshy, flattened or depressed, polished, with an adnate 
pellicle, the spreading margin becoming even. Stem spongy, stuffed, 
firm, slightly reticulato-wrinkled , white, becoming cinereous. Gills 
rounded behind, united, broad, somewhat equal, white becoming pale. 

Odor obsolete, but pleasant. The pileus is never reddish. It agrees 



wholly with R. emetica in structure and stature, as well as in the acrid Russuia. 
taste ; it differs however in the stem being slightly recticulato-wrinkled, 
white becoming cinereous, in the adnate pellicle of the pileus, in the 
margin remaining for a long time even (remotely striate, but not tuber- 
cular, only when old), and in the gills being rounded behind and be- 
coming pale. The color of the pileus is constant. The gills remain 
free and do not exude drops. Fries. 

Cap 2-4 in. across. Stem 2-3 in. long, up to % in. thick. 

Spores papillose, 7//, W.G.S., 8x9/1, Massee. 

Frequent in woods. July to October. 

Not as common as R. emetica, yet frequently found, usually solitary, 
at times gregarious. It is quite peppery, but loses pepperiness in cook- 
ing. Myself and others have frequently eaten it. 

R. ci'trina Gillet citrina, citron colored. Mild. Pileus 2-3 in. 

across, slightly fleshy at the disk, margin thin; convex then more or 
less expanded and slightly depressed, rather viscid when moist, smooth, 
slightly wrinkled at the margin when old, bright lemon-yellow, color 
usually uniform, sometimes paler at the margin, occasionally with a 
greenish tint, center of pileus at length becoming pale-ochraceous ; pel- 
licle separable. Gills slightly decurrent, broadest a short distance from 
the margin, and gradually becoming narrower towards the base, forked 
at the base and also sometimes near the middle, white, \% lines deep 
at broadest part. Stem 23 in. long, about 4 lines thick, equal or 
slightly narrowed at the base, slightly wrinkled, straight or very slightly 
waved, solid. 

Spores subglobose, echinulate, 8/* diameter. 

In woods. 

Known by the clear lemon-yellow or citron-colored pileus and the 
persistently white gills and stem. The taste is mild at first, but be- 
comes slightly acrid if kept in the mouth for a short time. Massee. 

R. citrina can hardly be classed among the acrid species. The taste 
is slightly of cherry-bark and disappears in cooking. It is usually found 
in patches which contain ten to twenty individuals. It is a species of 
fair quality. 

R. fra'gilis Fr. fragile. Pileus I iK in. broad, rarely more, flesh- 
color, changing color, very thin, fleshy only at the disk, at the first con- 



Eussuia. vex and often umbonate, then plane and depressed, pellicle thin, becom- 
ing pale, slightly viscid in wet weather; margin very thin, tuberculoso- 
striate. Stem I / 2 in. long, spongy within, soon hollow, often slightly 
striate, white. Gills slightly adnexed, very thin, crowded, broad, ven- 
tricose, all equal, shining white. Fries. 

Very acrid. Smaller and more fragile than the rest of the group, 
directly changing color. The color is variable, often opaque, typically 
flesh-color, when changed in color white externally and internally, often 
with reddish spots. Among varieties of color is to be noted a livid 
flesh-colored form, with the disk becoming fuscous. 

It is not easy to define it from fragile forms of R. emetica, but the 
gills are much more crowded, thinner, and often slightly eroded at the 
edge, ventricose; the pileus thinner and more lax, etc. Stevenson. 

Var. nivea Fr. nivea, snowy. Whole plant white. 

Spores minutely echinulate 8 zoxSft Massee. 

Though one of the peppery kind, I have not, after fifteen years of 
eating it, had reason to question its edibility. The caps are not meaty, 
but what there is of them is good. 

R. puncta'ta Gillet punctata, dotted. Mild. Pileus 1^-2)^ in. 
across. Flesh thin, white, reddish under the cuticle; convex then flat- 
tened, viscid, rosy, disk darkest, punctate with dark reddish point-like 
warts, pale when old; margin striate. Gills slightly adnexed, 2 lines 
broad, white then yellowish, edge often reddish. Stem about I in. 
long, 4-5 lines thick, attenuated and whitish at the base, remainder 
colored like the pileus, stuffed. 

Spores 8-9/x, diameter Massee. 

Among grass. 

Edible. Boston Myc. Club Bull. 1896. 

** Gills and spores white then yellowish or bright lemon. 

R. in'tegra Fr. integer, entire, whole. PileilS 4-5 in. across, typic- 
ally red, changing color, fleshy, campanulato-convex then expanded 
and depressed, fragile when full-grown, with a gluey pellicle, at length 
furrowed and somewhat tubercular at the margin. Flesh white, some- 
times yellowish above. Stem at first short, conical, then club-shaped 



or ventricose, as much as 3 in. long, up to I in. thick, spongy-stuffed, Russuia. 
commonly stout, even, shining white. Gills somewhat free, very broad, 
up to % in., equal or bifid at the stem, somewhat distant, connected 
by veins, pallid- white, at length light yellow, somewhat Powdered yellow 
with the spores. 

Taste mild, often astringent. The most changeable of all species, 
especially in the color of the pileus which is typically red, but at the 
same time inclining to azure-blue, bay-brown, olivaceous, etc. Some- 
times the gills are sterile and remain white. Fries. 

Spores ellipsoid-spheroid or spheroid echinulate, globose, rough, 
8-9/u, C.B.P.; 9-io/t diameter, pale ochraceous. Massee. 

It is difficult to separate R. integra from R. alutacea. The spores 
usually show upon the gills as pale dull yellow powder. It is of equal 

R. decolo'rans Fr. de and coloro, to color. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, 
color various, at first orange-red, then light yellow and becoming pale, 
fleshy, spherical then expanded and depressed, remarkably regular, 
viscid when moist, thin and at length striate at the margin. Flesh 
white, but becoming somewhat cinereous when broken, and more or less 
variegated with black spots when old. Stem elongated, 35 in., cylin- 
drical, solid, but spongy within, often wrinkled-striate , white then be- 
coming cinereous especially within. Gills adnexed, often in pairs, thin, 
crowded, fragile, white then yellowish. 

Taste mild. Colors changeable according to a fixed rule, but not 
variable. The gills are not ochraceous-pulverulent as in R. integra, nor 
shining and pure yellow as in R. aurata, etc. Fries. 

Spores yellow, 8.3/A Morgan. 

New York, Peck, 23d Rep. Angora, West Philadelphia, Pa., 1897, 
in mixed woods. August to October. Mcllvaine. 

Esculent and of good quality. Morgan. 

Meals of it make one regret its scarcity. 

K. basifurca'ta Pk. forked near stem. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, firm, 
convex, umbilicate, becoming somewhat funnel form, glabrous, slightly 
viscid when moist, the thin pellicle scarcely separable except on the 
margin, dingy-white, sometimes tinged with yellow or reddish-yellow, 
the margin nearly even. Lamellae rather close, narrowed toward the 



Eussuia. base, adnate or slightly emarginate, many of them forked near the base, 
a few short ones intermingled, white becoming yellowish. Stem 8-12 
lines long, 5-6 lines thick, firm, solid, becoming spongy within, white. 

Spores elliptical, pale yellow, uninucleate or shining, 9x6.5^. Flesh 
white, taste mild, then bitterish. 

Dry hard ground in paths and wood roads. Canoga, N. Y. July. 

This species closely resembles pale forms of R. furcata, from which 
it is separated by the absence of any silky micor and by the yellowish 
color and elliptical shape of the spores and by the yellowish hue of the 
lamellae. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., September, 1898, to frost. Gravelly ground. Soli- 
tary. Gills adnate. Identified as his species by Professor Peck. 

The slight bitterish taste disappears in cooking. It is edible and of 
fair quality. 

It. aura'ta Fr. auntm, gold. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, varying lemon- 
yellow, orange and red, disk darker, fleshy, rigid, brittle however, hem- 
ispherical then plane, disk not depressed, pellicle thin, adnate, viscid in 
wet weather, margin even, and slightly striate only when old, but some- 
times wrinkled. Flesh lemon-yellow under the pellicle, white below. 
Stem 23 in. long, solid, firm, but spongy within, cylindrical, obso- 
letely striate, white or lemon-yellow. Gills rounded free, connected by 
veins, broad, equal, shining, never pulverulent, whitish inclining to light 
yellow, but vivid lemon-yellow at the edge. Fries. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885; Pennsylvania, 1887-1898. In woods 
under pines. July to October. Mcllvaine. 

Pileus sometimes depressed in center, very viscid when wet. 

A troop of this Russula upon brown wood mat is a pretty sight. Its 
rich and brightly-colored cap attracts the eye from a distance. The 
yellow edge of its gills is the distinctive mark of the species. 

The smell is pleasant, the taste slightly of cherry bark. 

Cooked it is one of the best Russulse. 

R. atropurpu'rea Pk. atre, black; purpureus, purple. Dark pur- 
ple Russula. Pileus 3-4 in. broad, at first convex, then centrally de- 
pressed, glabrous, dark purple, blackish in the center, the margin even 
or slightly striate. Flesh white, grayish or grayish-purple under the 
separable pellicle, taste mild, odor of the drying plant fetid, very un- 



pleasant. Lamellae nearly equal, subdistant, sometimes forked near the Russuia. 
stem, at first white, then yellowish, becoming brownish where bruised. 
Stem 2-3 in. long, 5-8 lines thick, equal, glabrous, spongy within, 
white, brownish where bruised. Spores subglobose, minutely rough, 
pale ochraceous with a salmon tint, 8 lO/x. 

Open woods. Gansevoort. July. 

In color this species resembles R. variata, but in other respects it is 
very different. It is very distinct in the peculiar color of its spores, 
and in the brownish hue assumed by wounds. Peck, 4ist Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

West Philadelphia, Pa. July, 1897. Open woods. Solitary. Phila- 
delphia Myc. Center. 

Many were eaten and enjoyed. Only fresh plants are acceptable, and 
they should be cooked as soon as gathered. Even in wilting they be- 
come unpleasant. 

*** Gills and spores ochraceous. 

R. aluta'cea Fr. aluta, tanned leather. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, 
commonly bright blood-color or red, even black-purple, but becoming 
pale, especially at the disk, fleshy, bell-shaped then convex, flattened 
and somewhat umbilicate, even, with a remarkably sticky pellicle, 
margin thin, at length striate, tubercular. Flesh snow-white. Stem 
2 in. long, solid, stout, equal, even, white, most frequently variegated- 
reddish, even purple. Gills at first free, thick, very broad, connected 
by veins, all equal, somewhat distant, at first pallid light yellow, then 
bright ochraceous, not pulverulent. 

It is distinguished from R. integra by its gills not being pulverulent. 

Spores yellow 7-9/4 Massee; 11-14x8-10/14 Sacc., Syll. 

July to frost. Mcllvaine. 

R. alutacea is easily recognized among Russulae by its mild taste and 
broad yellow gills. In young specimens one sometimes has to look at 
the gills at an angle to detect the yellow. It is quite common but a 
solitary grower. It is everywhere eaten as a favorite. Only fresh 
plants yield a good flavor. When the stem is soft, it should be thrown 



K. puella'ris Fr. (Plate XLIV, fig. 7, p. 184.) Mild. Pileus i-i^ 

in. across, flesh almost membranaceous except the disk; conico-convex 
then expanded, at first rather gibbous, then slightly depressed, scarcely 
viscid, color peculiar, purplish-livid then yellowish, disk always darker 
and brownish; tuberculosely striate, often to the middle. Gills adnate 
but very much narrowed behind, thin, crowded, white then pale-yellow, 
not shining nor powdered with the spores. Stem I i *a in. long, 24 
lines thick, equal, soft, fragile, wrinkled under a lens, white or yellowish; 
stuffed, soon hollow; taste mild. 

Spores subglobose, pale-yellow, echinulate, 1 0x8-9/4 Massee. 

In woods. 

Among the most frequent and readily recognized of species, occur- 
ring in troops. Always small, thin, taste mild. Allied to R. nitida, but 
more slender ; color paler, and not shining. Fries. 

Distinguished from R. nitida and R. nauseosa by the absence of smell. 

Var. interi sior Cke. Nearly the same size as the typical form ; pileus 
deep purp"le, nearly black at the disk. 

The stem has a tendency to become thickened at the base, and turns 
yellowish when touched. 

Var. rose'ipes Sec., given by Massee, has been retained as a distinct 
species by Professor Peck, Rep. 51, and is described in place. R. 
pusilla Pk., 5<Dth Rep., is closely allied to it. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina. Common 
in woods and under trees in short grass. July to September. Mcllvaine. 

This little Russula is ubiquitous. It does not amount to much when 
other fungi are plenty, because of its very thin cap, but it thrives in all 
sorts of summer weather. When its companions are scarce or parched 
R. puellaris is gladly gathered by the mycophagist, its numbers making 
up for its lightness and lack of flavor. 

R. pusilla Pk. little. Pileus very thin, nearly plane or slightly 
and umbilicately depressed in the center, glabrous, slightly striate on 
the margin, red, sometimes a little darker in the center, the thin pellicle 
separable. Flesh white, taste mild. Lamellae broad for the size of the 
plant, subventricose, subdistant, adnate or slightly rounded behind, 
white, becoming yellowish-ochraceous in drying. Stem short, soft, 
solid or spongy within, white. 



Spores faintly tinged with yellow, 7-6/u. broad. Russuia. 

Pileus scarcely I in. broad. Stem 6-12 lines long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Bare ground in thin woods. Port Jefferson. July. 

The coloring matter of the pileus may be rubbed upon paper and 
produce on it red stains if the surface is previously moistened with water 
or dilute alcohol. This is one of the smallest Russulas known to me. 
The pileus was less than an inch broad and the stem less than an inch 
long in all the specimens seen by me. The species is closely allied to 
R. puellaris, and especially resembles the variety intensior in color. It 
differs in its smaller size, even or but slightly striate margin, broad 
lamellae and in the stem or flesh not becoming yellowish spotted where 
touched. Peck, Soth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885. Pennsylvania, 1896-1897. July to 
September. Mcllvaine. 

It makes up in quality what it lacks in quantity. 

R. rose'ipes (Seer.) Bres. rosa, a rose; pes, a foot. (Plate 
XLIV, fig. 5, p. 184.) PileilS 1-2 in. broad, convex becoming nearly 
plane or slightly depressed, at first viscid, soon dry, becoming slightly 
striate on the thin margin, rosy-red variously modified by pink orange 
or ochraceous hues, sometimes becoming paler with age, taste mild. 
Gills moderately close, nearly entire, rounded behind and slightly 
adhexed, ventricose, whitish becoming yellow. Stem 1^-3 in. long, 
3-4 lines thick, slightly tapering upward, stuffed or somewhat cavern- 
ous, white tinged with red. 

Spores yellow, globose or subglobose. 

The plants grow in woods of pine and hemlock and have been col- 
lected in July and August. The flesh is tender and agreeable in flavor. 
Peck, 5ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores globose, minutely echinulate, pale ochraceous, 8-io/u, diameter 

R. roseipes is common in West Virginia under hemlocks and spruces. 
At Mt. Gretna, Pa., it grew sparingly under pines. It is excellent. 

R. Ma'rise Pk. Pileus fleshy, convex, subumbilicate, at length ex- 
panded and centrally depressed, minutely pulverulent, bright pink-red 
(crimson lake), the disk a little darker, margin even. Lamellae rather 
14 209 


Bnssuia. close, reaching the stem, some of them forked, venose-connected, white, 
then yellowish. Stem equal, solid, colored like the pileus except the 
extremities which are usually white. Spores globose, nearly smooth, 
7-6/x, in diameter; flesh of the pileus white, red under the cuticle, taste 

Plant 2 in. high. Pileus 1.5-2 in. broad. Stem 3-6 lines thick. 
Dry ground in woods. Catskill mountains. July. 

The minute colored granules, which give the pileus a soft pruinose 
appearance, are easily rubbed off on paper, and water put upon the 
fresh specimens is colored by them. Peck, 24th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

New York, Peck, 24th and 5oth Rep. ; West Virginia, 1882-1885 ; Mt. 
Gretna, Pa., solitary in mixed woods. July to September. 1897-1898. 

It is on a par with most Russulae. 

R. ochra'cea Fr. ochra, a yellow earth. Mild. Pileus about 3 in. 
across. Flesh rather thick at the center, becoming thin toward the 
margin, pale ochraceous, soft; convex then expanded and depressed, 
margin coarsely striate, pellicle thin, viscid, ochraceous with a tinge of 
'yellow, disk usually becoming darker. Gills slightly adnexed, broad, 
scarcely crowded, ochraceous. Stem about I % in. long, 5-7 lines 
thick, slightly wrinkled longitudinally, ochraceous, stuffed, soft. 

Spores globose, echinulate, ochraceous, io-i2p. diameter. 

In pine and mixed woods. 

The mild taste and ochraceous color of every part, including the flesh, 
separate the present from every other species. 

Commonly confounded with Russula fellea, but known at once by its 
mild taste. Agreeing most nearly with R. lutea in color, but differing 
in the softer flesh, which becomes ochraceous upward; sulcate margin 
of the pileus, and broader, less crowded gills. Pileus persistently 
ochraceous, disk usually darker. Stem sometimes yellow, sometimes 
white. Fries. 

North Carolina, borders of woods, Ctirtis; California, Harkness and 

Fries says that the flavor is mild, but Roze places it in the list of sus- 
pected species, although he notes it as not acrid ; it may be inferred that 
he considers the flavor unpleasant. Macadam. 

"Like chicken," not common. Boston Myc. Club Bull. 1896. 



R. lll'tea (Huds.) Fr. luteus, yellow. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, yel- Russtda. 
low, at length becoming pale, and occasionally wholly white, thinly 
fleshy, soon convexo-plane or piano-depressed, sticky when moist, even 
or when old obsoletely striate at the margin. Flesh white. Stem ^ 
in. long, 3-4 lines thick, stuffed then hollow, soft, fragile, equal, even, 
white, never reddish. Gills somewhat free, connected by veins, crowded, 
narrow, all equal, ochraceous-egg-yellow. 

Always small, very regular, taste mild. When young the pileus is 
always of a beautiful yellow. Fries. 

Spores yellow, echinulate, 8/x, W.G.S.; globose, rough, 6-7/* C.B.P.; . 
8-IOX7-8/* Massee. 

Allied to R. vitellina, but differs in having the margin of the cap 
even, and but little odor. 

The plant I have so referred has the gills at first white and the stem 
yellow like the pileus; it may be a new species. In beech woods, 
Morgan; West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, in mixed woods, 
often under beeches, August to November, Mcllvaine. 

The plants I have found have white gills when young (few species 
have not), but rapidly become yellow. The stem is usually white when 
young, and sometimes remains so, but often becomes more or less 

It is a pretty species. The flavor is not as strong as in some species, 
but is delicate. 

R. nauseo'sa Fr. Pileus variable in color, typically purplish at the 
disk, then livid, but becoming pale and often whitish, laxly fleshy, thin, 
at first piano-gibbous, then depressed, viscid in wet weather, furrowed 
and somewhat tubercular at the somewhat membranaceous margin. 
Flesh soft, white. Stem short, about I in. long, 4 lines thick, spongy- 
stuffed, slightly striate, white. Gills adnexed, ventricose, somewhat 
distant, here and there with a few shorter ones intermixed, light yellow 
then dingy ochraceous. 

The taste is mild, but also nauseous, as the odor often is. The habit 
is that of R. nitida, of the same color of pileus, but differing in the color 
of the gills. Fries. 

Cap about 2 in. across. Stem 1-2 in. long, %% in. thick. 

Spores dingy yellow, 8-9/4 diameter. Massee. 

North Carolina and Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; West Virginia, Penn- 



Eussuia. sylvania, New Jersey, in pine and mixed woods. August to October. 

The odor and taste of R. nauseosa are misnamed, therefore the plant. 
They are heavy at times, when the plant is wet or old, as is the case 
with R. fcetens, but they are always of cherry bark. Both odor and 
taste disappear in cooking. The species is as good as any Russula of 
its texture. 

H. vitelli'na Fr. vitellus, yolk of egg. Pileus i in. broad, uni- 
colorous, light yellow then wholly pallid, somewhat membranaceous, at 
length tuberculoso-striate , somewhat dry, disk very small, slightly fleshy. 
Stem thin, scarcely exceeding I in. long, 2 lines thick, equal. Gills 
separating-free, equal, distant, rather thick, connected by veins, saffron- 

Pretty, very fragile, strong-smelling, mild. Fries. 

Spores 7-8/u, diameter Massee. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, August to October. In 
pine and mixed woods, July to October. Not common in number. 

This pretty species has a cherry-bark taste and smell like R. fcetens, 
though not so offensively heavy. It is not poisonous. A small piece 
of it will affect a whole dish of other Russulae. 

R. chamseleonti'na Fr. changing color like a chamaeleon. Pileus 
1-2 in. broad, thinly fleshy, soon flattened, sometimes oblique .with a 
thin, separable, viscid pellicle, which is at first flesh-color, then pres- 
ently changing color, becoming yellow at the disk and at length wholly 
yellow, margin even, then slightly striate. Stem as much as 3 in. long, 
but thin, somewhat hollow, slightly striate, white. Gills more or less 
adnexed, thin, crowded, equal, narrow, somewhat forked, light-yellow- 

Mild, inodorous, very fragile. Pileus rosy blood-red, purplish lilac, 
etc. Sometimes even at the first yellowish at the disk. Fries. 

Spores globose, ochraceous, 7-8/* diameter Massee. 

In pine and in mixed woods. August to October. Mcllvaine. 

The change in color of the cap which gives name to this species is 
not remarkable. Most species of Russulae are sensitive to light. An 
otherwise highly colored cap will be almost white when a leaf adheres 
to it. If in youth it grows under dense shade it will be very much 



lighter than if where light is generous, and will remain so. If in grow- 
ing it thrusts itself out of shadow, its color will change and it will 
deepen. The apparent rarity of R. chamasleontina I think due to the 
close observation necessary to detect its changes in color, which, as I 
have found it, are by no means constant. It is quite plentiful in the 
pines of southern New Jersey, and at Mt. Gretna, Pa., it is frequently 

It is a good esculent species. 


Gr. a vase, a cup. 

Canthareiius. Hymenophore continuous with the stem, descending unchanged into 
the trama. Gills thick, fleshy, waxy, fold-like, somewhat branched, 

obtuse at the edge. Spores white. Fleshy, 
putrescent fungi, without a veil. Fries. 

In Canthareiius the gills vein-like and gen- 
erally thick with an obtuse edge are entirely 
different from those of all the preceding 
genera. In those they are thin, and distinct 
from the pileus and from each other. In 

Hygrophorus the gills are frequently thick, 

but the edge is always sharp. The species 

of Craterellus are funnel-shaped, resembling some of those in Cantha- 
reiius, but are distinguished by their lack of evident gills. 

Monograph New York Species of Canthareiius, Peck, Bull. 1887. 

The members of this genus are few, but they are choice. Of them 
is the Canthareiius cibarius, of which Trattinik quaintly says : "Not 
only this same fungus never did any one harm, but might even restore 
the dead." 

The writer first made its acquaintance when among the West Virginia 
mountains in 1881. The golden patches of single and clustered 
cibarius, fragrant as ripened apricots, tufting the short grass or mossy 
ground under beeches, oaks and like-growing trees, through which the 
sunlight filtered generously, were so tempting, that he determined there 
must be luxury, even in death, from such toadstools. 

Experiments made by the writer in West Virginia where the species 
grows luxuriantly and is of much higher flavor than any he has found 
elsewhere, prove that it is easy to transplant within congenial habitats, 
either by the mycelium or spores. Nature, there, resorts to washing 
masses of leaves containing the propagating parts of the fungus along 
the depressions of the water-sheds, and it is found growing plentifully 
where the wind has drifted forest leaves against trees, brush, and fence- 

Other species of the genus do not, as a rule, grow so plentifully, 
neither are they of equal excellence, but several of them are equal to 



Grouped by F. I). Briscoe Studies by ('. Mdlvalne. 


1. , 











any other species. Suspicion has been thrown upon C. aurantiacus. Canthareiiua 
There is such a marked difference between the excellence of the genus 
in West Virginia and other localities, that it is possible C. aurantiacus 
may be noxious elsewhere, but the writer has not found it so ; and it 
would be an astonishing contradiction of Nature's ways if it was. 

Stevenson says: "It (C. cibarius) must have four hours slow cook- 
ing." The writer has found thirty minutes to be sufficient; and it will 
fry in butter as quickly as any other fungus. 


MESOPUS (mesos, middle; potts, a foot). Page 215. 

Stem central. 
*Stem solid. 
**Stem tubular. 

PLEUROPUS (pleura, the side; pous, a foot). 
Stem lateral. 

RESUPINATUS (resupinatus , lying on the back) . 
Stem absent. 

All the species known to be edible belong to Mesopus. 

* Stem solid. 

C. ciba'rius Fr. cibaria, food. (Plate XLVI, fig. 4, p. . 214. 
Plate XLVII.) PileilS fleshy, obconic, smooth, egg-yellow, slightly 
depressed. Gills thick, distant, more or less branching and anastomos- 
ing, concolorous. Stem firm, solid, often tapering downward, con- 
colorous. Flesh white. 

Height 2-4 in., breadth of pileus 2-3 in. Stem 3-6 lines thick. 

In open woods and grassy places. Common. July and August. 

Edible. The smell of apricots is not always clearly perceptible in 
American specimens. Peck, Monograph New York Species of Can- 
tharellus, Rep. 23. 


CanthareUus. Spores 6x8/4 W.G.S.; 7.6x5/4 Morgan; spheroid-ellipsoid, 8-9x5-6/4 

(Plate XLVII.) 


Reported from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific and from Columbia 
river to Louisiana. June to Sep- 

Wherever grown C. cibarius is 
one of the best. In European 
countries it is highly rated, and 
is expensive. Its mode of growth 
varies with its plentifulness. In 
the West Virginia mountains large 
patches of it closely cover the 
ground. Clusters weighing % 
pound are frequent. 

When shredded, or cut across 
the fibers, slow cooking for half 
an hour is sufficient, if the plants 
are fresh. If gathered for some> 
hours, they should be soaked for 
a time. 

C. mi'nor Pk. Pileus fleshy, thin, convex then expanded and de- 
pressed, egg-yellow. Grills very narrow, distant, sparingly branched, 
yellowish. Stem slender, subflexuous, equal, smooth, hollow or stuffed, 

Height 1-2 in., breadth of pileus 6-12 lines. 

In open woods. July. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 6.4-7.6x4-5/4 Peck. 

West Virginia, New York, Pennsylvania. Mcllvaine. 

Grows in the West Virginia mountains, along with C. cibarius, and 
separate from it. It is more tender than C. cibarius, and not equal in 
flavor to those found there. I usu'ally cooked them together and thus 
got quantity well flavored. 

C. auranti'acus Fr. orange-yellow. (Plate CXXXVI, fig. 4, p. . ) 

Pileus fleshy, obconic, nearly plane above, smooth or minutely tomen- 
tose, dull orange with the disk usually brownish, the margin decurved 



and sometimes yellowish. Gills narrow, close, repeatedly forked, Canthareiius 
orange, sometimes yellowish. Stem inequal, generally tapering upward, 
colored like the pileus. Flesh yellowish, taste mild. 

Height 2-3 in., breadth of Pileus 1-3 in. Stem 2-4 lines thick. 

Ground and very rotten logs in woods or in fields. Common. Peck, 
23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 6.4-7.6x4-5^ Peck, ioxS/t Massee. 

Var. pallidus Pk. Pileus and gills pale yellow or whitish yellow. 

Stevenson says of the English species, "Unpleasant, reckoned pois- 
onous." The writer's acquaintance with C. aurantiacus has been prin- 
cipally confined to West Virginia. There its taste is mild, scent but lit- 
tle, flavor not distinguishable from eastern C. Cibarius. There it is per- 
fectly safe and wholesome ; neither have the writer and his friends any 
reason for condemning it. 

C. umbona'tllS Fr. having an umbo. Pileus I in. and more broad, 
ashy-blackish, slightly fleshy, convex when young, umbonate, at length 
depressed, even, dry, flocculoso-stiky on the surface, shining brightly 
especially under a lens. Flesh soft, white, often becoming red when 
wounded. Stem 3 in. long, about 4 lines thick, stuffed, equal, elastic, 
villous at the base, ash-colored, but paler than the pileus. Gills decur- 
rent, thin, tense and straight, crowded, repeatedly divided by pairs, 
shining-white . 

Odor and taste scarcely notable. Gregarious. Among the taller 
mosses the stem is longer. Often overlooked from its habit being that 
of an agaric. It varies with the pileus squamulose and blackish. 

In woods. April to August. Fries. 

The rather prominent gills of this small species are likely to confuse 
those not familiar with its variance from the genuine type. Reddish 
tinge to flesh not noticed in the American species. The writer has 
gathered it in several states and enjoyed it for many years. 

C. rosel'lus Pk. rosy. Pileus thin, funnel-shaped, regular, glabrous, 
pale pinkish-red. Flesh white. Gills narrow, close, dichotomous, deeply 
decurrent, whitish, tinged with pink. Stem equal, slender, solid, 
subglabrous, often flexuous, colored like the pileus. Spores minute, 
broadly elliptical, 3.5x2.5^. 

Pileus 4-8 lines broad. Stem about I in. long, scarcely I line thick. 


Cantharellus. (Plate XLVIII.) 

Natural size. 

Mossy ground in groves of balsam. 
North Elba. September. This small 
species belongs to the section Agar- 
icoides, and is apparently closely al- 
lied to C. albidus, from which its 
smaller size and different color dis- 
tinguish it. The pileus is sometimes 
deeply umbilicate. Peck, 42d Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Frequent in pine woods of New 
Jersey, near Haddonfield, where the 
plant is sturdier than described. 
Though small it grows gregarious 
and in troops from which appetizing 
quantities can be gathered. 

It makes a pretty dish of pinkish 
hue and one of rare excellence. 

C. lutes'cens Bull. yellowish. (Plate CXXXVI, fig. 9, p. 508.) 
PileilS thin, fleshy, convex, umbilicate, brownish-floccose, yellowish. 
Gills very distant, sparingly branched, arcuate-decurrent, pale ochrace- 
ous. Stem slender, slightly tapering downward, smooth, shining, bright 
orange-tinted yellow, stuffed or hollow. 

Height 2-3 in., breadth of PileilS 8-15 lines. 

Mossy ground in woods. Catskill and Adirondack mountains, also 
Sandlake. August to October. 

This is regarded by some as a variety of A. tubaeformis. Peck, 23d 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

In mixed and scrub-pine woods near Haddonfield, N. J. ; mixed 
woods Angora and Kingsessing, Philadelphia. 

Perhaps constancy to C. cibarius has influenced the writer in favor of 
members of its family, and accounts for the gusto in "Fine" set opposite 
his notes to the present species. Nevertheless such is his opinion. 

** Stem tubular. 

C. flocco'silS Schw. woolly. (Plate XLVI, fig. I, p. 214.) Pileus 
fleshy, elongated funnel-form or trumpet shape, floccose-squamose, 



ochraceous-yellow. Gills vein-like, close, much anastomosing above, Canthareiius. 
long decurrent and subparallel below, concolorous. Stem very short, 
thick, rarely deeply rooting. 

Height 2-4 in., breadth of Pileus at the top 1-3 in. 

Woods and their borders. Not rare. Utica, Johnson. Albany and 
Sandlake. July and August. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 12.5-15x7.6/4 Peck. 

New York, Peck, Rep. 23 ; Maine, Mrs. Stella F. Fairbanks; West 
Virginia, Mcllvaine. 

A beautiful species of good quality. 

(Plate XLIX.) 

C. bre'vipes Pk. brevis, short; pes t a foot. (Plate XLVI, fig. 5, p. 
214.) Pileus fleshy, obconic, gla- 
brous, alutaceous or dingy cream- 
color, the thin margin erect, often 
irregular and lobed, tinged with 
lilac in the young plant; folds nu- 
merous, nearly straight on the mar- 
gin, abundantly anastomosing be- 
low, pale umber tinged with lilac. 
Stem short, tomentose-pubescent, 
ash-colored, solid, often tapering 
downward. Spores yellowish, 
oblong-elliptical, uninucleate, 10 

Ev.v.v -v ~w 

>P '<#/ - 



Small plant, two-thirds natural size. 

Plant 3-4 in- high. Pileus 2-3 
in. broad. Stem 4-6 lines thick. 

Woods. Ballston, Saratoga coun- 
ty. July. 

This interesting species is related 
to the C. floccosus, both by its short 
stem and its abundantly anastomosing folds. The two species should 
be separated from the others and constitute a distinct section. The 
flesh in C. brevipes is soft and whitish, and the folds are generally thin- 
ner than in C. floccosus. Peck, 33d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Plentiful in West Virginia mountains in 1884, growing in patches. 
Found in mixed woods near Cheltenham, Pa., and at Springton, Pa., 



CanthareUus. In West Virginia it is prolific and rivals the C. cibarius in excellence. 
The flesh is softer, not so fibrous, and cooks more readily. 

In that locality there is a marked difference between C. brevipes and 
C. floccosus. The latter is much longer, and markedly resembles the 
large end of a gold lined cornet. Like the C. cibarius it is not of as 
good quality in eastern states. 




ported in America. 


Gr. night. From inhabiting dark places. 
(Plate L.) 

/ X 

Hymenophore continuous with 

thestem. Gills fleshy, thick, juicy, 
obtuse at the edge, not decurrent 
on the stem nor fold-like. Veil 
(in species which have been fully 
observed) floccoso-pruinose. 

Fleshy fungi, not reviving, of 
uncertain and irregular occurrence, 
differing in many respects from 
one another and from the rest of 
the Agaricini. Fries, 

The typical species are sapro- 
phytic on decaying fungi. But one 
species, Nyctalis asterophora, re- 
See Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 





Gr. to wither or shrivel. 

Gills pliant, rather tough, Marasmms 

(Plate LI.) 

About one-half natural size. 

Pileus regular, thin, tough and pliant, 
somewhat distant, variously at- 
tached or free, with an acute 
entire edge. Stem cartilaginous or 
horny, continuous with the pileus 
but of different texture. Not pu- 
trescent but drying up with lack 
of moisture, reviving and assuming 
the original form with the advent 
of rain. This character distin- 
guishes Marasmius from all other 
genera of Agaricaceae. 

Its nearer relations are Collybia 
and Mycena. 

Fries says that all Agaricaceae 
having the smell of garlic are found 
in this genus. On the ground, but generally on wood or leaves. 

Professor Peck reports over forty species of this genus found in New 
York state. Several not found in New York are reported from other 
states. The writer has found a few such species in Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia. Many untried species will probably prove to be edible ; 
the majority are too small to be of food value. M. urens, reported pois- 
onous, and M. peronatus, heretofore considered poisonous, have been 
found by the writer to be edible. Several species not described herein 
have been tested for edibility to a limited extent only. 

In this genus occurs the famed M. oreades, the Mousseron of France, 
the Champignon and Scotch bonnet of England, the Fairy-ring mush- 
room of America. 


COLLYBIA (inclining to Collybia). Page 223. 

Flesh of pileus pliant, at length rather leathery, grooved or wrinkled, 
margin incurved at first. Stem somewhat cartilaginous; mycelium 
woolly, absent in some species. 



A. SCORTEI (scorteus, leathery). Page 223. 

Stem solid or stuffed, then hollow, fibrous within, outside covered 
with down. Gills separating from the stem, free. 

* Base of stem woolly or strigose. 

** Stem naked at the base, often interwoven with twisted fibers 

B. TERGINI (terginus, leathery). Page 225. 

Stem rooting, distinctly tubular, not fibrous, distinctly cartilaginous. 
Gills receding then free. Pileus thinner than in the preceding group, 
hygrophanous, even or with the margin striate. 

* Stem woolly below, smooth above. 

** Stem when dry covered with velvety down. 

C. CALOPODES ( Gr. beautiful; Gr. afoot). Page 226. 
Stem short, not rooting, often with a floccose or downy, tubercular 
base. Pileus convex, involute, then plane and more or less depressed, 
in which state the gills typically adnate are subdecurrent. On twigs, 
branches, etc. Gregarious. 

* Stem quite smooth above, shining, base not swollen. 

* Stem covered with velvety down, rather swollen at the base. 

MYCENA (inclining to Mycena). Page 227. 

Stem horny, hollow, often filled with pith, tough, dry. Mycelium 
rooting, not floccose. Pileus somewhat membranaceous, bell-shaped, 
then expaned, margin at first straight and pressed to the stem. 

A. CHORDALES (chorda, a gut). Page 227. 

Stem rigid, rooting or dilated at the base. Pileus bell-shaped or 
convex. Type manifestly that of Mycena. 

B. ROTUIwE (rotula, a little wheel). 

Stem thread-like, flaccid, base not dilated or floccose but appearing 
to enter the matrix abruptly. Pileus soon becoming plane or umbili- 
cate. On leaves. 

* Stem quite smooth, shining. 

** Stem minutely velvety or hairy. 

APUS (#, without; pous, a foot). 
Pileus sessile, resupinate. 





* Stem woolly or strigose at base. 

M. u'rens Fr. uro, to burn. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, unicolorous, 

pale yellowish, becoming pale, slightly fleshy, moderately compact at the 
disk, even, but here and there scaly or cracked in wavy lines when dry, 
smooth, the thin margin involute. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3 lines thick, 
solid, composed of crisp tough fibers, rigid, equal, sometimes however 
ventricose, % in. thick, everywhere clothed with white ftocci, pale, white- 
downy at the base. Gills free, united behind, at length remote from the 
stem, distant, tough, at first pale-wood-color, then brown. 

Gregarious, somewhat cespitose. Taste very stinging. The stem is 
not strigosely sheathed at the base. Fries. 

In mixed woods. Frequent. June to September. 

A curious form occurred with the pileus turning very dark when full- 
grown. B. and Br. POISONOUS. Worthington Smith has tested it 
by accident. It produced headache, swimming of brain, burning in 
throat and stomach, followed by severe purging and vomiting. Steven- 

Gregarious or cespitose. Taste very pungent, a feature which sepa- 
rates the present from M. oreades. Not coarsely tomentose at the base, 
as in M. peronatus, but only downy. Massee. 

Spores 3X4/x W.G.S.; elliptical, 8x47* Massee. 

Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia. Mcllvaine. 

I have not known it to disagree with myself or friends. That it may 
not agree with some persons is unquestioned. Collectors should care- 
fully test it upon themselves. 

M. perona'tus Fr. pero, a kind of boot. Pileus 1-2 in. and more 

broad, light yellowish or pallid brick-red, then becoming pale, wood- 
color or tan, at first fleshy-pliant, then coriaceo-membranaceous , convex 
then plane, obtuse, flaccid, slightly wrinkled, even at the disk, at length 
pitted, striate at the margin. Flesh white. Stem 2-3 in. long, 1-2 
lines thick, stuffed, fibrous, tough, attenuated upward, at length hollow 
and compressed, furnished with a bark, light yellow then pallid, cuticle 
villous but separating and reddish when rubbed, somewhat incurved at 
the base, where it is clothed with dense, somewhat strigose, yellowish or 



Marasmius. white villous down. Grills adnexed, then separating, free, moderately 
thin, and crowded, when young whitish, pallid wood-color, at length 
somewhat remote, reddish. 

B. Woolly sheathed at the base. Taste acrid like that of M. urens, 
odor none. Fries. 

In woods. Common. Stevenson. 

Spores pip-shaped, 7x4^ W.G.S.; 10x6-7 >t Massee, 

New York. Thin woods. North Elba. August. September. Peck, 
42d Rep. ; West Virginia, June to December, West Philadelphia and 
Mt. Gretna, Chester county, Pa. Mcllvaine. 

M. peronatus is the wood-cousin of M. oreades. It is still reputed 
poisonous by all writers upon the subject, though M. C. Cooke gives it 
the benefit of a doubt. The name is given because of the base of the 
stem being densely covered with short hairs or a woolly down, and is 
thus easily recognized. It is common in woods, among decaying 
leaves, especially of the oak, from May until after frosts. It is usually 
solitary, but a few individuals are sometimes clustered. It is quite 
peppery to the taste, but pleasantly so. I have repeatedly eaten it, 
as have my friends. It loses its acridity in cooking, and though the 
caps are tougher than M. oreades, they make a highly flavored and 
delicious dish. Collectors should carefully test it for themselves. 

** Stem naked at the base, etc. 

M. ore'ades Fr. Gr. mountain-nymphs. Scotch bonnet. Cham- 
pignon. Mousseron. (Plate LI, p. 221.) Pileus 1-2 in. broad, 
reddish then becoming pale, absorbing moisture, whitish when dry, 
fleshy, pliant, convex then plane, somewhat umbonate, even, smooth, 
slightly striate at the margin when moist. Stem 2-3 in. long, i % lines 
thick, solid, very tough, equal, tense and straight, everywhere clothed 
with a villons-woven cuticle which can be rubbed off, pallid ; bluntly 
rooted at the base, naked, not villous or tomentose. Gills free, broad, 
distant, the alternate ones shorter, at first soft, then firmer, pallid- 

Odor weak, but pleasant, stronger when dried, taste mild. Commonly 
growing in circles or rows. Fries. 

Spores 6-7x5-6/x K.; elliptical, 8x5/x Massee; nearly elliptical, white, 
7.6-9/u. long Peck. 

Common throughout the states during the summer months after rains, 



and in rings, but can be found from May until after frost. If one knows Marasmius. 
where the rings are to be found M. oreades can be gathered when 
shriveled, and are quite as good, after soaking, as when fresh. 

M. oreades must be sought for where the grass is luxuriant. It hides 
among it. It is well worthy of the search. Raw, fresh or shriveled, 
it is sweet, nutty, succulent when eaten; stewed well it is delicious. 
Though tough its consistency is agreeable. The most delicate stomachs 
can digest it. The writer saved the life of a lovely woman by feeding 
her upon it when nothing else could be retained ; and of another, by 
feeding Coprinus micaceus, after a dangerous operation. He introduced 
these species, together with a few others, into a large hospital in Phila- 
delphia, where they were used with marked beneficial effect, and such 
use is now widespread. 

When dried, by exposure to the air or sun, it can be kept indefinitely, 
neither losing its aroma or flavor, which it graciously imparts to soups 
or any other dish. 

Collybia dryophila, Stropharia semi-globata, and Naucoria semi- 
orbicularis are sometimes found growing with it. These species are 
delicious and harmless. 

Lafayette B. Mendel in the Am. Jour, of Physiology, March, 1898, 
gives the following analysis : 

Twenty freshly gathered specimens (from New Haven) weighed 9 
grams, an average weight of 0.45 grams each. The analysis gave: 

Water 74-96% 

Total solids 2 S-4 

Total nitrogen of dry substance 5.97 

Ash of dry substance 7.23 


* * Stem downy when dry, etc. 

M. Wyn'nei B. and Br. Pileus 1-1% in. broad, /z'/ar-brown, tardily 
changing color, fleshy, convexo-plane, somewhat umbonate. Stem 2 
in. long, i / line thick, tubed, furfuraceous, somewhat of the same 
color as the pileus. Gills adnexed, thick, distant, bright-colored, beau- 
tifully tinged with lilac; interstices even. 

Inodorous. Gregarious or cespitose. The stem springs from a white 
mycelium, but is by no means strigose or tawny at the base. Quite dis- 
tinct from M. fusco-purpureus. Fries. 
15 225 


Marasmius. Among leaves, twigs, etc. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptical, 7 8x4//. Massee. 

Kingsessing, West Philadelphia. Gregarious and cespitose, among 
leaves, etc., in oak woods. September to October, 1885. 

This very pretty fungus very much resembles at first sight the small 
purplish Clitocybes, but is readily distinguished on examination. I ate 
the caps and enjoyed them during the seasons of 1885 and 1887, but 
have not seen the plant since. 

The caps are equal to M. oreades. 

* Stem smooth, etc. 

M. SCOrodo'nius Fr. Gr. a plant that smells like garlic. PileilS 
-/i. in. and more broad, rufous when young, but soon becoming pale, 
whitish (not hygrophanous), slightly fleshy, pliant, convex then soon 
plane, obtuse, always arid ; even when young, at length wrinkled and 
crisped. Stem I in. long, scarcely I line thick, horny, tough, tubed, 
equal, very smooth throughout, shining, reddish, inserted and naked at 
the base. Gills adnatc, often separating, connected by veins, at length 
crisped in drying, whitish. 

Commonly gregarious. Readily distinguished from neighboring spe- 
cies by its strong odor of garlic. Fries. 

Heaths and dry pastures on twigs, etc. Rare. 

Edible. Esteemed for flavoring. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptical, 6x4/i Massee. 

North Carolina, Schweinits, Curtis ; New England, Frost; New Jer- 
sey, Ellis ; New York, August, Peck, 2$d Rep. 

M. ca'lopus Fr. Gr. beautiful; afoot. PileilS about 4 lines broad, 
whitish, slightly fleshy, tough, convex then flattened, obtuse, rarely 
depressed, even, smooth, slightly wrinkled when dried. Stem I in. 
long, i line thick, tubed, slightly attenuated upward, even, smooth, 
tough, dull-red or bay-brown-red, shining, somewhat rooted. Gills 
slightly emarginate, in groups of 2-4, thin, white. 

Inodorous. Almost smaller than M. scorodonius, but the stem is 
longer, otherwise very like it. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, 7x4/1* Mussee. 



Twigs and stems among fallen leaves in woods. Ticonderoga. Au- 

This might easily be mistaken for M. scorodonius, but it is without 
odor, and has a different insertion of the lamellae. It is sometimes ces- 
pitose. The pileus in our specimens is whitish. Peck, 3ist Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Because of its similarity to M. scorodonius, which is edible, it is 
given here. 



M. allia'ceus Fr. allium, garlic. Pileus I I ^ in. broad, whitish 
inclining to fuscous, often milk-white when young, somewhat men>- 
branaceous, campanulate then expanded, somewhat umbonate, even, at 
length striate and sulcate, smooth, dry. Stem as much as 8 in. long, 
horny, rigid, fistulose, attenuated upward, pruinato-velvety , blackish, 
rooted at the base where it is somewhat incurved and naked. Gills ad- 
nexed in the form of a ring, then free, slightly ventricose, arid, slightly 
distant, fuscous-whitish, crisped when dry. 

Odor strong, of garlic, persistent. There is nothing of a reddish 
tinge in the whole plant. The stem is not tomentose at the base as in 
the Tergini. Fries. 

Among leaves and on rotten wood. Frequent. August to October. 
Stevenson . 

Spores i4-i6x8/A Massee. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, Schvueinitz; Min- 
nesota, Johnson; Novia Scotia, Somers. 

Edible. Bull. Boston Myc. Club. 




Helios, the sun; myces, a fungus. 

Heiiomyces. PileuS membranaceous, between leathery and gelatinous, radiately 
sulcate. Gills equal, edge acute. Stem somewhat woody, cylindrical, 

Allied to Marasmius, but differing in its sub-gelatinous substance. 

None reported edible. 

(Plate LII.) 

Lentus, tough or pliant. 

Lentinus. PileuS fleshy-coriaceous, pliant, tough and hard when old, persistent. 

Gills becoming dry, tough, simple, 
unequal, thin, margin acute, toothed, 
more or less decurrent. Stem when 
present central, excentric or lateral, 
hard and firm, continuous with the 
flesh of the pileus. 
Growing on wood. 
Spores somewhat round, even, 

Distinguished from other coriace- 
ous genera by its serrated and torn 

"The genera Lentinus and Len- 
zites are found in every region of the 
world ; their principal center, how- 
ever, is in hot countries, where they 
attain a splendid development. On 

the contrary, toward the north they rapidly decrease in number." 
Fungi. Cooke and Berkeley. 

In habitat and mode of growth Lentinus closely resembles Pleurotus, 
and parallel genera with colored spores. When young the species are 
inviting, and when well cooked are meal-giving. They are not delica- 
cies, but substantials. They dry well. Grated they make soups, and 
give their pleasant flavor to any dish. 





MESOPODES (niesos, middle; pous, a foot). Page 229. 
Stem distinct. 

PLEUROTI (pleura, a side; ous, an ear ). 
Stem lateral or absent. None known to be edible. 

I. MESO'PODES (center-stemmed). 

L. Lecom'tei Fr. Pileus coriaceous, funnel-shaped, regularly re- 
flexed, hairy, tawny. Gills crowded, pallid. Stem short, hairy, tawny. 

Common to the states. 

Professor Peck writes to me: "This plant, by reason of its rather 
tough substance, has commonly been referred to Lentinus, under the 
name L. Lecomtei Schw., but this reference is scarcely satisfactory to 
me, since the edge of the lamellae is scarcely at all serrate as required 
by that genus. It seems to me it would go better under the genus 
Panus. It is variable sometimes eccentric or even lateral. It is some- 
times called Lentinus strigosus, but I do not think the two are distinct 
species, however distinct they may be in form." February 26, 1894. 

Like all Lentinus the present species is rather tough, yet chopped 
into small pieces, well cooked and seasoned, it is quite equal to P. 
ostreatus and many others of high renown. 

L. tigri'nus Fr. tigris, a tiger. From the markings. PileilS com- 

(Plate LIU.) 

monly 2 in. broad, white, variegated 
with somewhat adpressed, blackish, 
hairy squamules, fleshy-coriaceous, 
thin, commonly orbicular and cen- 
tral, at first convexo-plane, umbili- 
cate, at length funnel-shaped, often 
split at the margin when dry. Stem 
about 2 in. long, thin, solid, very 
hard, commonly attenuated down- 
ward, minutely squamulose, whitish, 
often ascending and becoming dingy- 
brown at the base, at first furnished 
nf flic apex with an entire re flexed ring, which soon falls off. Gills de- 


About one-half natural size. 


Lentinus. current (by no means sinuate), narrow, crowded, unequal, toothed like 
a saw, white. 

Somewhat gregarious, even cespitose, thinner and more coriaceous 
and regular than L. lepideus B., wholly blackish with squamules. Fries. 

On old stumps. Rare. Stevenson. 

When fresh very tender and easily torn, when dry coriaceous. Sow. 
Smell strong, acrid, like that of some Lactarii. M. J . B. 

Spores 6.6x3.3/4 Morgan; elliptical, smooth, 7x3.5/4 Massee. 

Agreeable taste and odor, eaten in Europe. Roques. 

Edible, tough when old and never very delicate or digestible. M. 
C. Cooke. 

Not found in sufficient quantity to test. 

lepi'deus Fr. Gr. scaly. (Plate XVI, fig. 3, 4, 
p. 52.) Pileus 2-4 in. broad, pallid-ochraceous, 
variegated with adpressed, darker, spot-like scales , 
fleshy, very compact and firm, irregular, com- 
monly excentric, convex then depressed, but not 
truly umbilicate, sometimes broken up into cracks. 

Flesh pliant, white. Stem short, commonly I in. long, solid, stout, 
very irregularly formed, almost woody, tomentose-scaly, whitish, rooted 
at the base, at the first furnished with a veil toward the apex. Gills 
decurrent, but sinuate behind, crowded broad, transversely striate, 
whitish, edge torn into teeth. 
Odor pleasant. Fries. 
Spores 11x5/4 W.G.S., 7x3/4 Massee. 

Lentinus lepideus is a sort of commercial traveler. It is common 
wherever railroads are. It is partial to oak ties and its mycelium is in- 
jurious to them. It is found upon pine and other timbers. The writer 
has collected large clusters of it from oak sawdust. The European 
plant is noted as "almost always solitary." In the United States it is 
seldom so. It is noted as growing in damp, dark places, but it loves 
the sim. 

As a food it is about on a par with P. ulmarius, not as tough, but 
harder when old. It is a reliable species from spring until late autumn, 
is persistent and dries well. It is neat, handsome, prolific. When 
young it makes a good dish, and when old can be used to advantage in 



L. COChlea'tllS Fr. cochlea, a snail. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, flesh- 
color, but becoming pale, somewhat tan, fleshy-pliant, thin, com- 
monly excentric, imbricated, very unequal, somewhat lobed or con- 
torted, sometimes plane, sometimes funnel-shaped-umbilicate, but not 
pervious, smooth. Stem solid, firm, sometimes central, most frequently 
excentric, sometimes wholly lateral, always snlcate, smooth, flesh-colored 
upward, reddish-brown downward. Gills decurrent, crowded, serrated, 
white-flesh-color. Fries. 

Pliant, tough, flaccid, very changeable in form, sometimes solitary, 
sometimes cespitose, imbricated, growing into each other. From very 
small forms which are commonly solitary, with the stem and pileus 
scarcely I in', it ranges to 3 in. 

On stumps. Frequent. August to October. 

According to Fries the odor is weak, of anise; but it is generally 
strong and very pleasant. Stevenson. 

Spores nearly globular, 4/u. diameter Morgan; spheroid or ellipsoid- 
spheroid, uniguttate, 4 6/* K.; almost globular, 4/x. W.G.S. 

The dense clusters of all sized members are usually plenty in favored 
localities. It is inviting in appearance, taste and spicy odor. It re- 
tains a suspicion of the latter when cooked which gives the dish a flavor 
pleasant to many. It must be young to be tender. When dry like 
others of its kind it can be grated and used in many ways. 

L. Un'dei'WOOdii Pk. Pileus fleshy, tough, convex or nearly plane, 
the glabrous surface cracking into areola-like scales which are indistinct 
or wanting toward the margin, whitish or slightly tinged with buff or 
pale ochraceous. Flesh white. Gills moderately close, decurrent, 
slightly connecting or anastomosing at the base, somewhat notched on 
the edge, whitish, becoming discolored in drying. Stem stout, hard, 
solid, eccentric, squamose, colored like the pileus. Spores oblong, 

Plant cespitose. Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 1-5-3 m - l n g, about 
I in. thick. 

This differs from L. magnus in its cespitose habit, eccentric stem, . 
longer spores, less distinctly areolate-squamose pileus and in its habitat. 
The gills are connected at the base very much like those of Pleurotus 
ostreatus. Peck, Torr. Bull. Vol. 23, No. 10. 

North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. 



Lentinus, The writer first met with it in North Carolina, near Washington, on 
oaks and railroad timbers, and in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. It 
attains quite a size, grows singly and in clusters. Its clean, cake-like 
appearance is attractive. Cooked it ranks with P. ulmarius, L. lepideus, 
and Panus strigosus. 

A name given to a tree-growing fungus by Pliny. 

Panus. Whole fungus between fleshy and leathery, tough, not woody, texture 

(Plate LIV.) 

About one-fourth natural size. 

fibrous. Gills unequal, tough, be- 
coming leathery, edge acute and un- 
broken. Stem present or absent. 

Growing on wood. Various in 
form , lasting long. Allied to Lentinus 
but differing in the tough and very 
entire gills. 

Spores even, white. 


* Stem excentric. 
** Stem lateral. 
* Stem absent. Pileus resupinate or dimidiate. 

Species of this genus are among our most observable fungi. Their 
settlements are frequent on decaying trees, stumps, branches, on fences, 
cut timber, etc. Most of them are small, but their coriaceous build pre- 
vents their shrinking in cooking. Most species have a pleasant fari- 
naceous taste and odor, which they yield, together with a gummy sub- 
stance, to soups and gravies. 

Tasting a small piece will immediately tell, if the species is not 
known, whether it is edible or of the styptic kind. 

* Stem excentric. 

P. conclia'tus Fr. Formed like concha, a shell-fish. Pileus about 



Photographed by Dr. J. R. Weist. 



3 in. across, tough and flexible, unequal, excentric or dimidiate, margin 
often lobed, cinnamon-color becoming pale, at length more or less 
scaly. Flesh thin. Gills narrow, forming decurrent lines on the stem, 
somewhat branched ; pinkish-white then pale-ochraceous. Stem about 
?a in. long, 3-4 lines thick, solid, unequal, pale, base downy. Massee. 

On trunks of beech, poplar, etc. 

Often imbricated and more or less grown together. Allied to Panus 
torulosus, but distinguished by the much thinner pileus, more expanded 
and excentric, also dimidiate, flaccid, cinnamon becoming pale, but the 
form not constant. Stem about ,'2 in. long, 4 lines thick, often com- 
pressed, downy at the base. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, scaly when old. 
Gills decurrent in long, parallel lines, not at all resembling those of 
Pleurotus ostreatus, which anastomose behind, but frequently unequally 
branched, at first whitish or pale flesh-color, then wood-color, crisped 
when dry. Fries. 

Always known by its shell-like form and its tough substance. 

Sent to the writer by Mr. E. B. Sterling, Trenton, N. J. September, 

The appearance of scales upon the pileus was scarcely noticeable. 
Taste pleasant. The fungus is tough when old, but yields an excellent 

P. torulo'sus Fr. a tuft of hair. (Plate LIV, p. 232.) Pileus 2-3 
in. broad, somewhat flesh-color, but varying reddish-livid and becoming 
violet, entire, but very excentric, fleshy, somewhat compact when young, 
plano-infundibuliform, even, smooth. Flesh pallid. Stem short, com- 
monly i in., solid, oblique, tough, firm, commonly with gray, but often 
violaceous down. Gills decurrent, somewhat distant, simple, separate 
behind, reddish then tan-color. 

Very changeable in form, at first fleshy-pliant, at length coriaceous. 
In the covering of the stem it approaches Paxillus atro-tomentosus, but 
there is no affinity between them. Fries. 

On old stumps. 

Spores 6x3/A W. G. S. 

North Carolina, Curtis; Massachusetts, Frost; Minnesota, Johnson; 
Kansas, Cragin; New York, Peck, Rep. 30. 

Much esteemed in France, W.D.H. Edible, but tough. M.C.C. 


Paaus. P. laevis B. and C. light. Pileus 3 in. broad, orbicular, slightly 
depressed, white, clothed in the center with long, intricate, rather deli- 
cate hairs, which are shorter and more matted toward the inflected mar- 
gin ; substance rather thin. Stem 3 in. high, > in. thick, attenuated 
upward, generally excentric, sometimes lateral, not rooting, solid, hairy 
below like the margin of the pileus. Gills rather broad, entire, decur- 
rent, but not to a great degree, the interstices even above, behind 
clothed with the same coat as the top of the stem. Spores white. 

On oak and hickory trunks. 

A most distinct species, remarkable for its great lightness when dry 
and the long villous but not compressed or compound flocci of the 
pileus. Sometimes the center of the pileus becomes quite smooth when 

One of the prettiest of fungi. The markings upon the white margin 
are more precise than those of the finest bee comb. One does not tire 
looking at the work of Nature's geometrician. It is not plentiful, but is 
of useful size. It has good flavor and cooks quite tender. 

P. Strigo'sus B. and C- 

(Plate LVa.) 

overed with stiff hairs. PileilS white, ex- 
centric, clothed with coarse strigose 
pubescence, margin thin. Stem stri- 
gose like the pileus. Grills broad, 
distant, decurrent. Allied to P. 

Pileus 8 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. 
long, i in. or more thick. 
On oak stumps. 

Decaying wood of deciduous trees. 

It is remarkable for its large size 
and the dense hairy covering of the 
pileus and stem. Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

A remarkably handsome fungus. A specimen taken from a cluster 
growing upon an apple tree measured 10 in. across. Its creamy white- 
ness, and short hairy stem make it unmistakable among other tree- 

When very young it is edible, but soon becomes woody. Even when 
aged it yields a well flavored gravy. 


One-third natural size. 

** Stem lateral. 

P. farina'ceus Schum. farina, meal. From the scurf on the pileus. 
Pileus cinnamon-umber, somewhat coriaceous, flexuous, cuticle separat- 
ing into whitish-bluish-gray scurf. Stem short, lateral, of the same 
color as the pileus. Grills determinately free, distinct, paler. 

The habit is that of P. stipticus. Stevenson. 

Pennsylvania, A. pleurotus f., Schweinitz; Ohio, Morgan. 

Var. albido-tomentosus. See Panus albido-tomentosus. 

P. al'bido-tomento'sus CKE. MASS. albidus, white; tomentttm, 
down. PiletlS about % in. long, 3^ in. broad, horizontal, sometimes 
imbricated, semi-circular, subcoriaceous, flexuous or regular, pale um- 
ber, densely clothed with a short, whitish, velvety down, which seems 
to be persistent, but thinner and shorter toward the shortly incurved 
margin. Stem lateral, very short, or entirely absent, and attached by 
a downy base. Gills radiating from the point of attachment; narrowed 
behind, lanceolate, honey-colored, margin entire, rigid, scarcely crowded, 
shorter ones intermixed. Spores subglobose, smooth, 5/u, diameter. 

On trunks and branches. 

Pileus about i in. broad, often in imbricated tufts. It is doubtful 
whether this is not a distinct species from the type described by Fries. 
Cooke and Massee. 

Panus albido-tomentosus is given by Cooke and Massee as a variety 
of Panus farinaceus. The writer decides to give it place as a species. 

It has been sent to me by Mr. H. I. Miller, from Terre Haute, Ind., 
by Dr. E. L. Gushing, Albion, N. Y., Miss Madeleine Le Moyne, 
Washington, Pa. I have found it in West Virginia, New Jersey and 
many parts of Pennsylvania. It is plentiful in patches upon branches 
and boles of deciduous trees. Long, slow cooking makes it tender. 
It makes a luscious gravy after thirty minutes' stewing. 

* Stem absent, pileus resupinate or dimidiate. 

P. betuli'nilS Pk. bctula, birch. Pileus thin, suborbicular or dimi- 
diate, nearly plane, glabrous, prolonged behind into a short stem, grayish- 
brown, darker or blackish toward the stem. Gills narrow, close, decur- 



Panus. rent, whitish. Stem adorned with a slight tawny hairiness which is 
more fully developed toward the base. Spores minute, 4-5x1.5-2^. 

Decaying wood of birch. Newfoundland. October, Rev. A. C. 
Waghorne. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 23, No. 10. 

Common in West Virginia mountains on birches, 1882; found at Ea- 
gle's Mere, Pa., August, 1898. Quite plentiful on decaying birch trees, 
which abound there. Size from /4 i%, in. across. 

Eaten raw it has a gummy quality and very pleasant nutty flavor. I 
did not have opportunity to cook it, but regard it as a species well 
worth trying. 

P. Stip'ticus Fr. stypticus, astringent. Pileus % i in. broad, cin- 
namon becoming pale, arid, thin, but not membranaceous, kidney- 
shaped, pruinose, the cuticle separating into fnrfuraceous scales. Stem 
not reaching I in. long, solid, definitely lateral, compressed, dilated up- 
ward, ascending, pruinose, paler than the gills. Gills ending deter- 
minately (not decurrent), thin, very narrow, crowded, elegantly con- 
nected by veins , cinamon. Fries. 

Gregarious, cespitose, remarkable for its astringent taste. The pileus 
sometimes has a funnel-shaped appearance with lobes all around. 

On stumps, etc. Common. August to February. 

Reckoned poisonous. Stevenson. 

Spores obovoid-spheroid, 2-3x1-2^ K.; 3x4^ W.G.S. 

Plentiful and general. The markings upon the cap in moist weather 
are sometimes exquisitely regular. 

The immediate and lasting unpleasantness of this fungus to mouth 
and throat, whether cooked or raw, will cancel all desire to eat of it 
forevermore. A nibble will detect it. It is reckoned poisonous, and 
may be. No one but a determined suicide would resort to it. Dr. 
Lambotte asserts that it is a violent purgative. 



XEft'OTUS Fr. 

Gr. dry ; Gr. an ear. 

(Plate LVI.) 

Hymenophore continuous with Xerotus. 
the stem, descending into the 
trama which is homogeneous with 
the coriaceous pileus. Gills cori- 
aceous, broadly plicaeform, di- 
chotomous, edge quite entire, ob- 
tuse. Rigid, persistent, analogous 
with the Cantharelli, but differing 
ill the whole structure. Fries. 

The gills are more distant than 
in any species of Agaricaceae. 

None edible. 



After Trog, a Swiss botanist. 

Gills fold-like, edge longitudinally channelled (in the single Eu- 

(Plate LVI I.) 

ropean species only crisped). In 
other respects agreeing with Xero- 
tus. Soft, flaccid, but arid and 
persistent, textiire fibrillose . Fries. 

Reviving when wet. Spores 
white. Stevenson. 

Spores elongated or cylindrical. 

American representative, Trogia 
crispa, var. variegata. 

Pileus and gills variegated with bluish or greenish-blue stains, 
lake. September. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Dot. 

Not edible. 


Natural size. 


Agaric aceae 


Gr. to split; Gr. a leaf. 




Pileus fleshless, arid. Gills cori- 
aceous, fan-wise branched, united 
above by the tomentose pellicle, 
bifid, split longitudinally at the edge. 
Spores somewhat round, white. 

The two lips of the split edge of 
the gills are commonly revolute. The 
farthest removed of all the Agari- 
cini from the type. 

Growing on wood. Stevenson. ' 

Common on decaying wood. 


After Lenz, a German botanist. 

Lenzites. Pileus corky or coriaceous, texture arid and floccose. Gills coriace- 
ous, firm, sometimes simple and unequal, sometimes anastomosing and 
forming pores behind, trama floccose and similar to the pileus, edge 
somewhat acute. The European species are dimidiate, sessile, persist- 
ent, growing on wood, quite resembling Daedalea. Fries. 

Allied most nearly to Trametes and Daedalea and forming as it were 
the transition from Agaricaceae to Polyporaceae. In tropical countries 
they are more woody in texture. Stevenson. 

Very common. None edible. 


PLATE L VI 1 1 A. 



\ \ 








Series II. RHODOSPOR-ffi. Gr. rose; Gr. seed. Or HYPORHO'DII hypo, 

under; r/todon, rose. 

Spores pink or salmon-color. 

In Volvaria, Pluteus and most of Clitopilus, the spores are regular in 
shape, as in the white-spored series, in the rest of the subgenera they 
are generally angular and irregular. 

Though European writers, generally, condemn the rosy-spored series 
as inedible, a few of our best American edibles are found in it notably 
Pluteus cervinus. 


Volva, a wrapper. 

Spores regular, oval, pink, or salmon. Veil universal, forming a Volvaria. 
perfect volva, distinct from the cuticle of the pileus. Stem separating 
easily from the pileus. Gills free, rounded behind, at the very first 
white then pinkish, soft. Analogous with Amanita. 

Growing in woods and on rich mold, rotten wood and damp ground, 
hence often found in hot-houses and gardens. V. Loveiana Berk, is 
parasitic on Clitocybe nebularis. 

There are thirteen species reported from different parts of the United 
States. Most of them grow upon wood. Two species have previously 
been reported as edible, to which I have added V. Taylori, tested by 

One species, V. gloiocephala, is upon the authority of Letellier, 
given as poisonous. It is found in several parts of the United States, 
but no comment has been made upon its edibility. I have not seen it. 
A careful study of its botanic characters is urged. It should be re- 
garded as poisonous until its reputation is cleared up, as it probably 
will be. 


* Pileus dry, silky or fibrillose. 
* Pileus more or less viscid, smooth. 



*Pileus dry, silky or fibril lose. 

Voivaria. V. bombyci'na Schaeff. bombyx, silk. PileilS 3-8 in. broad, wholly 
( Plate LIX.) white, fleshy, soft, at first globose, soon 

bell-shaped, at length convex, somewhat 
umbonate, everywhere silky or, when older, 
hairy-scaled, more rarely becoming smooth 
at the vertex. Flesh not thick, white. 
Stem 3-6 in. long, >2 in. thick or more at 
the base, solid, equally attenuated from 
the base to the apex, even, smooth, white. 
Volva soon torn asunder, ample, 23 in. 
broad, membranaceous, lax, slashed, some- 
what viscid, persistent. Gills free, very 
crowded when young, almost cohering, 
ventricose, in groups of 24, then toothed, 

Ovate when young. According to some 
becoming brownish. The stem is curved- 
ascending on vertical trunks and straight 

on prostrate ones. Commonly solitary, sometimes however cespitose. 
Stevenson . 

Spores elliptic, smooth, 6-7x4;* Massee; 6-8/u, Lloyd. 
Considered edible. Stevenson. Edible. Curtis. 
Very general but not common over the United States. It is a large 
plant, from 3 in. upward across cap. Growing from wood, oaks, maples, 
beech, etc. 

The writer has not been successful in finding it. Drawing, spore-print 
and description received from H. I. Miller, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Upon such an authority as the late Dr. Curtis there is no doubt of 
its edibility. 

V. volva'cea Bull. volva, a wrapper. PileilS 2-3 in. across. 
Flesh white, thick at the disk, very thin elsewhere, soft, bell-shaped 
then expanded, obtuse, grayish-yellow, virgate or streaked with ad- 
pressed blackish fibrils. Gills free, about 2 lines broad, pale flesh- 
color. Stem 2-4 in. long, about 4 lines thick, almost equal, white, solid. 


Natural size. 












Two-fifths natural size. 

Volva large, loose, whitish. Spores . (Plate LX.) 

smooth, elliptical, 6-8x3.5-4^; no 
cystidia. Massee. 

On the ground by roadsides, etc., 
also in stoves. 

Allied to V. bombycina, but con- 
stantly different in the less ample 
and less persistent, brownish volva. 
Pileus 3 in. across, rarely more, 
gray, elegantly virgate with blackish 
fibrils ; flesh-color of the gills not 
so pure. Fries., 

Once found in woods at roots of a 

tree. It occurs every year in the cellar of our drug store. Lloyd 

North Carolina, Schweinitz; Minnesota, Johnson; Ohio, Morgan. 

Probably edible, should be carefully tested. 

V. Taylor! Berk. Pileus i% in. high and broad, livid, conico- 
campanulate, obtuse, striately cracked from the apex, thin, margin lobed 
and sinuated. Stem 2/2 in. long, K in. thick, pallid, solid, nearly 
equal, slightly bulbous at the base. Volva date-brown, lobed, some- 
what lax, small. Grills uneven, broad in front, very much attenuated 
behind, rose-color. 

Pileus beautifully penciled and cracked. The dark volva, bell-shaped 
pileus, and uneven, attenuated gills are marked characters. The habit 
is rather that of some Entoloma than of its more immediate allies. Fries. 

Spores 6x9/11 W.G.S.; broadly elliptical, smooth, 5x3.5-4^ Massee. 

Indiana, Mrs. L. H. Cox; West Philadelphia, in much decayed stump 
of maple. Mcllvaine. 

Caps i%2 in. across and beautifully penciled and cracked. Stem 
i ^3 in. long. Gills up to K in. wide. The spores when shed in 
body are a beautiful maroon. Resembling V. volvacea, but lighter in 
color, and having a brown volva. Specimens sent me by J. J. New- 
baker, Steelton, Pa., had snow-white caps and when young were velvety 
to the touch. Gills tinged with pink; volva dark brown. 

The few specimens eaten were of good flavor, somewhat resembling 
Pluteus cervinus. 

16 241 



** Pileus more or less viscid, smooth, 

V. specio'sa Fr. speciosus, handsome. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, whit- 
ish, gray or umber at the disk, fleshy, globose when young, then bell- 
shaped, at length plane and somewhat umbonate, even, smooth, gluey. 
Flesh soft, floccose, white. Stem 4-8 in. long, as much as I in. thick, 
solid, firm, slightly attenuated from the base as far as the apex, when 
young, white-villous and tomentose at the base, then becoming smooth, 
white. Volva bulbous rather than lax, free however, variously torn 
into loops, membranaceous, % \ in. broad, externally tomentose, white. 
Gills free, flesh-colored. 

The gills are wholly the same as those of A. bombycinus. It occurs 
also thinner, with the pileus wholly gray. Fries. 

Spores !2-i8x8-io/A K.; elliptical or subglobose, smooth, I4~i6x 
8/tt Mas see. 

Distinguished by the whitish, viscid pileus, and the downy volva and 
stem. Mas see. 

"Common in cultivated soil, especially grain fields and along roads. 
A fine edible agaric and our most abundant one in California." Mc- 
Clatchie. Volvae, U. S., Lloyd. 

V. gloioaeph'ala Dec. Fl. Gr. sticking; head. Pileus dark 
opaque brown, fleshy, bell-shaped then expanded, umbonate, smooth, 
glutinous, striate at the margin, Stem solid, smooth, becoming brown- 
ish or tawny; the volva, which is circularly split, pressed close. Gills 
'free, reddish. 

Fragments of the volva are sometimes seen on the pileus. The stem 
is commonly more slender than that of A. speciosus. Fries. 

On the ground. Uncommon. June to October. Stevenson. 

Pileus about 3 in. across, with a strong regular, obtuse umbo in the 
center, of a delicate mouse-gray, viscid when moist, but when dry 
shining, quite smooth, margin striate in consequence of the thinness of 
the flesh. Stem 6 in. or more high, about ) in. thick in the center, 
attenuated upward, bulbous at the base, clothed with a few slight fibers, 
easily splitting, solid, rather dingy, ringless. Volva loose, villous like 
the base of the stem, splitting into several unequal lobes; the gills are 
broad, especially in front, narrower behind and quite free, so as to leave 
a space round the top of the stem, white, tinged with grayish-pink; 



margin slightly toothed. Smell strong and unpleasant, and taste disa- Voivaria. 
greeable. M.J.B. VERY POISONOUS according to Letellier. Stev- 
enson . 

Spores 19x9/1* W.G.S.; elliptical, smooth, io-i2x6-7/x Massee. 

Distinguished by the smoky, glutinous pileus. The measurement of 
the spores as given by Saccardo (19x91*) is certainly too large, and is 
probably an uncorrected error. Massee. 

North Carolina, Curtis; South Carolina, Ravenel; Ontario, Dearness; 
California, Harkness and Moore ; Ohio, Morgan; Mississippi, Minne- 
sota, Johnson. 


{Pluteus, a shed. From the conical shape of the pileus.) 

Stem fleshy, distinct from the pileus. Gills free, rounded behind 
(never emarginate), at first cohering, white, then colored by the spores. 

Generally growing on or near trunks of trees. 

Resembling Voivaria in all respects but the volva. Spores rosy. 

Several of the genus are edible. Pluteus cervinus is one of our earli- 
est, persistent, plentiful, delicious food species- The caps of those 
tested are tender, easily cooked and best fried. 


*Cuticle of the pileus separating into fibrils or down, which at length 

**Pileus frosted with atoms, somewhat powdery. 
***Pileus naked, smooth. 

* Cuticle of pileus fibrillose, etc. 

P. cervi'nus Schaeff. cervus, a deer. (Plate LXI, fig. I, p. 242.) 
Pileus fleshy, at first campanulate, then convex or expanded, even, 
glabrous, generally becoming fibrillose or slightly floccose-villose on the 
disk, occasionally cracked, variable in color. LamellSB broad, some- 
what ventricose, at first whitish, then flesh-colored. Stem equal or 
slightly tapering upward, firm, solid, fibrillose or subglabrous, variable 
in color. Spores broadly elliptical, 6.5-8x5-6.5^. 



piuteus. Plant 2-6 in. high. Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-6 lines thick. 

The typical form has the pileus and stem of a dingy or brown color 
and adorned with blackish fibrils, but specimens occur with the pileus 
white, yellowish, cinereous, grayish-brown or blackish-brown. I have 
never seen it of a true cervine color. It is sometimes quite glabrous 
and smooth to the touch and in wet weather it is even slightly viscid. 
It also occurs somewhat floccose-villose on the disk, and the disk, 
though usually plane or obtuse, is occasionally slightly prominent or 
subumbonate. The form with the surface of the pileus longitudinally 
rimose or chinky is probably due to meteorological conditions. The 
gills, though at first crowded, become more lax with the expansion of 
the pileus. They are generally a little broader toward the marginal 
than toward the inner extremity. Their tendency to deliquesce is often 
shown by their wetting the paper on which the pileus has been placed 
for the purpose of catching the spores. The stem is usually somewhat 
fibrous and striated but forms occur in which it is even and glabrous. 
When growing from the sides of stumps and prostrate trunks it is apt to 
be curved. Two forms deserve varietal distinction. 

Var. afbns. Pileus and stem white or whitish. 

Var. al'bipes. Pileus cinereous yellowish or brown. Stem white or 
whitish, destitute of blackish fibrils. 

In Europe there are three or four forms which have been designated 
as species under the names of A. rigens, A. patricius, A. eximius and 
A. petasatus, but Fries gives them as varieties or subspecies of A. cer- 
vinus, though admitting that they are easily distinguished. None of 
these have occurred in our state. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Var. visco'sus. The normal character of the cuticle of the species is 
slightly viscid in wet weather, but the specimens we collected and photo- 
graphed were exceedingly viscid. They also differed from the normal 
form in their lighter color, flesh much thicker at the disk and thin at the 
margins, and cuticle not appearing fibrillose. It is close to petasatus, 
but differs, however, in its narrower gills and in having no striae. It is 
a good variety if it is not a good species. Lloyd, Myc. Notes. 

Spores 7-8x5-6)". K.; 6-8x4-5/01 B.;^^ W. G.S.; 5 .8x4.6^ Morgan. 

Frequent on decaying stumps, roots and wood, May to frost. Mc- 
I lvalue. 

Its free gills should distinguish it from any Entoloma, though both 
have pink spores and eventually pink gills. Among the earliest of 



Grouped by F. D. Biiscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 






large species. The sight of it is stimulating to the mycophagist. He piutens. 
then knows the toadstool season to be truly opened. 

Caps only are tender. The stems are edible, but they are not of the 
same consistency as the caps, therefore will not cook with them. Fried 
in a buttered pan or broiled, they are exceedingly toothsome. 

In October, 1898, a beautiful variety (see Plate LXI, fig. 2, p. ), 

occurred which I had not previously seen. It was sent by me to Pro- 
fessor Peck. The plants grew in large clusters from rotting, refuse 
straw in the ruin of a stable ; the white, cottony mycelium running 
upon and through the straw. The solid stems of some were straight, 
others curved, ranging from 26 in. long, the taller ones tapering from 
base to spindling apex, the shorter ones decidedly bulbous and ending 
abruptly. They were twisted and delicately marked. These markings 
break up into dark thread-like fibrils, leaving the stem striate and satin- 
glossy. PileilS from 24 in. across, dark Vandyke-brown when young, 
lighter in age, streaked, glossy. Gills at first white, tardily changing 
to light salmon color, broad, ventricose, free. 

Taste and smell pleasant of almonds. Good, delicious. 

Professor Peck wrote of it: "It has the general appearance of 
Pluteus cervinus, but these specimens seem to depart from the usual 
form of growing in clusters from the ground, and in having an almond 
flavor. Without knowing more about it I would scarcely feel justified 
in separating it from such a variable species. As Fries sometimes re- 
marks concerning variable species : Perhaps several species are con- 
cealed under the one name, but a pretty full and accurate knowledge of 
them is desirable if one is to split them up." 

This is excellent judgment. While I believe the above to be a dis- 
tinct species, the disposition to make new species of varieties is regret- 
table in many botanists. 

Var. But Hi Berk., MS. PileilS 4-6 in. across, flesh thick, convex 
then expanded, smooth, even, pallid, the disk darker. Gills free, 
rounded behind, rather distant from the stem, crowded, K in. broad, 
pale salmon-color. Stem 3-4 in. long, i in. and more thick, slightly 
swollen at the base, fibrillose, pale brown, darkest at the base, solid. 
Mas see. 

Pileus 6 in. across, expanded from bell-shape, ashy-white (oyster 
color), glossy, like floss silk, silky fibrillose, irregularly corrugated. 
Skin separable. Flesh spongy, pure white, like shreds of cotton, sep- 



piuteus. arable into plates, very brittle, H in. thick at stem, immediately thin- 
ning to H in., very thin toward margin. Gills thin, elastic, rounded 
behind, close to stem, free, % in. wide, close, alternate short and long, 
white, then tinged and spotted pink with spores which when cast in mass 
are a pinkish-brown with slight lavender shade. Stem 5 in. long, H% 
in. thick, subequal, spreading at top, white, silky-fibrillose, changing to 
very light yellowish brown from center to base, exterior hard, skin thin, 
tough, interior filled with continuous, cottony fibers, snow-white, brittle, 
watery, slightly swollen at base. Taste pleasant. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., July, 1898, on chestnut stump and in woods on 
ground among leaves. Leaves adhere to base of stem which is pow- 
dery-white. Mcllvaine. 

Cooked, it is as good as P. cervinus. 

Var. petasdtus Fr. PileilS 3-4 in. across, flesh rather thick, campanu- 
late then expanded, umbonate, grayish-white, very smooth, with a 
viscid cuticle, at length striate to the middle. Gills free, K in. and 
more broad, crowded, becoming dry, white then reddish. Stem 4-5 
in. long, % % in. thick, rigid, very slightly and equally attenuated 
from the base, whitish, fibrillosely striate, solid. 

On heaps of straw and dung, sawdust, etc. 

Color verging on bay when old. Stem and margin of gills at length 
with a tawny tinge. Fries. 

Haddonfield, New Jersey, Bell's Mill, sawdust, 1890; Mt. Gretna, 
Pa., August, 1898, among sawdust from ice-house. Caps 6 in. across. 
Stem easily split, exterior hard, fibrillose, streaked, whitish, shining, 
stuffed with cottony fibers. Spores dark pink. Mcllvaine. 

Equal to P. cervinus. 

P. limbro'sus Pers. shady, from its dark color. PileilS fleshy, at 
first bell-shaped, then convex or expanded, roughly wrinkled and more 
or less villose on the disk, fimbriate on the margin, blackish-brown. 
Gills broad, somewhat ventricose, at first whitish, then flesh-colored, 
blackish-brown and fringed or toothed on the edge. Stem solid, colored 
like or paler than the pileus, fibrillose or villose-squamose. Spores 
elliptical, 8x5/4. 

Decaying woods and swamps, especially *f pine, both in shaded and 
open places. Not rare. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 



Spores broadly elliptical, smooth, 6-7x5/1, ; cystidia ventricose, 65- Piuteus. 
75xi8-2O/x Mas see. 

New York, Peck, Rep. 32, 38; West Virginia, Pennsylvania, North 
Carolina, New Jersey, frequent on decaying logs, stumps, pine and 
other woods. Mcllvaine. 

At times the caps are a deep sepia-brown. It is readily distinguished 
from P. cervinus by the wrinkled, downy disk of the cap and the gills 
having dark-brown edges. Smell rather strong. Professor Peck says 
he has not seen it with the margin fimbriate. Neither have I, though 
this is prominent in the European species. 

P. umbrosus is a fine species, equal in every way to P. cervinus, 
which is seldom excelled. Caps only are tender. 

P. pelli'tllS Fr. PileilS 1-2 in. across. Flesh thin, soft, white, con- 
vex then plane, somewhat umbonate, regular, silky-fibrous, dry, white. 
Gills free, rounded behind, crowded, \% line broad, ventricose, white 
then flesh-color, margin slightly toothed. Stem about 2 in. long, 2-3 
lines thick, slightly thickened at the base, even, glabrous, shining, white, 
stuffed. Spores elliptical, smooth, iox6/x. 

Among grass at the roots of trees, etc. 

Our only Pluteus with a pure white, even pileus and stem. Super- 
ficially resembling Entoloma prunuloides, which differs in the broadly 
emarginate not free gills, and in the strong smell of new meal. 
Mas see. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., October, 1898. Mcllvaine. 

Pileus up to 3 in. across. GUIs K in. broad, free, moist, imbricated. 
Stem up to 5 i n - l n g> easily detachable from cap, solid, juicy, solitary 
and cespitose. On very old sawdust, upon which grass was growing. 

Tender, excellent. 

** Pileus frosted, etc. 

P. granula'ris Pk. sprinkled with grains. Pileus convex or nearly 
plane, subumbonate, rugose-wrinkled, granulose or granulose-villose , 
varying"in color from yellow to brown. Lamellae rather broad, crowded, 
ventricose, whitish, then flesh colored. Stem equal, solid, colored like 
the pileus, often paler at the top, velvety-pubescent, rarely scaly. Spores 
subglobose or broadly elliptical, 6.5-8x5-6.5^. 



Piuteus. Plant 1.5-3 m - high. PileuS 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Decaying wood and prostrate trunks in woods. Hilly and mountain- 
ous districts. June to September. 

The species is closely related to P. cervinus and P. umbrosus, but is 
readily distinguished from them by the peculiar vesture of the pileus 
and stem. The granules are so minute and so close that they form a 
sort of plush on the pileus, more dense on the disk and radiating 
wrinkles than elsewhere. The clothing of the stem is finer, and has a 
velvety-pubescent appearance, but in some instances it breaks up into 
small scales or squamules. The color of the pileus and stem is usually 
some shade of yellow or brown, but occasionally a grayish hue pre- 
dominates. The darker color of the granules imparts a dingy or smoky 
tinge to the general color. The disk is often darker than the rest of 
the pileus. Peck, 38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia mountains. Eagle's Mere and Springton Hills, Pa. 

Frequent. July to October, on decaying wood. Mcllvaine. 

P. granularis is a much smaller species than P. cervinus and its allies. 
At Eagle's Mere, Pa., August, 1898, it was quite plentiful in mixed 
woods. Its caps are excellent. 

*** Pileus naked. 

P. admira'bilis Pk. admirable. Pileus thin, convex or expanded, 
generally broadly umbonate, glabrous, rugose-reticulated, moist or hy- 
grophanous, striatulate on the margin when moist, often obscurely striate 
when dry, yellow or brown. Lamellae close, broad, rounded behind, 
ventricose, whitish or yellowish, then flesh-colored. Stem slender, 
glabrous, hollow, equal or slightly thickened at the base, yellow or yel- 
lowish white, with a white mycelium. Spores subglobose or broadly 
elliptical, 6.5-8x6.5^. 

Var. fus'cus. PileilS brown or yellowish-brown. 

Plant 1-2 in. high. Pileus 6-10 lines broad. Stem .5-1 line thick. 

Decaying wood and prostrate trunks in forests. Common in hilly and 
mountainous districts. July to September. 

This beautiful Piuteus is closely related to P. chrysophlebius B. and 
R., a southern species, which, according to the description, has the 
veins of the pileus darker colored than the rest of the surface and the 



stem enlarged above and hairy at the base, characters not shown by our Piuteus. 

In our plant small young specimens sometimes have the stem solid, 
but when fully developed it is hollow, though the cavity is small. This 
character, with its small size, distinguishes it from P. leoninus. Peck, 
38th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Springton Hills, Chester county, Pa., Mt. Gretna, Pa. Frequent. 
June to frost. Mcllvaine. 

Possesses the same rare edible qualities as P. cervinus, P. umbrosus. 
The caps, only, are tender. 

P. chrysophse'llS Schaeff. Gr. gold. Pileus 1-2 K in. across. 
Flesh very thin except at the disk, bell-shaped then expanded, glabrous, 
naked, slightly wrinkled, margin striate, cinnamon-color. Gills free, 
2-3 lines broad, whitish then pale salmon-color. Stem 2-3 in. long, 
2-3 lines thick, whitish, glabrous, equal, more or less hollow. 

On beech trunks, etc. 

Resembling P. leoninus in size, but differing in the cinnamon color of 
the pileus, which is often obtusely umbonate. Massee. 

Spores 5/* W.P. 

Haddonfield, N. J. June to October, beech roots and trunks. Me- 





Gr. within ; Gr. a fringe. 
(Probably referring to the innate character of the pseudo veil.) 

Entoioma. Pileus rather fleshy, margin incurved, without a distinct veil. Stem 
fleshy or fibrous, soft, sometimes waxy, continuous with the flesh of the 
pileus. Gills sinuate, adnexed, often separating from the stem. Spores 
rosy, elliptical, smooth or subglobose and coarsely warted. 

Corresponding in structure with Tricholoma, Hebeloma and Hypho- 
loma; separated from other rosy-spored genera by the sinuate gills. 

About twenty species of Entoioma are given in the states ; of them 
seventeen are described by Professor Peck, as found in New York. I 
have not found a single species in sufficient quantity to test its edibility. 

Two of the European species, E. sinuata Fr. and E. livida Bull., are 
reputed to be very poisonous, producing headache, dizziness, vomiting, 
etc. Worth ington Smith ate % oz., which nearly proved fatal. 

Professor Peck reports a species, E. grande Pk., which he considers 

Even the reported poisonous species have a pleasant odor correspond- 
ing to those of the esculent species. This makes them the more de- 
ceptive and dangerous. The pinkish or flesh-colored spores and gills 
distinguish Entoioma from Hebeloma, which has brown spores, and 
Tricholoma, which has white. Pluteus, which has pink spores and gills, 
is readily separated from it. 

Great caution should be observed. Entolomas should be thrown away 
or carefully tested. 


GENUI'NI (genuine, typical species). Page 251. 
Pileus smooth, moist or viscid; not hygrophanous. 

LEPTONI'DEI (inclining to Leptonia). 
Pileus flocculose or squamulose ; absolutely dry. 

NOLANI'DEI (inclining to Nolanea). Page 252. 

Pileus thin, hygrophanous, somewhat silky when dry. 




E. gran'de Pk. Pileus fleshy, thin toward the margin, glabrous, Entoioma. 
nearly plane when mature, commonly broadly umbonate and rugosely 
wrinkled about the umbo, moi.^t in wet weather, dingy yellowish-white 
verging to brownish or grayish-brown. Flesh white, odor and flavor 
farinaceous. Lamellae broad, subdistant, slightly adnexed, becoming 
free or nearly so, often wavy or uneven on the edge, whitish becoming 
flesh-colored with maturity. Stem equal or nearly so, solid, somewhat 
fibrous externally, mealy at the top, white. Spores angular, S-IO/A. 

Pileus 4-6 in. broad. Stem 4-6 in. long, 812 lines thick. 

Thin mixed woods. Menands. August. 

The flavor of this mushroom is not at first disagreeable, but an un- 
pleasant burning sensation is left in the mouth for a considerable time 
after tasting. It is therefore to be regarded with suspicion. Peck, 5Oth 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

SUSPICIOUS. I have not seen this species. It is given that it may 
be guarded against until tested for edibility. 

E. sinua'tum Fr. waved. Pileus 6 in. broad, becoming yellow- 

(Plate LXII.) 

ivhifc, very fleshy, convex then ex- 
panded, at first gibbous, at length 
depressed, repand and sinuate at 
the margin. Stem 3-6 in. long, 
i in. thick, solid, firm, stout, equal, 
compact, at first fibriilose, then 
smooth, naked, shining white. 
Gills ttnafginatefSlightiy adnexed, 
Yz% in. broad, crowded, distinct, 
pale yellowish-red. Fries. 

Gregarious, compact, handsome. 

Odor strong, pleasant, almost 
like that of burnt sugar, not of new 
meal. The pileus becomes broken 
into squamules when dry. There is a variety with a shorter stem. 

In mixed woods. Uncommon. July to October. 

The gills are often irregular in their attachment. Very poisonous; 
producing headache, swimming of the brain, stomach pains, vomiting, 


About one-fourth natural size. 


Entoioma. etc. Worthington Smith, who first experimented with it, ate about K 
oz., which very nearly proved fatal. Stevenson. 

Spores 9/* W.G. S. 

Rhode Island, Olney (Curtis Am. Jour.); Massachusetts, Spragne; 
Connecticut, Wright; Minnesota, Johnson; New York, Peck, Rep. 35. 

"This and E. fertilis, which are closely allied, are deserving of more 
than suspicion, for they are veritably dangerous." Cooke. 

"Wholesome and very good to eat." Cordier. 

In the presence of such opposite opinions it is better to choose the 
safer. Do not eat it. 

E. pmnulo'ides Fr. prunus, a plum. PileilS 2 in. and more broad, 

whitish, becoming yellow or livid, fleshy, bell-shaped then convex, at 
length flattened, somewhat umbonate, unequal (but not repand), even, 
viscid, smooth, at length longitudinally cracked, at length slightly stri- 
ate at margin. Stem 3 in. long, 34 lines thick, fibrous-fleshy, solid, 
equal, even or slightly striate, smooth, naked, white. Gills somewhat 
free, emarginate, rarely rounded, at first only slightly adnexed, 3-4 lines 
broad, crowded, ventricose, white then flesh-color. Fries. 

Odor strong of new meal, wholly that of A. prunulus. Very scat- 
tered in growth. Like A. lividus, but very different, thrice as small. 
It differs entirely from A. cervinus. 

On the ground in woods. Autumn. Spores subglobose, coarsely 
warted, io/u, Massee; regularly six-angled or one angle more marked, 
Sp. B.;w W.P. 

North Carolina, dry swamps, Curtis; Minnesota, Johnson. 


I have not seen this species. Do not eat it before carefully testing. 

Pileus thin, hygrophanons , repand, etc. 

E. clypea'tum Linn. resembling a shield. Pileus as much as 3 in. 
broad, lurid when moist, when dry gray and variegated or streaked with 
darker spots or lines, fleshy, bell-shaped then flattened, umbonate, 
smooth, fragile. Flesh thin, white when dry. Stem almost 3 in. long, 
3-4 lines and more thick, stuffed, at length hollow, wholly fibrous, equal, 
round, fragile, longitudinally fibrillose , becoming ash-colored, pulveru- 



lent at the very apex. Gills roimded-adnexed, separating-free, 3-4 Entoioma. 
lines broad, ventricose, somewhat distant, dingy, then red-pulverulent 
with the spores, serrulated at the edge chiefly behind. 

It has occurred in May cespitose ; better developed and solitary in 
the end of August. 

In woods, gardens and waste places. Frequent. Spring, autumn. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Ohio, Morgan; New England, 
Frost; California, H. andM.; Rhode Island, Bennett; New York, Peck, 
Rep. 23. 


I have not seen this species. It should not be eaten before careful 

E. rhodopo'litim Fr. Gr. rose; Gr. gray. Pileus 2-5 in. broad, 
hygrophanous, when moist dingy-brown (young) or livid, becoming pale 
(when full grown), when dry isabelline-livid , silky- shining , slightly- 
fleshy, bell-shaped when young, then expanded and somewhat umbo- 
nate or gibbous, at length rather plane and sometimes depressed, fibril- 
lose when young, smooth when full grown, margin at the first bent in- 
wards and when larger undulated. Flesh white. Stem 2-4 in. long, 
3-5 lines thick, hollow, equal when smaller, when larger attenuated up- 
wards and white-pruinate at the apex, otherwise smooth, slightly striate, 
white. Gills adnate then separating, somewhat sinuate, slightly dis- 
tant, 2-4 lines broad, white then rose-color. Fries. 

Fragile, commonly large and often handsome, almost inodorous. 

In mixed woods. Frequent. August to October. 

Spores pretty regular, 8-iox6-8/* B.; 7/u- W.G.S. 

New England, Frost; Minnesota, Johnson; Iowa, Brcendle; Rhode 
Island, Bennett; Ohio, Morgan; New York, Peck, Rep. 23d, 38th, A. 
rhodopolius, var. umbilicatus Pk., the same as Clitopilus subvilis Pk., 
Rep. 40. 

Edible. Panlet. Edible. Cooke. 




Gr. a declivity ; Gr. a cap. 

( Plate LXIII.) 

One-third natural size. 

PileilS more or less excentric or regular, margin at first involute. 

Gills more or less decurrent, never 
sinuate nor seceding from the stem, 
salmon-color . Stem fleshy or fibrous , 
not polished and cartilaginous exter- 
nally, central, expanded upward into 
the flesh of the pileus. Spores 
smooth or warted. 

Closely resembling Eccilia, differ- 
ing mostly in the stem not being 
cartilaginous at the surface. Distin- 
guished from Entoloma by the gills 
not being sinuate. 

Agrees in structure with Clitocybe 
in the Leucosporae. Massee. 

Growing on the ground, often strong smelling. Caps usually de- 
pressed or umbilicate and waved on margin. 

Some of the best of edible kinds are within this genus; a few are un- 
pleasant raw, none poisonous. 

Most authors follow Fries in the arrangement of the species, dividing 
them into two groups, the Orcelli, distinguished by deeply decurrent 
gills and an irregular, scarcely hygrophanous pileus, with the margin at 
first flocculose; and Sericelli, distinguished by adnate or slightly de- 
current gills and a regular silky or hygrophanous-silky pileus with a 
naked margin. This arrangement is not strictly applicable to some of 
our species. C. abortivus, C. erythrosporus and C. Noveaboracensis 
have the gills deeply decurrent in some individuals, adnate or slightly 
decurrent in others, and therefore the same species might be sought in 
both groups. For this reason the primary grouping of our species has 
been made to depend upon the variation in the spore colors. By far 
the greater number of our species appear to be peculiar to this country, 
only two of them occurring also in Europe. 




Spores and mature gills flesh-colored I 

Spores and mature gills rosy-red 9 

Spores very pale flesh-colored IO 

i . Pileus hygrophanous 8 

i . Pileus not hygrophanous 2 

2 . Pileus gray or grayish-brown 5 

2 . Pileus some other color 3 

3. Pileus white or whitish 4 

3. Pileus pale tan-color C. pascuensis 

4. Pileus firm, dry, pruinate C. prunulus 

4. Pileus soft, slightly viscid when moist C. Orcella 

5 . Pileus large, more than 1.5 in. broad C. abortivus 

5 . Pileus small, less than 1.5 in. broad 6 

6. Spores even C. unitinctus 

6. Spores angular 7 

7. Stem longer than the width of the zoneless pileus. . . C. albogriseus 
7. Stem shorter than the width of the commonly zonate 

pileus C. micropus 

8. Pileus brown or grayish-brown C. subvilis 

8. Pileus white or yellowish-white C. Woodianus 

9. Stem colored like the pileus C. erythrosporus 

9. Stem white, paler than the pileus C. conissans 

10. Pileus even 1 1 

10. Pileus rivulose C. Noveboracensis 

1 1 . Stems cespitose, solid C. caespitosus 

1 1 . Stems not cespitose, hollow C. Seymourianus 

Peck, 42d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 



C. prn'imlns Scop. prunus, plum. (Plate LXIII, fig. 4, 5, p. 2 5 4.) 
Pileus fleshy, compact, at first convex and regular, then repand, dry, 
pruinate, white or ashy-white. Flesh white, unchangeable, with a 
pleasant farinaceous odor. Gills deeply decurrent, subdistant, flesh- 



Clitopiius. colored. Stem solid, naked, striate, white. Spores subelliptical, 
pointed at each end, 10-1 1x5 6/*. 

PileilS 1.5-3 m - broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-4 lines thick. 


Not abundant, but edible, and said to be delicious and one of the 
best of the esculent species. Peck, 42 d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

June to October. Most plentiful in August and September. 

Very plentiful in oak woods at Angora, West Philadelphia, moderate 
crops at Mt. Gretna, Pa. 

An abortive form (see Plate LXIII, fig. 2, 3, p. 254) occurs not 
distinguishable from that of Armillaria mellea. It grows singly and in 
tufts, very variable in shape, white, tinged with brown on ruptured sur- 
faces. This form equals its original. 

C. prunulus has a strong smell of fresh meal. It is a delicious species. 

Stew. It is one of the very best in patties, croquettes, etc. 

C. Orcel'la Bull. Pileus 

(Plate LXV.) 

fleshy, soft, plane or slightly depressed, 
often irregular, even when young, 
slightly silky, somewhat viscid when 
moist, white or yellowish- white. Flesh 
white, taste and odor farinaceous. Gills 
deeply decurrent, close, whitish then 
flesh-colored. Stem short, solid, floc- 
culose, often eccentric, thickened above, 
white. Spores elliptical, a-iox5//.. 

Generally a little smaller than the 
preceding species, softer and more irre- 
gular, but so closely allied that by some 
it is considered a mere variety of it. It 
is said to be edible and of delicate flavor. 
It occurs in wet weather in pastures and 
open places. Peck, 42 d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Grows in oak woods, Angora, West Philadelphia; Mt. Gretna, Pa. 
Qualities same as C. prunulus. Delicious. 

C. pascuen'sis Pk. pasture. PileilS fleshy, compact, centrally de- 
pressed, glabrous, reddish or pale-yellowish, the cuticle of the disk 
cracking into minute areas. Gills rather narrow, close, decurrent, 


Two-thirds natural size. 


whitish, becoming flesh-colored. Stem short, equal or tapering down- ciitopiius. 
ward, solid, glabrous, colored like the pileus. Spores subelliptical, 
pale incarnate, 7.510x56/4. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 8-1 8 lines long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Pastures. Saratoga county. 

The species is related to C. prunulus from which it is distinct by its 
shorter, paler spores, its glabrous pileus cracked in areas on the disk 
and tinged with red or yellowish and by its paler gills. From C. pseudo- 
orcella it differs in its glabrous pileus with no silky luster and in its 
closer gills. Its odor is obsolete but it has a farinaceous flavor. It is 
probably esculent, but has not been found in sufficient quantity to afford 
a test of qualities. Peck, 42d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

C. unitinct'lis Pk. one-colored. Pileus thin, submembranaceous , 
flexible, convex or nearly plane, centrally depressed or umbilicate, 
glabrous, subshining, often concentrically rivulose, grayish or grayish- 
brown. Flesh whitish or grayish-white, odor obsolete, taste mild. 
Gills narrow, moderately close, adnate or slightly decurrent, colored like 
the pileus. Stem slender, straight or flexuous, subtenacious, equal, 
slightly pruinose, grayish-brown, with a close white myceloid tomentum 
at the base and white root-like fibers of mycelium permeating the soil. 
Spores elliptical, 7.5x5/4. 

Var. afbidus. Whitish or grayish-white, not rivulose. Gills broader. 
Spares brownish flesh-color. 

Pileus 6- 1 6 lines broad. Stem about I in. long, I line thick. 

Woods of pine or balsam. Albany and Essex counties. Autumn. 

The variety is a little paler than the typical form, with gills a little 
broader, but is probably not specifically distinct. Peck t 42d Rep. N. 
Y. State Bot. 

I have not seen this species. Edibility not reported. 

I . Pileus not hygrophanous. 

C. aborti'vus B. and C. abortive. (Plate LXIII, fig. I, 2, 3, p. 
254.) Pileus fleshy, firm, convex or nearly plane, regular or irregu- 
lar, dry, clothed with a minute silky tomentum, becoming smooth with 
age, gray or grayish-brown. Flesh white, taste and odor subfarinace- 
17 257 


ciitopiius. ous. Gills thin, close, slightly or deeply decurrent, at first whitish or 
pale gray, then flesh-colored. Stem nearly equal, solid, minutely floc- 
culose, sometimes fibrous-striated, colored like or paler than the pileus. 
Spores irregular, 7.5-10x6.5^. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Ground and old prostrate trunks of trees in woods and open places. 
August and September. 

Our species has been found to be edible, but its flavor is scarcely as 
agreeable as that of some other species. Peck, 42d Rep. N. Y. State 

It requires longer cooking than C. prunulus, and is then quite equal 
in excellence. 

The fungus is so named because of the abortive form of it frequently 
found associated with it. This is faithfully portrayed on Plate LXIII. 
This is in every way similar to the aborted forms of C. prunulus and 
Armillaria mellea. 

Both forms plentiful near Philadelphia. The undeveloped masses 
are also similar to those of C. prunulus. 

The abortive form is a superior edible to the original. 

C. popina'lis Fr. popina, a cook-shop. Pileus 1-2 in. across, 
flesh thin, flaccid, convex then depressed, somewhat wavy, glabrous, 
opaque, gray, spotted and marbled. Flesh grayish-white, unchange- 
able. Gills very decurrent, broader than the thickness of the flesh of 
the pileus, lanceolate, crowded, dark-gray, at length reddish from the 
spores. Stem stuffed, I 2 in. long, 2 lines thick, equal, often flexu- 
ous, naked, paler than the pileus. Spores subglobose, slightly angular, 
4- 5 /u. Mas see. 

Solitary or gregarious, smell pleasant like new meal, entirely gray. 

Woods. Gansevoort. July. The whole plant is of a grayish color 
except the mature gills, which have a flesh-colored hue, and the base 
of the stem, which is clothed with a white tomentum. It has a farinace- 
ous odor. Peck, 5 1st Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Scattered. Mt. Gretna, Pa. September to November. Mcllvaine. 

Edible, pleasant. 

C. carneo-al'bus Wither. light flesh color. Pileus up to i in. 



across, convex then expanded, center becoming depressed and the mar- ciitopiius. 
gin drooping, even, polished, white, the disk becoming usually tinged 
with red. Flesh thin. Gills slightly decurrent, I line broad, crowded, 
salmon color. Stem 1-1*2 in. long, I line thick, about equal, solid, 
white. Spores globose, nodulose, 7 8ft diameter. 

Inodorous; gregarious. 

In the section given in Cke. Illustr., the stem is represented as being 
distinctly hollow. Massec. 

New York, shaded ground. June. Peck, 45th Rep. 

C. al'bogri'seus Pk. pale-gray. Pileus firm, convex or slightly de- 
pressed, glabrous, pale-gray, odor farinaceous. Gills moderately close, 
adnate or slightly decurrent, grayish then flesh-colored. Stem solid, 
colored like the pileus. Spores angular or irregular, 10 1 1x7. 5/u.. 

Pileus 6-12 lines broad. Stem 1.5-2.5 in. long, 1-2 lines thick. 

Woods. Adirondack mountains. August. Peck, 42d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Scattered. Mt. Gretna, Pa., woods. August to October. Mcll- 

Edible, pleasant. 

C. mfcropus Pk. short-stemmed. Pileus thin, fragile, convex or 
centrally depressed, umbilicate, silky, gray, usually with one or two nar- 
row zones on the margin, odor farinaceous. Gills narrow, close, ad- 
nate or slightly decurrent, gray, becoming flesh-colored. Stem short, 
solid, slightly thickened at the top, pruinose, gray with a white my- 
celium at the base. Spores angular or irregular, iox6/A. 

Pileus 6-12 lines broad. Stem 8-10 lines long, i line thick. 

Thin woods. Essex and Rensselaer counties. August. 

This species is closely allied to the preceding one, but may be sepa- 
rated from it by its short stem and silky umbilicate subzonate pileus. 
Both species are rare and have been observed only in wet, rainy weather. 
Peck, 42d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Scattered; markedly umbilicate. Mt. Gretna, Pa., woods. August, 
September. Mcllvaine. 

Edible, pleasant. 



2. Pileus hygrophanous. 

ciitopiias. C. subvi'lis Pk. small value. Pileus thin, centrally depressed or 
umbilicate, with the margin decurved, hygrophanous, dark-brown and 
striatulate on the margin when moist, grayish-brown and silky shining 
when dry, taste farinaceous. Gills subdistant, adnate or slightly decur- 
rent, whitish when young, then flesh-colored. Stem slender, brittle, 
rather long, stuffed or hollow, glabrous, colored like the pileus or a little 
paler. Spores angular, 7.5- IO/A. 

Pileus 8-15 lines broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g> I-2 l mes thick. 

Damp soil in thin woods. Albany county. October. 

The species is allied to C. vilis, from which it is separated by its 
silky-shining pileus, subdistant gills and farinaceous taste. Peck, 42$ 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Scattered. Mt. Gretna, Pa. September to November. Mcllvaine. 

Edible, pleasant. 

C. Wood'ianus Pk. Pileus thin, convex or nearly plane, umbilicate 
or centrally depressed, hygrophanous, striatulate on the margin when 
moist, whitish or yellowish-white and shining when dry, the margin 
often wavy or flexuous. Gills close, adnate or slightly decurrent, 
whitish, then flesh-colored. Stem equal, flexuous, shining, solid, col- 
ored like the pileus. Spores subglobose, angular, 6-7. 5/x. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 2 lines thick. 

Ground and decayed prostrate trunks in woods. Lewis county. Sep- 

This species is perhaps too closely allied to the preceding, but it may 
easily be separated by its paler color, closer gills and solid stem, though 
this is sometimes hollow from the erosion of insects. Peck, 42d Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

C. TJn'dei'WOOdii Pk. in honor of L. M . Underwood. Pileus rather 
thin but fleshy, nearly plane or slightly depressed in the center, even, 
whitish. Gills narrow, close, slightly decurrent, pale flesh-colored. 
Stem rather short, equal or slightly tapering upward, solid, whitish. 
Spores subglobose, 4-5/4 long. 

Pileus 6 1 8 lines broad. Stem about I in. long and 2 lines thick. 



Syracuse and Jamesville. September and October. L. M . Under- ciitopiius. 
wood. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Dot. 


C. erythl'O'spoms Pk. Gr. red-spored. PileilS thin, hemispheri- 
cal or strongly convex, glabrous or merely pruinose, pinkish-gray. 
Flesh whitish tinged with pink, taste farinaceous. Gills narrow, 
crowded, arcuate, deeply decurrent, colored like the pileus. Stem 
equal or slightly tapering upward, hollow, slightly pruinose at the top, 
colored like the pileus. Spores elliptical, 5x3-4^. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-1.5 in. long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Decayed wood and among fallen leaves in woods. Albany and 
Ulster counties. September and October. 

The species is easily recognized by its peculiar uniform color, its nar- 
row, crowded and generally very decurrent gills and by its bright rosy- 
red spores. Sometimes individuals occur in which the gills are less 
decurrent. Peck, 42 d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., among fallen leaves. Sparsely gregarious. Sep- 
tember to November. Mcllvaine. 

Edible, good. 

C. COilis'sans Pk. dusted. Pileus thin, convex, glabrous, pale 
alutaceous, often dusted by the copious spores. Gills close, adnate, red- 
dish-brown. Stem slender, brittle, hollow, cespitose, white. Spores 
narrowly elliptical, 7. 5x4/4. 

Pileus II-5 in. broad. Stem 12 in. long, 1-2 lines thick. 

Base of an apple tree. Catskill mountains. September. 

Remarkable for the bright rosy-red spores which are sometimes so 
thickly dusted over the lower pilei of a tuft as to conceal their real color. 
The species is very rare. Peck, 4.26. Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 


C. CSespito'sus Pk. tufted. Pileus at first convex, firm, nearly reg- 
ular, shining, white, then nearly plane, fragile, often irregular or eccen- 
tric, glabrous but with a slight silky luster, even, whitish. Flesh white, 
taste mild. Gills narrow, thin, crowded, often forked, adnate or slightly 



cntopiius. decurrent, whitish, becoming dingy or brownish-pink. Stems cespitose, 
solid, silky-fibrillose, slightly mealy at the top, white. Spores 5x4^. 

PiletlS 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g> 2-4 li nes thick. 

Thin woods and pastures. Ulster county. September. 

This is a large, fine species, very distinct by its cespitose habit, white 
color and very pale sordid-tinted spores. But for the color of these the 
plant might easily be taken for a species of Clitocybe. The tufts some- 
times form long rows. Peck, 426 Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. October. Mcllvaine. 

Tender, not much flavor. 

C. Noveboracen'sis Pk. New York Clitopilus. Pileus thin, convex, 
then expanded or slightly depressed, dingy white, cracked in areas or 
concentrically rivulose, sometimes obscurely zonate, odor farinaceous, 
taste bitter. Gills narrow, close, deeply decurrent, some of them forked, 
white, becoming dingy, tinged with yellow or flesh-color. Stem equal, 
solid, colored like the pileus, the mycelium white, often forming white 
branching root-like fibers. Spores globose, 4 5/u. broad. 

Var. brevis. Margin of the pileus, in the moist plant, pure white. 
Gills adnate or slightly decurrent. Stem short. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 1-3 lines thick. 

Woods and pastures. Adirondack mountains, Albany and Rensselaer 
counties. August to October. 

The plant is gregarious or cespitose. Sometimes, especially in the 
variety, it grows in lines or arcs of circles. The margin is often undu- 
lated, and in the variety it is, when fresh and moist, clothed with a film 
of interwoven webby white fibrils which give it a peculiar appearance, 
and if the spore characters are neglected it might be mistaken for Clito- 
cybe phyllophila. The disk is often tinged with reddish-yellow or rusty 
hues when moist, and its rivulose character is then more distinct. A 
farinaceous odor is generally present, especially in the broken or bruised 
plant, but its taste is bitter and unpleasant. Sometimes bruises of the 
fresh plant manifest a tendency to assume a smoky-brown or blackish 
color. The base of the stem is sometimes clothed with a white myceli- 
oid tomentum. Peck, 42d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

C. Sey'mouriaims Pk. Pileus fleshy, thin, broadly convex or slightly 
depressed, even, pruinose, whitish with a dark lilac tinge, sometimes 



lobed and eccentric. Gills narrow, crowded, decurrent, some of them ciitopih 
forked at the base, whitish with a pale flesh-colored tint. Stem equal, 
sil'ky-fibrillose, hollow. Spores minute, globose or nearly so, 3.5-4/4 

Pileus 1-2.5 m - broad. Stem 1.5-2.5 in. long, 3-4 lines thick. 

Woods. Lewis county. September. Peck, 42 d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 


Gr. slender. 

Rosy-spored. Stem cartilaginous, 
tubular (the tube stuffed or hollow), 
polished, somewhat shining. PileilS 
thin, umbilicate or with a darker 
disk, cuticle fibrillose or separating 
into darker scales, margin at first in- 
curved. Gills at first adnexed or ad- 
nate but readily separating. Fries. 

The Leptonias are related to the 
Clitopili as the Collybiae are to the 
Clitocybae. The species are small, 
elegant, brightly colored, inodorous 
(except A. incanus), and abound in 
rainy weather. Gregarious or grow- 
ing in troops ; on the ground, com- 
monly on dry mossy pastures, but 
also in marshy places. Stevenson. 

(Plate LXVI.) 



Six American species reported. I have not seen any. 




(Plate LXVII.) 


Nola, a little bell. 

Rosy-spored. Stem tubed, the tube 
more rarely stuffed with a pith, car- 
tilaginous, Pileus somewhat mem- 
branaceous, bell-shaped, somewhat 
papillate, striate and sometimes even, 
sometimes also clothed with flocci, 
margin straight and at the first pressed 
to the stem, and not involute. Gills 
free or adfixed, and not decurrent. 

Nolanea agrees with Leptonia and 
Eccilia among the pink-spored species. 
It corresponds with Mycena, Galera 
and Psathyra. Several Entolomata 
are nearly allied. The species are 
thin and slender, commonly inodorous 
and fragile, though some of them are 

NOLANEA PASCUA. tough. Growing on the ground in 

About natural size. 

summer and autumn. Stevenson. 

Seven American species reported. None seen by writer. 
Peck, Rep. 24, 26, 35, 39, 50. 




Gr. I hollow out. 

(Plate LXVIII.) 


Two-thirds natural size. 

Stem cartilaginous, tubular (the Ecciiia. 
tube hollow or stuffed ) , expanded up- 
ward into the pileus, which is some- 
what membranaceous and at the first 
turned inward at the margin. Gills 
attenuated behind, truly decurrent, 
becoming more so when the pileus is 
depressed, and not separating as those 
of Nolanea. 

Corresponding in structure with 
Omphalia of the white-spored and 
Tubaria of the brown-spored series. 
Allied to Clitopilus in the decurrent 

(Plate LXIX.) 

gills, but separated by the cartilagin- 
ous, smooth stem. 

E. car'neo-gri'sea B. and Br. 

caro, flesh; griseus, gray. Pileus 
about I in. broad, gray flesh-color, 
umbilicate, striate, delicately dotted, 
margin slightly glittering with dark 
particles. Stem about \% in. long, 
slender, fibrous-hollow upward, wavy, 
of the same color as the pileus, shin- 
ing, smooth, white-downy at the base. 
Gills adnato-decurrent, somewhat un- 
dulated, distant, rosy, the irregular 
margin darker. Stevenson. 

Spores irregularly oblong, rough, 
7x5/A Masse e. 

Nova Scotia, Dr. Somers. 

New Jersey, E. B. Sterling, Au- 
gust, 1897; Eagle's Mere, Pa., common under pines, Mcllvaine. 



Natural size. 


Ecciiia. This neat little species is sweet and pleasant raw, and when cooked 
makes an agreeable dish. European authorities give the taste as un- 
pleasant, but there is nothing of the sort about the American repre- 

Claudus lame ; pous a foot. 

ciaudopus. Pileus eccentric, lateral or resupinate. Spores pinkish. 

The species of this genus were formerly distributed among the Pleu- 
(Plate LXX.) roti and Crepidoti, which they re- 

semble in all respects except the 
color of the spores. The genus at 
first was made to include species with 
lilac-colored as well as pink spores, 
but Professor Fries limited it to spe- 
cies with pink spores. In this sense 
we have taken it. The spores in 
some species are even, in others 
rough or angulated. The stem is 
either entirely wanting or is very 
short and inconspicuous, a character 
indicated by the generic name. The 
pileus often rests upon its back and 
is attached by a point when young, 

but it becomes turned backward with age. The species are few and in- 
frequent. All inhabit decaying wood. 

Natural size. 


Pileus yellow C. nidulans 

Pileus white or whitish I 

i . Spores even C. variabilis 

1 . Spores angulated C. depluens 

Pileus gray or brown 2 

2. Pileus striatulate when moist C. Greigensis 

2 . Pileus not striatulate C. byssisedus 

Peck, 39th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 


C. ni'dlllans Pers. nidus, a nest. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, stemless, ciaudopus. 
attached by the pileus or rarely narrowed behind into a short stem-like 
base, caps often overlapping one another, suborbicular or kidney-shaped, 
downy , somewhat pointed-hairy or scaly-hairy toward the margin, yellow 
or buff color, the margin at first turned inward. Lamellae rather broad, 
moderately close or subdistant, orange-yellow. Spores even, slightly 
curved, 6-S//, long, about half as broad, delicate pink. 

Decaying wood. Sandlake. Catskill and Adirondack mountains. 

This fungus was placed by Fries among the Pleuroti, and in this he 
has been followed by most authors. But the spores have a delicate 
pink color closely resembling that of the young lamellae of the common 
mushroom, Agaricus campestris. We have, therefore, placed it among 
the Claudopodes, where Fries himself has suggested it should be placed 
if removed at all from Pleurotus. Our plant has sometimes been referred 
to Panus dorsalis Bosc., but with the description of that species it does 
not well agree. The tawny-color, spoon-shaped pileus, pale floccose 
scales, short lateral stem and decurrent lamellae ascribed to that species 
are not well shown by our plant. The substance of the pileus, though 
rather tenacious and persistent, can scarcely be called leathery. The 
flesh is white or pale yellow. The hairy down of the pileus is often 
matted in small tufts and intermingled with coarse hairs, especially 
toward the margin. This gives a scaly or pointed-hairy appearance. 
The color of the pileus is often paler toward the base than it is on the 
margin. Peck, 39th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., November, 1898, decaying stumps. Mcllvaine. 

An autumnal species growing upon wood. Not common. 

The light yellow tomentosity of the cap arranges itself into shapes as 
fascinating as crystals of snow. 

Taste pleasant, mild. Texture more solid than P. ostreatus, con- 
sequently tougher. It is edible but not desirable. Must be chopped 
fine and cooked well. 



Series III. OCHRO'SPOILffi (Dermini). Spores brown. 

Ochrosporae, third in color series, ranges in spore color from dull 
ochraceous, through bright ocher, to rusty orange and ferruginous or 
iron-rust. The various shades will tax even a color expert. 

There are no species in the series corresponding to Amanitae. In 
Acetabularia there is a cup-like volva ; in Pholiota there is a distinct 
interwoven ring on the stem ; in Cortinarius the secondary veil is like a 
cobweb, and may form an imperfect zone around the stem, or hang as 
fibers from the margin of the cap; Pluteolus exactly resembles Pluteus. 

There are many edible species of good quality in the series. None 
are known to be poisonous. The substance,. as a rule, is tougher than 
in most of the preceding genera, and in many instances has a strong 
woody flavor. Several species are late growers, and are among the best 
of fungi. Notably in Pholiota. 

Acctabulum, a vinegar-cup. From the cup-like volva. 

Acetabularia. Universal veil distinct from the pileus ; hymenophore distinct ; gills 
free; spores pallid, tawny or brown. 
Analogous to Volvaria and Chitonia. 
No American species reported. 












Gr. a scale. 


Pileus more or less fleshy. Gills adnate, with or without a decur- Phoiiota. 
rent tooth, tawny or rust colored at maturity from the spores. Flesh 
of stem continuous with that of the pileus. Ring distinct, interwoven. 
Spores sepia-brown, bright yellowish-brown or light red. 

Generally on wood, sometimes on the ground in damp moss, fre- 
quently densely cespitose. Some of the species are large and bright 
colored. Distinguished from all other genera of the brown-spored 
series by the possession of a distinct ring. In Cortinarius the veil and 
ring are web-like. 

Stevenson notes in his description of the genus: "None are to be 
commended as edible." My investigation shows that there are several 
delicious species, notably P. squarrosa and subsquarrosa. Their late- 
ness and plentifulness make them valuable food fungi. I have nothing 
but praise for the entire genus. 


A. HUMIGENI (humus, ground; gigno, to bear). Page 270. 

On the ground, rarely cespitose. 

* Eudermini. Gr. well; dermini, the brown-spored series. 
Spores ferruginous. 

** Phaeoti. Gr. dusky. 

Spores dusky rust-colored. 

B. TRUNCIGENI (truncus, a trunk; gigno, to bear). Page 273. 

On wood ; subcespitose. 

* yEgeritini. P. csgerita, the type of the section. 

Pileus naked, not scaly, sometimes cracked. Gills pallid, then red- 
dish or dusky. None known to be edible. 

* Squamosi squama, a scale. 

Pileus scaly, not hygrophanous. Gills becoming discolored. 

* Gills not becoming purely rust-colored. 

* Gills yellow, then rust-color or tawny. 

* Hygrophani. Gr. moist; to appear. 
Gills cinnamon, not at first yellow. 



C. MusciGENl (muscus, moss; gigno, to bear). 
Phoiiota. Hygrophanous. Like Galera with a ring. 

A. HUMIGENI. On ground. 
* Eudermini. Spores ferruginous. 

P. capera'ta Pers. capero, to wrinkle. (Plate LXXla, fig. 2, page 
268.) Pileus 35 i n - broad, more or less intensely yellow, fleshy, but 
thin in proportion to its size and robust stem, ovate then expanded, ob- 
tuse, viscid only when moist and not truly so, even at the disk, wrinkled 
in pits at the sides, incrusted with white superficial ftocci. Stem 4-6 
in. long, more than I in. thick, solid, stout, cylindrical with exception 
of the base which is often tuberous, shining white, scaly above the ring, 
ivliicJi is membranaceous, reflexo-pendiilous, and broken into sqnamnlcs 
at the apex. Grills adnate, crowded, thin, somewhat serrated, clay-cm- 

When young the pileus is incrusted with the veil or with white mealy- 
floccose soft, hairy down, which is crowded on the even disk and scaly 
towards the thin pitted-furrowed margin ; and as this separates the 
pileus is naked. Veil universal, floccoso-mealy, at the first cohering 
in the form of a volva but not continuous; in rainy weather remaining 
in the form of a volva at the base. Spores dark ferruginous on a white- 
ground, paler on a black ground. There is a smaller form (A. ma- 
cropus Pers.) in pine woods, pileus even and paler. Stem 3 in. long, 
and without a tuberous base. Ring oblique and often incomplete. Stev. 

Spores IO/A B. and Br.; 12x4^ W. P.; spheroid-ellipsoid, unigut- 
tate, i i-i2x8-9ju, K.; 12x4. 5/x. Massee. 

Not previously reported. 

This fungus occurs sparingly in rich woods near Boston. It is much 
esteemed in Germany, and eagerly sought by the common people, who 
call it familiarly the "Zigeuner" (Gypsy). Boston Myc. Club Bull. 

I have found this species in but one place on the south hill of the 
great Chester valley, Pa., where it grows plentifully in woods. The 
taste raw was slightly acrid, but when cooked this disappeared. Many 
ate of the species and enjoyed it. 


Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 








P. togllla'ris Bull. togula, a little cloak. From the ample ring. Phoiiota. 
PileilS i >2 in. broad, pallid ochraceous, fleshy, soft, bell-shaped then 
expanded, obtuse, orbicular, witJiont stria, smooth. Flesh thin, soft, 
becoming yellow. Stem 3-4 in. long, 2 lines thick, tubed, rigid, equal, 
cylindrical, rough with stiff fibers, naked and becoming yellow at the 
apex, becoming dingy brown downward. Ring medial, more than I in. 
distant, entire, spreading-reflexed. Gills adnato-separating, ventricose, 
crowded, narrowed in front, becoming yellow, at length pale rust-color, 
never becoming dingy brown. 

Protean, slender, very variable in stature, growing in troops, b. More 
slender, but densely gregarious, with the wholly pallid smooth stem 
thinner, often flexuous. This form is exactly A. mesodactylus Berk. 
c. Very small. Pileus I in. Stem I in. or a little more, scarcely I 
line thick, very flexuous, becoming rust-color. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptical, 8x3.5^ Massee. 

New Jersey, on decayed chips mixed with dirt. May, 1898. E. B. 

Not previously reported. 

The specimens sent were tested and found to be of good quality. 

** Phae'oti. Spores fuscous ferruginous (dingy rust-color). 

P. du'ra Bolt. durus, hard. Pileus 3 in. and more broad, tawny, 
tan-color, becoming dingy brown, fleshy, somewhat compact, convexo- 
plane, obtuse, smooth, then cracked into patches, margin even. Stem 
commonly curt, 2 in. long, about % in. thick, stuffed, even solid, hard, 
becoming silky-even, then longitudinally cracked when dry, thickened 
at the apex, mealy and more than usually widened into the pileus, vary- 
ing ventricose and irregularly-shaped. Ring torn. Gills adnate, striato- 
decurrent with a tooth, ventricose, % in. broad, livid then dingy rust- 

The stem is abundantly furnished with fibrillose rootlets at the base. 
Although very closely allied to A. praecox, it is readily distinguished 
by its rust-color or brown-rust spores. Stevenson. 

Spores 9x5/x W.G.S.; 8-9x5-61". Massee. 

Haddonfield, N. J. June to October. Florist's garden, Mcllvaine. 

After rains P. dura appears, solitary, from spring to autumn. The 



Phoiiota. cracked cap, in mature specimens, distinguishes it from other species 
found on its habitat. It varies in size from iK in. up to 4 in. across. 
The caps are excellent. 

P. prse'cox Pers. pracox, early. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, convex or 
(Plate LXXII.) nearly plane, soft, nearly or quite gla- 

brous, whitish, more or less tinged with 
yellow or tan-color. Gills close, ad- 
nexed, at first whitish, then brownish or 
rusty-brownish. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g> 
2-2.5 lines thick, rather slender, mealy 
or glabrous, stuffed or hollow, whitish. 
Spores elliptical, rusty-brown, io-i3x 

The Early Phoiiota is a small but 
variable species. From other similarly 
colored species that appear in grassy 
ground early in the season, the collar on 
the stem will generally distinguish it. 
Its cap is usually convex when young 
but nearly flat in the mature plant. It 

is rather pale in color but not a clear white, being tinted with yellow or 
pale tan-colored hues. The gills are whitish when the cap first opens, 
but they soon change to a rusty-brown hue in consequence of the ripen- 
ing of the spores. They are excavated at the inner extremity and 
slightly attached to the stem. They are ventricose when the cap is 
fully expanded. The stem is rather slender, nearly or quite straight 
and soon smooth and hollow. It is pale or whitish, and usually furnished 
with a small collar. Sometimes the collar is slight and disappears with 
age and sometimes the fragments of the veil remain attached to the 
margin of the cap leaving nothing for a collar. 

The plants usually grow in grassy ground, lawns and gardens, and 
appear from May to July. 

Var. minor Batt. is a small form having the cap only about I in. 
broad and the remnants of the veil adherent to the margin of the cap. 
It is represented by figures 6 to 12. 

Var. sylvestris Pk. has the center of the cap brownish or rusty-brown, 
and grows in thin woods. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 


After Peck. 


Spores inclining to fuscous, spheroid-ellipsoid, 8-13x5-7/1, K.; 8x6/* Phoiiota. 
W. G. S.; 8- i 3x6-7^ Massee. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, May to 
August. On rich ground, lawns, gardens, etc. Mcllvaine. 

Coming as it does in early spring, it is a prized species wherever 

The caps only are good. 

B. TRUNCIGENI. On wood. 

Squamosi. Scaly. 

(Plate LXXIII.) 

P. squarro'sa Mull.squarrosits, scurfy. (Plate LXXLz, fig, 3, page 
270.) Pileus 3-5 in. broad, saf- 
fron-rust-color, scaly with innate, 
crowded, revoltite, darker (be- 
coming dingy brown), persistent 
scales, fleshy, convex bell-shaped 
then flattened, commonly obtusely 
umbonate or gibbous, dry. Flesh 
light-yellow, compact when 
young, sometimes thin. Stems 
curt when young, as much as 8 
in. long when full-grown, as much 
as i in. thick at the apex, re- 
markably attenuated downwards, 
stuffed, scaly as far as the ring 
with crowded, revolute, darker 
scales. Ring only slightly distant 
from the apex, rarely membrana- 
ceous, entire or often slashed, 
general^ floccoso-radiate, of the same color as the scales. Gillsadnate 
with a decurrent tooth, crowded, narrow, pallid-olivaceous then rust- 

Spores ferruginous. Very cespitose, forming large heaps. Stems 
commonly cohering at the base, varying very much in stature in the 

One-half natural size. 




Phoiiota. same cluster ; varying also much thinner, scarcely ever curved-ascend- 
ing. Odor heavy, stinking; sometimes, however, obsolete. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid, 7-8x4-5/x K.; 4x5;* W.G.S.; ^^Massee. 

On trunks of trees, on and near stumps, etc. Common. August to 

West Virginia, 1881-1885, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. On rotten 
wood and stumps. August to long after frost. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Curtis. 

The American species, as I have repeatedly found it, is not so large as 
given in the European description, and the habitat is more closely con- 
fined to the trunks of standing trees and stumps not much decayed. It 
is a showy species, to be seen from afar off, especially after the leaves 
fall. Taste when young, raw, is sweet, mealy; when mature, like stale 

Cooked, the caps are of good substance and flavor. One of the very 

P. squarrosoi'des Pk. squarrosus, scurfy; eidos, form. Pileiis 
firm, convex, viscid when moist, at first densely covered by erect papil- 
lose or subspinose tawny scales, which soon separate from each other, 
revealing the whitish color and viscid character of the pileus. Lamellse 
close, emarginate, at first whitish, then pallid or dull cinnamon color. 
Stem equal, firm, stuffed, rough with thick squarrose scales, white 
above the thick floccose ring, pallid or tawny below. Spores minute, 
elliptical, 5 X 4A*- 

Densely cespitose, 3-6 in. high. Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-5 
lines thick. 

Dead trunks and old stumps of maple. Adirondack and Catskill 
mountains. Autumn. 

This is evidently closely related to A. squarrosus, with which it has, 
perhaps, been confused, but its different colors and viscid pileus appear 
to warrant its separation. Peck, 3ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Occurred in large clusters on sugar maples at Eagle's Mere in Octo- 
ber, and on stumps at Mt. Gretna. It very closely resembles P. squar- 
rosa. Its caps are of the very best. 



P. SUbsquarro'sa Fr. sub, under; squarrosus, scurfy. (Plate LXXI#, Phoiiota. 
tig. 4, p. 270.) PileilS 2 in. and more broad, brown rust-color, with 
darker, adpressed, floccose scales, fleshy, convex, obtuse or gibbous, 
viscid. Stem 3 in. long, 4-5 lines thick, stuffed (often hollow when 
old), equal, yel!ow-rust-color, clothed with darker scales which are 
adpressed, or spreading only at the apex, not rough, furnished with an 
annular zone at the apex, becoming yellow-rust-color within. Grills 
deeply sinuate, emarginate, almost free, arcuate, crowded, at first pale 
then dingy yellow. 

Spores rust-color. The pileus is viscid, but not glutinous like that 
of A. adiposus. It holds a doubtful place between A. aurivellus and 
A. squarrosus, departing from both, however, in the gills being at the 
first yellow; and from A. squarrosus, to wrjich it is more like, in the 
gills being emarginato-free, not decurrent. Somewhat cespitose. Al- 
most inodorous. Fries. 

Spores ferruginous, size not stated. 

West Philadelphia, Mt. Gretna, Pa., Haddonfield, N. J. September 
until after frosts. Mcllvaine. 

Not previously reported. 

The maple trees in West Philadelphia frequently show large clusters 
of it up to twenty feet from ground ; to be seen from afar after the leaves 
have fallen. Our American species differs somewhat from the European. 
American species : 

PileilS 13 in. across, fleshy, convex, very viscid, rich brownish- 
yellow, covered with darker adpressed floccose scales. Flesh slightly 
yellow. Gills white when very young slightly emarginate, adnexed, 
crowded, K in. broad, brown. Stem 2-3 in. long, 1 A in. thick, equal 
or tapering toward base, stuffed, then hollow, covered with squamose 
scales as far up as the slight ring, smooth above ring. Ring mem- 
branaceous, slight. 

Spores rust-color. 

The species is variable and differs greatly in youth and maturity. 

The caps, fried in hot buttered pan, are unexcelled. 

Equally fine in croquettes and patties. 



Gills yellow, then rust-color. 

Phoiiota. P. adipo'sa Fr. adeps, fat. 

(Plate LXXIV.) 

About natural size. 

Pileus fleshy, firm, at first hem- 
ispherical or subconical, then convex, 
very viscid or glutinous when moist, 
scaly, yellow. Flesh whitish. Gills 
close, adnate, yellowish becoming 
rust-color with age. Stem equal or 
slightly thickened at the base, scaly 
below the slight radiating floccose 
ring, solid or stuffed, yellow, gener- 
ally rust-color at the base. Spores 
elliptical, 7.6x5^. 

The Fat pholiota is a showy spe- 
cies. Its tufted mode of growth, 
rather large size, yellow color and 
rusty-brown scales make it a notice- 
able object. The stem is somewhat 
and the cap very viscid when moist, 
and this viscidity when dry gives it a shining appearance. The scales 
of the cap become erect or reflexed and sometimes appear blackish at 
the tips. They sometimes disappear with age. The flesh is firm and 
white or whitish. The gills when young are yellow or pale-yellow, but 
when mature they assume a ferruginous or rusty color like that of the 
spores. The stem is similar in color to the cap, but paler or nearly 
white at the top and usually reddish-brown or rusty-brown at the base. 
The collar is slight and often scarcely noticeable in mature specimens. 

The Cap is 2-4 in. broad, the Stem 2-4 in. long and 4-6 lines thick. 
The plants commonly grow in tufts on stumps or dead trunks of de- 
ciduous trees in or near woods. They may be found from September 
to November. It is well to peel the caps before cooking. This species 
is not classed as edible by European authors, but I find its flavor agree- 
able and its substance digestible and harmless. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Spores 8x5/* W.G.S.; elliptical, ferruginous, 7x3/x. Massee. 
Mt. Gretna, Pa. October until after frost. About trees and stumps 
and on logs. Mcllvaine. 

P. adiposa yields a substantial substance of good flavor. 



P. flam'mans Fr. flamma, flame. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, yellow- Phoiiota. 
tawny, fleshy, convex then plane, somewhat umbonate, absolutely dry, 
sprinkled with superficial, pilose, somewhat concentric, paler or sulphur- 
yellow, rough or curly scales; margin at first inflexed, then spread when 
larger. Flesh thin, light yellow. Stem 3 in*, long, 23 lines thick, 
stuffed then hollow, equal, most frequently flexuous, very light yellow 
as are also the crowded rough scales. Ring membranaceous, entire, 
not far removed from the pileus, of the same color. Gills adnate and 
without a tooth, somewhat thin, crowded, at the first bright sulpliur- 
yellow, at length rust-color, edge quite entire. 

Pileus by no means hygrophanous. It is distinguished from all others 
by the sulphur-yellow scales on the tawny pileus. Forming small clusters. 
Inodorous. The ring is sometimes only indicated by an annular zone. 

Spores ellipsoid, 4x21* K.; ellipsoid, 3-4x2-2. 5/* C.B.P.; 4x2/4 
W.P.; 8x4/x Massee. 

Quite plentiful in the New Jersey pines, from October until after 
heavy frosts. Caps seldom over 3 in. across. Solitary., and in clusters 
of not over half a dozen. 

The caps fried are delicious. 

P. luteofo'lia Pk. luteiis, yellow; folium, a leaf. Pileus firm, con- 
vex, dry, scaly, fibrillose on the margin, pale-red or yellowish. La- 
mellae broad, subdistant, emarginate, serrate on the edge, yellow, be- 
coming bright rust-color. Stem firm, fibrillose, solid, colored like the 
pileus, often curved from the place of growth. Ring obsolete. Spores 
bright rust-color, 7x4/4. 

Plant subcespitose, 2-3 in. high. Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 3-5 
lines thick. 

Trunks of birch trees. Forestburgh. September. 

The general appearance of this plant is like A. variegatus or reddish 
forms of A. multipunctus. The reddish color appears sometimes to 
fade with age. Peck, 2/th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Eagle's Mere, Pa. In clusters, on birch trees. August, 1898. Mc- 

Grows in quantity in the birch forests. The caps are delicious. 



Phoiiota. P. ornel'la Pk. (Agaricus ornellus Pk., 34 Rep., p. 42.) Pileus 
convex or nearly plane, slightly squamose, reddish-brown tinged with 
purple, the margin paler, floccose-appendiculate. Gills moderately 
close, yellowish or pallid, becoming brown. Stem equal or slightly 
thickened upward, solid, squamulose, pale-yellow, sometimes expanded 
at the base into a brownish disk margined with yellowish filaments. 
Spores brown, elliptical, 6-7.5x4-5^. 

Plant 1-2 in. high. Pileus about I in. broad. Stem I line to 1.5 
lines thick. 

Decaying wood. South Ballston, Saratoga county. October. 

The scales of the pileus are sometimes arranged in concentric circles. 
The purplish tint is not always uniform, but in some instances forms 
spots or patches. Peck, 34th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Specimens, clustered, found by me on railroad ties at Haddonfield, 
N. J., September, 1897, had caps i-i % in. broad, of a dull green 
without tinge of purple ; skin minutely cracked, showing the white flesh 
in the interstices; stem I 2 in. long, 34 lines thick, slightly thickened 
upward, pale orange, solid, squamulose; ring floccose ; taste when raw, 
slightly bitter. These were sent to Professor Peck who wrote: "Ap- 
pears to be a form of P. ornella Pk., but it differs some in color, being 
more of a green hue than of purple or olivaceous. It is pretty and I 
would like to know more about it before deciding on it fully." 

I have not since found it. Very palatable when cooked. 

*** Hygrophani. Gills cinnamon, etc. 

P. muta'bilis Schaeff. changeable. Pileus about 2 in. broad, cin- 
namon when moist, becoming pale when dry, hygrophanous, slightly 
fleshy, convex then flattened, commonly obtusely umbonate, sometimes 
depressed, even andsmoot/t, but when young occasionally scaly through- 
out. Stem about 2-3 in. long, 2 lines and more thick, rigid, stuffed 
then hollow, equal or attenuated downward, scaly-rough as far as the 
ring, rust-color, blackish or umber downward, often ascending or 
twisted. Ring membranaceous, externally scaly. Gills adnato-decur- 
rent, crowded, rather broad, pallid then cinnamon. Stevenson. 

Densely cespitose, variable in stature. 

Spores ellipsoid-obovate, 6xi I/A W.G. S. ; 7x4/1 W.P.\ 9-11x5-6/4 
Massee ; 1 1 x7/u. Morgan . 

Edible. Curtis. Considered excellent in Europe. 



P. margina'ta Batsch. marginatus, margined. Pileus i in. and Phoiiota. 
more broad, honey-colored when moist, tan when dry, hygrophanous, 
slightly fleshy, convex then expanded, obtuse, even, smooth, margin 
striate. Stem about 2 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, tubed, equal, fibrillose 
or slightly striate, not scaly' of the same color as the pileus, but becom- 
ing dingy-brown, and commonly white velvety at the base. Ring 12 
lines distant from the apex, often in the form of a cortina and fugacious. 
Gills adnate, crowded, thin, narrow, at first pallid, then darker cinna- 

It varies much, and is deceptive on account of the vanishing veil. In 
hedges there is a very small cespitose form with the pileus only }% in. 
broad, and the stem tough and smooth, with exception of the remains 
of the fugacious cortina. There also occur on the ground among 
mosses smaller and paler forms, which must be carefully distinguished 
from A. unicolor, etc. Stevenson. 

Spores 7-8x41". Massee. 

Haddonfield, N. J., November, December, 1896. In pine woods. 

The caps of this small Phoiiota, seldom over I /^ in. across, can be 
gathered in goodly numbers where it frequents. They are of excellent 

P. dis'color Pk. changing color. Pileus thin, convex, then ex- 
panded or slightly depressed, smooth, viscid, hygrophanous, watery- 
cinnamon and striatulate on the margin when moist; bright ochraceous- 
yellow when dry. Lamella} close, narrow, pallid then pale rust-color. 
Stem equal, hollow, fibrillose-striate, pallid. Ring distinct, persistent. 
Spores elliptical, 7x5^. 

Plant subcespitose, 2-3 in. high. Pileus 8- 1 6 lines broad. Stem 
I line thick. 

Old logs in woods. Greig. September. 

The change of color from the moist to the dry state is very marked. 
This species resembles Agaricus autumnalis, in which the annulus is 
fugacious and the spores are longer. The edge of the gills in both is 
white-flocculose. Peck, 25th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Two forms of this species are found. One has a scattered form of 
growth, the other found on decaying wood of birch is cespitose. The 



Phoiiota. species is allied to P. marginata, from which it is readily distinguished 
by its viscid pileus. Peck, Rep. 44. 

Var. discolor minor Pk. Small. Pileus 6 10 lines broad, chestnut 
color when young or moist. Stem about I line thick, at first clothed 
with whitish fibrils. 

Among mosses about or on the base of stumps. September. Peck, 
Rep. 46. 

West Virginia. Eagle's Mere, Mt. Gretna, Pa. August to frost. 
On decaying wood. Mcllvaine. 

This little Phoiiota is abundant where it does grow. In the West 
Virginia forests I have seen logs with many tufts of it upon each. The 
caps are fairly good. 



(Plate LXXV.) 


Gr. fiber; Gr. head. 

Universal veil somewhat fibrillose, concrete with the cuticle of the inocybe. 
pileus, often free at the margin, in 
the form of a cortina. Gills some- 
what sinuate (but they occur also 
adnate and in two species decur- 
rent), changing color, but not 
powdered with cinnamon. Spores 
often rough, but in others even, 
more or less brownish-rust color. 

Inocybe (with Hebeloma) cor- 
responds with Tricholoma. In- 
ocybe and Hebeloma have some 
common features, but they are 
really very distinct. Inocybe is 
readily distinguished by the fibril- 
lose covering of the pileus, which 
never has a distinct pellicle, by the 

veil which is continuous and homogeneous with the fibrils of the pileus, 
and by the rusty-brown spores. All grow on the ground. They are 
(mostly) strong-smelling (commonly nauseous). None are edible. 

None reported as either edible or poisonous. Those I have tested 
are not pleasant. 

One-fourth natural size. 



Dim. of pluteus, a shed. 

PileilS conical or bell-shaped, then expanded, rather fleshy, viscid, 
margin at first straight and pressed to the stem. Gills free, rounded 
behind. Stem somewhat cartilaginous, its substance different from that 
of the pileus. 

Growing on wood. 

Spores rust or saffron color. Pluteus, the only genus having the same 
structure, is separated by its salmon-colored spores. 

P. reticula'tus Pers. rete, a net. From the net-work of veins on 

(Plate LXXVI.) the P ileuS " Pileus sli ghtly fleshy, 

bell-shaped, then expanded, sticky, 
reticulate with anastomosing veins, 
pale violaceous, striate on the margin. 
Lamellae free, ventricose, crowded, 
rusty-saffron. Stem hollow, fragile, 
fibrillose, mealy at the top, white. 
Spores elliptical, ferruginous, 10- 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 
in. long, 12 lines thick. 

PLUTEOLL-S RETICULATUS. Decaying wood. Cattaraugus 

About natural size. 

county. September. 

The specimens which I have referred to this species appear to be a 
small form with the pileus scarcely more than an inch broad and merely 
wrinkled on the disk, not distinctly reticulate as in the type. In the 
dried specimens the pileus has assumed a dark violaceous color. The 
dimensions of the spores have been taken from the American plant. I 
do not find them given by any European author. Peck, 46th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

In October, 1897, P. reticulatus grew in large quantities on a fallow 
lot close by the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. The lot was 
thickly covered with tall heavy-stemmed weeds, a mat of which, from 
the year before was present. The reticulations upon the cap are intri- 
cate and distinct. I have not seen it since. 

The whole plant is tender and of fine flavor. 




Hebe, youth; loma, fringe. 

Partial veil fibrillose or absent. PileilS smooth, continuous, some- Hebeioma. 
what viscid, margin at first incurved. Flesh of stem continuous with 
that of the pileus ; fleshy, fibrous, clothed, top rather mealy. Gills at- 
tached, notched at the stem, edge inclined to be pale. Spores clay- 

On the ground. 

Closely allied to Inocybe, formerly included in Hebeioma, but differ- 
ing in the character of the cuticle of the pileus which in Inocybe is scaly 
or fibrillose. Many of the species are strong in smell and taste. None 
have hitherto been considered edible and some have been regarded as 


INDUSIATI (indusium, a garment). Page 283. 

Furnished with a ring from the manifest veil, which often makes the 
margin of the pileus superficially silky. 

DENUDATI (denudo, to lay bare). Page 286. 
Pileus smooth. Veil absent. None known to be edible. 

PUSILLUS (pusus, a little boy). 
Pileus scarcely an inch broad. None known to be edible. 

The writer has not as yet investigated the edible qualities of this 
genus to his satisfaction. Much work remains to be done. But two 
species of Hebeioma are given as edible. They are good, but do not 
rank above second-class. Several others have been tested, but not in 
sufficient quantity to report upon their quality with perfect safety. So 
far as tested the species have been harmless. 

INDUSIA'TI. With a ring, etc. 

H. mus'sivum Fr. mussivus, undecided. (Uncertain in generic 
place. ) Pileus 2-4 in. broad, either of one color, yellow or darker at 
the disk which is like a smooth sugar-cake, fleshy, compact, firm, con- 



Hebeioma. vex then plane, unequal, very obtuse, viscid, at first smooth and even, 
margin bent inward, even, then commonly turning upward and broken 
up into scales. Flesh thick, becoming yellow. Stem 4 in. long, com- 
monly i in. thick, very fleshy, sometimes stuffed, sometimes hollow at 
the top, equal or broad in the middle, wholly fibrillose and powdered at 
the top, light yellow. Veil fibrillose, very evanescent. Gills emargi- 
nate, somewhat crowded, 3 lines broad, dry (not distilling drops), at 
first light yellow, then together with the spores somewhat rust-colored. 

Odor weak, not unpleasant. Very distinct. It departs widely from 
all the following species in its habit and bright colors. The habit is 
that of a Flammula or Cortinarius, but the gills are emarginate and not 
powdered ; from the turned up pileus and from the stem being powdered 
at the top, and from other marks it is to be referred to Hebeioma. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, I2x6/* Massee. 

New Jersey, Haddonfield. Under pine trees. Solitary. Frequent. 
September, 1896. Mcllvaine. 

Not previously reported. 

Taste, even raw, is pleasant. It is meaty and the meat is good. It 
requires slow cooking and is best chopped fine and served in patties or 

H. fasti'bileFr. fastidibilis , loathsome. From the smell. Pileus 2 in. 
(Plate LXXVIa.) and more broad, pale yellowish, 

tan or becoming pale, compactly 
fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, 
somewhat wavy, even, smooth, the 
turned-in margin downy. Stem 
2-3 in. long, Yz in. thick, solid, 
wholly fleshy-fibrous, stout, some- 
what bulbous, often twisted, every- 
where white-silky and fibrillose, 
white, but varying pallid, white- 
scaly upward. Cortina remarka- 
ble, white, occasionally in the form of a ring. Gills remarkably emar- 
ginate, somewhat distant, rather broad, at first becoming pale-white, 
then dingy clay-color, edge whitish, distilling drops in rainy weather. 
Somewhat cespitose Odor and taste of radish, bitterish. Like A. 

One-fourth natural size. 



crustiliniformis ; the odor is the same except that it is stronger, but it Hebeioma. 
differs conspicuously in the manifest veil and somewhat distant gills. 

Var. atba, stem longer, equal, somewhat hollow, fibrous-scaly at the 
apex, gills distant. A. spiloleucus Krombh., A. sulcatus Lindgr. is 
an elegant form with the margin of the pileus sulcate or rugoso-plicate. 

In mixed woods. Common. July to October. Stevenson. 

Spores iixS/x. W.G.S.; elliptical, pointed, lOxS/u, Morgan. 

Var. elegans. Pileus purple-brown. 

This sometimes appears on disused mushroom beds in large quantities, 
but the method by which the spores gain access is involved in darkness. 

"A very suspicious species and has the reputation of being noxious." 

"There is considerable external resemblance between this and A. 
campestris. No fungus is so often mistaken for A. campestris as this 
dangerous plant. W. G. Smith. 

This species is considered noxious abroad. No test is reported of 
its qualities here. 

I have not seen it. 

H. glutino'sum Lind. gluten, glue. (Plate LXXla, fig. I, p. 270.) 
Pileus about 3 in. broad, yellow-white, the disk darker, fleshy, con- 
vex then plane, regular, obtuse, with a tenacious viscous gluten, and 
slimy in wet weather, sprinkled with white superficial scales. Flesh 
whitish, becoming light-yellow. Stem 3 in. long, stuffed, firm, some- 
wJiat bulbous, white-scaly and fibrillose, and white-mealy at the top, 
often rough with bundles of hairs at the base, at length rust-color with- 
in. Partial thread-like veil manifest, in the form of a cortina. Gills 
sinuato-adnate, somewhat decurrent, crowded, broad, pallid then light- 
yellowish, at length clay-cinnamon. Odor peculiar, mild. 

On branches and among leaves, oak and beech. Frequent. Sep- 
tember to December. Stevenson. 

Spores 5x4/x W. P. ; plum-shaped, 7/u. Q.; elliptical, io-i2x5/x, Mas- 
see; ellipsoid, 67x3-4^1 K. 

New York. Among fallen leaves and half-buried decaying wood, in 
thin woods. Conklingville. September. In wet weather the gluten 
is sufficiently copious to drop from the pileus. Peck, Rep. 40. 

Haddonfield, N. J., among leaves in mixed woods. Frequent. 1896. 



Hebeioma. Mt. Gretna, Pa., among leaves under oaks. Frequent. September to 
November. Mcllvaine. 

Caps 1/^3 in. across. Remarkably glutinous, shining as if var- 
nished when wet. Partial veil not always noticeable. 

The odor and taste are pleasant. The caps when well cooked are 
meaty, good, but of second quality. 

DENUDA'TI. Pileus smooth, etc. 

H. crustulinifor'me Bull. crustulum, a small pie; forma, form. 
Pileus pale-whitish tan, most frequently pale-yellowish or brick-color at 
the disk, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse or slightly gibbous with an ob- 
tuse umbo, somewhat spreading with an uneven margin, even, smooth, 
at first slightly viscid, not zoned. Flesh transparent when moist. Stem 
stuffed then hollow, stout, somewhat bulbous, white, naked, white-scaly 
at the top. Gills rounded-adnexed, crowded, narrowed, I line broad 
and linear, thin, whitish then clay-color, at length date-brown, the un- 
equal edge distilling watery drops in wet weather, spotted when dry. 

Veil quite wanting. Odor strong, fetid, of radish. Very variable 
in stature; the stem, however, is never elongated as in A. elatus, etc. ; 
in smaller specimens equal, pileus regular, gills almost adnate. 

In mixed woods. Common. August to November. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid, IO-I2X5-//X, K.; 9x5/4 W.G.S. 

Var. mi' nor Cke. Smaller than the type. 

Minnesota, common in woods, Johnson; California, H. and M.; Wis- 
consin, Bundy; New Jersey, Ellis; Vermont, Burt{ Lloyd) ; New York, 
Peck, 4ist Rep..; Mt. Gretna, Pa., November, 1898. In woods. Mc- 

But one specimen found and that was sent to Professor Peck. Taste 

Regarded as poisonous by European writers. It is not reported as 
tested in America. 



Flamma, a flame. 
(In reference to the bright colors of many of the species.) 

Pileus fleshy, margin at first turned inward. Veil fibrillose or none. Flammula. 
Stem fleshy-fibrous, not mealy at the top. Gills decurrent or attached 
without a tooth. Spores mostly pure rust color; some brownish-rust, 
others tawny-ochraceous. 

A few species grow on the ground, the majority on wood. 


GYMNOTI (naked). Page 288. 
Pileus dry, generally scaly. Spores not yellowish. 

LUBRICI (lubricus, slimy). Page 289. 

Pileus covered with a continuous, viscid, smooth, partly separable 
cuticle. Veil fibrillose. Spores not yellowish. Gregarious, on the 
ground, rarely on wood. Distinguished from Hebeloma by the gills not 
being sinuate and the top of the stem not mealy. 

UDI (udus, moist). Page 290. 

Veil slight, generally hanging in fragments. Cuticle of the pileus 
continuous, not separable, smooth, in places superficially downy, moist 
or slightly viscid in rainy weather. Spores not yellowish. Cespitose, 
growing on wood. 

SAPINEI (sapinus, pine). Page 291. 

Veil silky, very slight, adpressed to the stem or forming a silky ring 
on it. Cuticle of pileus thin, the flesh splitting at the surface into 
scales, not viscid. Distinguished by the gills and spores being light 
yellow or tawny. Somewhat cespitose ; always on pine or on the ground 
among pine branches. 

SERICELLI (sericeus, silky). 

Cuticle of the pileus slightly silky, dry or at the first viscid 
None known to be edible. 



Fiammuia. The genus Flammula is not represented in our territory by a large 
number of species. It is, nevertheless, not very sharply distinct from 
the allied genera, Pholiota, Hebeloma and Naucoria. From Pholiota 
it is especially separated by the slight development of the veil which is 
merely fibrillose or entirely wanting. It never forms a persistent mem- 
branous collar on the stem. From Hebeloma it may be distinguished 
by the absence of a sinus at or near the inner extremity of the gills, by 
the absence of white particles or mealiness from the upper part of the 
stem and by the brighter or more distinctly rusty or ochraceous color of 
the spores. From Naucoria the fleshy or fibrously fleshy stem affords 
the most available distinguishing character. The genus belongs to the 
Ochrosporae or ochraceous-spored series, but the spores of its species 
vary in color from ochraceous or tawny-ochraceous to rust-color or 
brownish-rust color. The three things to be especially kept in mind in 
order to recognize the species are the color of the spores, the adnate 
or decurrent but not clearly sinuate gills and the fleshy or fibrously 
fleshy stem without a membranous ring. 

Our species are mostly of medium size, none being very small and 
one only meriting the appellation large. They appear chiefly in late 
summer or in autumn and grow in woods or in wooded regions either 
on the ground or more often on decaying wood. Many are gregarious 
or cespitose in their mode of growth. Some have a bitterish or unpleas- 
ant flavor and none of our species has yet been classed as edible. Fries 
arranged the species in five groups, of which the names and more 
prominent characters are here given. Pec&,$oth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

The few species which the writer has found to be edible, and the two 
new species found by him, were tested after the publication of the above. 
Several of the species found are not mentioned herein for the reason that 
a sufficient quantity was not obtained to make certain their quality as a 
food. The bitterness, as far as observed, with which most of the species 
are tainted disappears in cooking. 

GYMNO'TI. Veil absent, pileus dry, etc. 

F. alie'na Pk. Pileus thin, flexible, broadly convex, umbilicate, 
dry, bare, slightly striate on the margin when old, grayish or pale 
grayish-brown. Flesh white, fibrous. Gills thin, subdistant, bow- 
shaped, decurrent, ochraceous-brown. Stem firm, fibrous-striate, solid, 



slightly tapering upward, colored like the pileus, covered at the base Fiammuia. 
with a dense white tomentum. Spores rusty-brown, globose, 5/x broad. 

Pileus 3-5 cm. broad. Stem 5 cm. long, 4-6 mm. thick. 

Gregarious on partly burned anthracite coal, Mt. Gretna, Pa. Sep- 
tember. C. Mcllvaine. 

The species is peculiar in its color and habitat. In the dried speci- 
men the gills have assumed a brown color with no ochraceous tint. 
Mr. Mcllvaine remarks that it is an edible species, dries well, and is 
excellent when cooked. Its relationship is with F. anomala Pk., but it 
is a larger plant with darker color and a different habitat. Peck, Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 26, F. 1899. 

It grows on partly burned anthracite coal, not buried, as printed in 
the Torrey Bulletin. The mycelium completely involves the pieces of 
coal, holding them tightly in its meshes. Patches of it were strictly 
limited to the size of the ash-pile containing the partly burned coal. 
Quite fifty were found. 

As stated, it is edible, and it is of remarkably fine substance for a 

LU'BRICI. Pileus viscid, etc. 

F. edlllis Pk. eatable. Pileus fleshy, convex, obtuse, glabrous, 
moist, brown, grayish-brown or yellowish-brown, sometimes rimose. 
Flesh whitish. Lamellae rather broad, close, decurrent, bright tan 
color, becoming brownish-rusty. Stems cespitose, equal, stuffed or hol- 
low, brown. Spores subelliptical, 13x5-6/4. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Grassy ground, along pavements, in gutters and by the side of wooden 
frames of hotbeds. Haddonfield, N. J. October. C. Mcllvaine. 

The collector of this species informs me that the flavor of the fresh 
plant is slightly bitter, but that this disappears in cooking and the fungus 
furnishes a very good and tender article of food. Successive crops con- 
tinued to appear for a month. In the dried specimens the stem is 
striate. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3. 

This new species appears annually in the same place. I have not 
found it elsewhere. It is meaty and excellent. 

19 289 


UDI. Pileus smooth, not viscid; veil fragmentary, etc. 

(Plate LXXVI0.) 

Two-thirds natural size. 

Fiammuia. F. alni cola Fr. aluus, alder; colo t to inhabit. Pileus 2-3 in. 

broad, yellow, at length becom- 
ing rust-color and sometimes 
green, fleshy, convex then flat- 
tened, obtuse, slimy when moist, 
but not truly viscous, at the first 
superficially fibrillose toward the 
margin. Flesh not very com- 
pact, of the same color as the 
pileus. Stem 2-3 in. and more 
long, % in. thick, stuffed then 
hollow, attenuato-rooted, com- 
monly curved-flexuous, fibrillose, 
at first yellow, then becoming 
rust-color. Veil manifest, some- 
times fibrillose, sometimes woven 
into a spider-web veil. Gills 
somewhat adnate, broad, plane, 
at first dingy-pallid or yellowish- 
pallid, at length together with the plentiful spores rust-colored. 

The gills vary decurrent and rounded according to situation. Odor 
and taste bitter. There are two forms: a. Pileus irregular, fibrillose 
round the margin; gills at first dingy -pallid, b. Salicicola, pileus some- 
what convex, smooth, rarely at the first downy-scaly; gills at first 
yellowish-pallid. Fries. 

Spores subelliptical, 8x5/i K.; 8-10x5-6;* Peck. 
New York, swampy woods about base of alders, October, Peck, 
Rep. 35; at base of alders, with adnate gills, and on birch stumps, 
with the gills rounded behind, Rep. 39. Mt. Gretna, Pa., New Jersey, 
mixed woods, August to November, 1898, Mcllvaine. 

Gregarious and in loose tufts, not plentiful. It is a pretty plant, 
usually of a bright yellow, sometimes darker at the center of cap. 
Traces of an evanescent fibrillose ring are occasionally found or the fibrils 
adorn the margin of the cap. The gills next to the stem are either 
rounded, attached or slightly decurrent. 

Raw the taste is slightly bitter. This disappears in long cooking. 



F. fla'vida Schaeff. (Pers. ) flamdus, light yellow. Pileus fleshy, 
thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, glabrous, moist, pale yellow. 
Flesh whitish or pale yellow, taste bitter. Lamellae moderately close, 
adnate, pale or yellowish becoming rust-color. Stem equal, often more 
or less curved, hollow, fibrillose, whitish or pale yellow, with a white 
mycelium at the base. Spores 8x5/x.. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 1-3 lines thick. 

Decaying wood of various trees. Commonly in wooded or moun- 
tainous districts. Summer and autumn. 

Our specimens were found on wood of both coniferous and deciduous 
trees. The plants are sometimes cespitose. The pileus becomes more 
highly colored in drying. The spores are pale rust-colored approach- 
ing ochraceous. In Sylloge the spores of this species are described as 
pale yellowish. Peck, 5oth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores broadly elliptical, 6-8x5ft Massee. 

New York, decaying wood, Peck, Rep. 32, 50; Mrs. E. C. Anthony, 
August. West Virginia, 1881-1885; Mt. Gretna, Pa. August to Oc- 
tober. Mcllvaine. 

F. flavida is a frequent species, gregarious and tufted on decaying 
vood, either standing, fallen, or as roots in the ground. The texture 
and substance are good. The slight bitter when raw disappears in 
cooking. The caps, only, are tender. 

SAPIN'EI. Gills and spores yellowish, etc. 

F. hy'brida Fr. hybrida, a hybrid. Pileus about 2 in. broad, at 

first tawny-cinnamon, then tawny-orange, fleshy, hemispherical with the 
margin involute, then expanded, obtuse, regular and well formed, even, 
smooth, moist. Flesh moderately compact, pallid. Stem 2-3 in. long, 
4-5 lines thick, at first stuffed with a soft pith, then hollow, attemiated 
(almost conico-attenuated) upward, whitish with adpressed silky-hairy 
down (becoming tawny when the down is rubbed off) slightly striate, 
with white hairs at the base, and somewhat mealy at the apex. Veil 
manifest in the form of an annular zone at the apex of the stem, white 
or at length colored with the spores. Gills adnate, somewhat crowded, 
light yellow then tawny, not spotted. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, tawny-ochraceous, 7 8x4-5 /u, Massee; 6x4/1, W. P. 



Fiammnla. Mt. Gretna, Pa., August, September, 1898. On ground under pine 
trees. Gregarious. W. H . Rarer. Not elsewhere reported. 

This is a handsome plant, quite prolific in the large pine groves at 
Mt. Gretna, Pa. The caps are of good flavor. 

F. mag'na Pk. magmis, large. Pileus fleshy, broadly convex, 
soft, dry, fibrillose and somewhat streaked, pale yellow or buff, the mar- 
gin commonly becoming revolute with age. Flesh whitish or yellowish. 
Gills close, adnate or slightly decurrent, often crisped or wavy toward 
the stem, about three lines wide, ochraceous. Stem equal or thickened 
toward the base, fleshy-fibrous, solid, elastic, fibrillose, colored like the 
pileus, brighter yellow within. Spores subelliptical, ochraceous, iox6/x. 

Cespitose. Pileus 4-6 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 8-12 lines 

About the base of trees. Westchester county. October. 

This is a large and showy species. The stems are sometimes united 
at the base into a solid mass. The young gills are probably yellow, 
but I have seen only mature specimens. Peck, 5Oth Rep. N. Y. State 

New Jersey, Trenton, ground in clearing, in pairs and singly. No- 
vember, E. B. Sterling; Mt. Gretna, Pa. Mixed thin woods. October 
to November. Near trees. Cespitose, Mcllvaine. 

Individuals of all ages were found and eaten. The young gills are 
very light yellow, darkening to a deep, rich yellow. 

The caps are of good substance and flavor. When very young the 
stems are edible. 



Ttiba, a trumpet. 

(Plate LXXVII.) 

Stem somewhat cartilaginous, 
fistulose. PileilS somewhat mem- 
branaceous, often clothed with the 
universal floccose veil. Gills some- 
what decurrent. Spores rust-color 
or (in Phaeoti) brownish-rust color. 

The species referred to this sub- 
genus were taken from Naucoria 
and Galera because they corre- 
spond with Omphalia and Eccilia. 
The pileus is, however, distinctly 
umbilicate or depressed in only a 
few of them ; the others are placed 
here on account of their somewhat 
decurrent gills, which are broadest behind and triangular. 

Small and unimportant. 



Natural size. 





Naztcum, a nut-shell. 

(Plate LXXVIII.) 

Nancona. Pileus more or less fleshy, conical or convex, then expanded, margin 

at first incurved. Gills free or ad- 
nate, not decurrent. Veil fugaci- 
ous or absent, sometimes attached 
in minute flakes to the edge of the 
young pileus. Stem cartilaginous, 
hollow or with a spongy stuffing. 
Growing on wood or on the ground, 
sometimes rooted. Spores various 
shades of brown, dull or bright. 

Naucoria corresponds with Colly- 
bia, Leptonia and Psilocybe; from 
the latter it is distinguished by the 
spore colors and from Galera in the 
brown-spored series by the margin 
of the pileus being at- first incurved. 
"The spores are rust-color, or 
brownish rust-color. The color of 
the pileus is some shade of yellow. 
The stem is not distinctly ringed, 
but sometimes a slight spore-stained 
band marks the place of the obsolete 
ring." Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

The members of this genus are with two or three exceptions very 
common, and common over the land. The greater number grow on 
the ground among grass; a few grow upon decaying wood. The stems 
are not of the same texture as the cap and frequently will not cook 
tender. The caps, however, are, of all species tested, tender and of 
good flavor. Species of the genus are among the first to appear in spring, 
and well reward the enterprising mycophagist for his early tramps. 


GYMNOTI (Gr. naked). Page 295. 

Pileus smooth. Veil absent. Spores rust-color, not becoming dusky- 


'iV.^.Vr' 'f 

Natural size. 


PH/EOTI (Gr. dusky). Page 296. 

Pileus smooth. Gills and spores dusky rust-color. Veil rarely mani- Naucoria. 

LEPIDOTI (lepis, a scale). 

Pileus flocculose or squamulose. Veil manifest. 
None known to be edible. 


N. hama'dryas Fr. Gr., a nymph attached to her tree. Pileus 
1^-2 in. broad, bay-brown-ferruginous when young and moist, pale 
yellowish when old and becoming pale, slightly fleshy, convex then ex- 
panded, gibbous, even, smooth. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3 lines thick, 
soiueivhat fragile, hollow, equal, naked, smooth, pallid. Gills attenu- 
ato-adnexed, somewhat free, slightly ventricose, almost 2 lines broad, 
crowded, rust-color, opaque. Veil none. Widely removed from neigh- 
boring species. Pileus somewhat separate as in Plutei. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, rust-color, 13-14x7^ Massee. 

Haddonfield, N. J. Frequent. Solitary. On ground along pave- 
ments, under trees, in woods. Spring to autumn. Mcllvaine. 

Massee gives it as hygrophanous. I have not found it so. It is 
moist after rain and dew. 

The caps and upper part of the stem are tender, easily cooked and of 
good flavor. 

N. cero'des Fr. Gr. wax. Pileus K-i in. broad, watery cinna- 
mon when moist, tan-color when dry, somewhat membranaceous, con- 
vex bell-shape and flattened, at length depressed, obtuse, when moist 
smooth, pellucid-striate at the circumference, when dry even, slightly 
silky-atomate . Stem 2-3 in. long, 1-2 lines thick, slightly firm, tubed, 
equal, somewhat flexuous, fibrilloso-striate under a lens, becoming dingy 
bqy-brown sometimes for the most part, sometimes only at the base, 
pallid upward, mealy at the apex. Gills adnate, separating, very broad 
behind, hence almost triangular, somewhat distant, broad, plane, soft, 
distinct, pallid then cinnamon very finely fimbriated at the edge under 
a lens. Fries. 

The typical form, growing among damp mosses, is quite early, gre- 
garious, with the colors almost those of Galera hypnorum, but other- 



(Plate LXXVIIIa.) 

Naucoria. wise very different, b. Another form occurs on naked, commonly burnt 
soil, in late autumn, with almost the habit of N. pediades, but with a 
different color of gills and spores; this form is firmer. Stem I in. long, 
tense and straight, and color more ochraceous. Stevenson. 
Spores 9t* B. and Br.; smooth, 6x3^ Massee. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, in grass and moss, along 
damp wood margins. August to October. Mcllvaine. 

N. cerodes is not plentiful where I have found it. Enough has been 
collected at a time to prove it esculent. It is tender, but has not much 

N. Stri'apes Cke. stria, a line; 
pes, a foot. Pileus i-i/ in. broad, 
ochraceous, bell-shaped, obtuse, then 
expanded, smooth, even. Stem 2-3 
in. long, 2 lines thick, hollow, equal, 
erect or flexuous, white, longitudin- 
ally striate. Gills slightly adnate be- 
hind, rather distant, tawny rust-color. 
Cespitose or gregarious. Among 
grass on lawn. Stevenson. 

Spores narrowly elliptical, 10-12 
X4j. Massee. 

New Jersey, Trenton. Growing 
among leaves near dump. May to 
November. E. B. Sterling. 

The few specimens tested were deli- 
cate and of slight flavor. 



N. pedi'ades Fr. Gr. } a plain. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, yellow or 
pale yellowish-ochraceous then becoming pale, slightly fleshy, convex 
then plane, obtuse, even, dry, smooth, at length crookedly cracked, but 
always without strise. Flesh white. Stem 2-3 in. long, 1-2 lines 
thick, stuffed with a pith, somewhat flexttous, tough, equal, but with a 
small bulb at the base, slightly silky becoming even, yellowish. Gills 
adnexed, 2 lines broad, at first crowded, at length somewhat distant, 
somewhat dingy-brown, then dingy cinnamon. 



Spores brovvnish-rust-color. The small bulb at the base is formed by Naucoria. 
the mycelium being rolled together. Stature variable. Fries. 

Spores dingy rust-color, elliptical, 10-12x4-5^ Massee. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, in grassy places, pastures 
and along pavements. Common. May to November. Mcllvaine. 

In 1897 Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, abounded with N. pediades, 
which were collected and eaten by many. The caps are tender and of 
a mushroom flavor. 

N. semi-orbicilla'ris Bull. semi, half; orbicularis, round. (Plate 
LXXVIII, p. 294.) PileilS 1-2 in. broad, tawny rust-color then ochra- 
ceous, slightly fleshy, convexo-expanded, obtuse, dry, even, smooth, 
corrugated when dry. Stem 3-4 in. long, scarcely beyond I line thick, 
cartilaginous, tough, slender, tense and straight, equal, even, smooth, 
becoming pallid rust-color, shining, often darker at the base, internally 
containing a separate narrow tube which is easily broken up into fibrils. 
Gills adnate, rarely sinuate behind, almost 3 lines broad, and many 
times broader than the flesh of the pileus, crowded, pallid then rust- 

The pileus is slightly viscid when fresh and moist. Easily distin- 
guished from S. semi-globatus, with which it has been confounded, by 
the stem. Stevenson. 

Spores 14x8/4 W.G.S.; 10x5-6/1. Massee. 

Allied to N. pediades, distinguished by its viscid cap when moist, 
and dark stem. 

Common over the states. Washington, D. C., Mrs. Mary Fuller. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New Jersey. Solitary, 
sometimes cespitose, very common on lawns, rich pastures, etc. April 
until frost. Mcllvaine. 

This is one of our first appearing toadstools, coming up when the 
grass shows its full spring hue. It is found after rains until the coming 
of frost. Its hemispherical caps, precise, neat, dark gills and brown 
spores readily distinguish it. While usually small, patience and pick-- 
ing will soon gather quarts. The caps cook easily and are of excellent 

N. platysper'ma Pk. platys, broad; spenna, seed. Pileus convex, 
becoming nearly plane, glabrous, slightly tinged with ochraceous or red- 
dish-yellow when young, soon whitish, the margin at first adorned with 



Naucoria. vestiges of a white flocculent veil. Flesh white. Lamellae moderately 
close, slightly rounded behind, pallid, becoming brownish. Stem 
equal, stuffed with a white pith, slightly flocculent or furfuraceous above 
when young, whitish, the mycelium sometimes forming white thread- 
like strands. Spores broadly elliptical, 15/u, long, 1 2. 5 /u. broad. 

Pileus i-i-S in. broad. Stem 3-5-5 in. long, 1.5-2 in. thick. 

On the ground. Compton, Cal. Prof. A. 7. McClatchie. 

'This species differs from N. pediades and N. semi-orbicularis, to which 
it is related, by its larger, broader spores and paler color. Peck, Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 25, No. 6. 

This new species reported from California is so closely allied to N. 
semi-orbicularis and N. pediades, both of which are edible, that it is 
here given, that it may be recognized by students on the Pacific coast 
or wherever it occurs. 




Galerus, a cap. 

PileilS more or less membranaceous, conical or oval, then expanded, Gaiera. 
striate, margin at the first straight, then adpressed to the stem. Gills 
not decurrent. Stem somewhat cartilaginous, continuous with the 
pileus, but differing in texture, tubular. Veil none or fibrillose. Spores 

Slender, fragile, generally growing on the ground. 

Gaiera corresponds with Mycena, Nolanea, Psathyra and Psathyrella, 
which are distinguished by their spore colors. In the brown-spored 
series Naucoria is separated by the margin of the pileus being at first 
incurved, and Tubaria by the decurrent gills. 

The genus is composed of small species, but many grow in clusters, 
and are of a consistency which decreases but little in quick cooking. 
Those tested are delicate in texture and flavor. 

G. lateri'tia Fr. later, a brick. Pileus i in. high, pale yellowish 
when moist, ochraceous when dry, hygrophanous, membranaceous, 
acorn-sJtaped then bell-shaped, obtuse, even, smooth, slightly and densely 
striate at the margin when moist. Stem 3 in. and more long, i line 
thick, tubular, attenuated upward, tense and straight, even, but white- 
pruincse, whitish. Gills adnexed in the top of the cone, hence appear- 
ing as if free, ascending, very narrow, crowded, cinnamon. 

Gills almost adpressed to the stem, almost pendulous. Remarkably 
analogous with A. ovalis, but easily distinguished by the linear gills 
and the absence of a veil ; very fragile. Fries. 

Spores 1 1x5/1 W.P.; i I-I2X5-6/A Masses. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania. On dung 
and rich pastures. June to frost. Mcllvaine. 

The narrow conical cap, distinctly striate, distinguishes this species 
from G. tenera. In quality there is no difference. It is a well-flavored, 
delicate species. 



(Plate LXXIX.) 

Two-thirds natural size. 

Gaiera. G. te'nera Schaeff. tener, tender. Pileus % in. and more high, 

of one color, pallid rust-color when 
damp, becoming pale when dry, hy- 
grophanous, somewhat membranace- 
ous, conico-bell-shaped, commonly 
smooth, slightly striate when moist, 
wholly even when dry, opaque, some- 
what atomate. Stem commonly 3-4 
in. long, i line thick, tubular, fragile, 
equal or when larger thickened down- 
ward, tense and straight, somewhat 
shining, striate upward, of the same 
color as the pileus when moist, and 
like it becoming pale when dry. Gills 
adnate in the top of the cone, appear- 
ing as if free, ascending, somewhat 
crowded, linear, cinnamon. 

Pastures and grassy places in 
woods. Common. May to November. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid, 14-21x8-12/1 K.; 14-8/1 W.G.S.; 14x7/1 W.P.; 
12-13x7/1 Massee; elliptical, dark rust-color, almost rubiginous, 13- 
16.5x8-10/1 Peck. 

Var. pilosella (Agaricus pilosellus Pers.), has both pileus and stem 
clothed with a minute erect pubescence when moist. A form is some- 
times found in which the center of the pileus is brown or blackish-brown. 
Peck, 46th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Var. obscu'rior Pk. A notable form of this species was found grow- 
ing in an old stable of an abandoned lumber camp. The plants were 
large, the pileus in some being more than an inch broad, the stems 
were 3-6 in. long and the color was rust-colored as in G. ovalis, to 
which the plants might be referred but for the large spores. Essex 
county. July. I have labeled the specimens variety obscurior. Peck, 
5oth Rep. 

Haddonfield, N. J. ; Chester county; West Philadelphia, Pa. ; West 
Virginia. In rich pastures, on lawns, dung in woods. Common. June 
to October. Mcllvaine. 

Very variable in size and in color when wet and dry. The color of 
gills and spores readily distinguishes it in its habitats. From spring to 



frost it can usually be gathered in quantity. It is small, tender, shrivels Gaiera. 
in cooking, but makes a savory, excellent dish. 

Var. obscurior found cespitose on very old manure at a ruined stable, 
Mt, Gretna, Pa., August. Mcllvaine. 

G. fla'va Pk. flavus, yellow. Pileus membranous, ovate or bell 
shaped, moist or subhygrophanous, obtuse, plicate striate on the mar- 
gin, yellow. LamelleB thin, narrow, crowded, adnate, at first whitish, 
then yellowish-cinnamon. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, hol- 
low, slightly striate at the top, sprinkled with white mealy particles, 
white or yellowish. Spores ovate or subelliptical, brownish-rust-color, 

Pileus 6-12 lines broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 1-1.5 l mes thick. 

Damp vegetable mold in woods. Tompkins county. July. 

This species is well marked by the pale-yellow color of the pileus and 
its plicate striations which are very distinct even in the dried specimens. 
They extend half way to the disk or more. When dry the pileus is seen 
to be sprinkled with shining atoms as in some other species of the same 
genus. Occasionally the yellow cuticle cracks into squamules or small 
scales. Peck, 46th Rep. 

Trenton, N.J., Sterling; Haddonfield, N. J. ; Pennsylvania. Among 
chips in woods and on woods ground. Mcllvaine. 

This species is frequent, and when plentiful well worth gathering. It 
has a more woody flavor than other Gaiera, but is tasty. 

G. vittsefor'mis Fr. vitta, a chaplet; forma, form. Pileus ^-i in. 
broad, date-brown when moist, membranaceous, conical then hemis- 
pherical, obtuse, even at tJie disk, striate toward the margin, smooth. 
Stem 1^-3 in. long, > i line thick, tubular, equal, somewhat straight, 
but not tense and straight, smooth or sometimes pubescent, slightly 
striate under a lens, opaque, rust-color. Veil scarcely conspicuous. 
Gills adnate, broader at the middle, in the form of a segment when 
larger, somewhat ascending, somewhat distant, at first watery-cinnamon, 
at length rust-color. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, i2x6/A Massee. 

Haddonfield, N. J. ; Mt. Gretna, Pa. On pastures, lawns, etc. June 
to September. Mcllvaine. 

Not previously reported. 



Gaiera. Though small it makes up in quantity when found. The stems are 
not as tender as the caps. Quality good. 


Gr. cow's dung. 

Boibitius. Pileus membranaceous. Gills adnexed or free, membranaceous, soft, 
salmon-color or rusty, dissolving (not dripping as in Coprinus), pow- 
dered with the rusty spores. Stem central; universal veil absent, 
partial veil often obsolete. 

Very delicate and fragile, remarkable among the Ochrosporae for the 
gills dissolving into mucus, and in this respect analogous with Coprinus 
among the Melanosporae, and Hiatula amongst the Leucosporae. Grow- 
ing on dung or amongst grass where dung abounds. 

A small but very natural genus, with the vegetative portion like 
Coprinus and the fructification resembling Cortinarius, hence occupying 
an intermediate position between these two genera. Fries. 

B. Bol'toni Fr. after Bolton. Pileus rather fleshy, viscid, at first 
even, then with the membranaceous margin sulcate, disk darker, subde- 
pressed. Stem attenuated, yellowish, at first floccose from the remains 
of the fugacious veil. Gills subadnate, yellow then livid-brown. Fries. 

Haddonfield, N. J., cespitose among manure on sawdust. 

Of small substance but good consistency and flavor. 



B. fra'gilis Fr. Pileus 2 in. 

(Plate LXXX.) 

broad, light-yellow, then becoming Boibitius. 
pale, somewhat membranaceous, 
almost pellucid, conical then ex- 
panded, somewhat umbonate, 
smooth, viscous, striate round the 
margin (which is often crenulated). 
Stem 3 in. long, I line or little 
more thick, fistulose, attenuated up- 
ward, naked, smooth (and without 
a manifest veil), yellow. Gills at- 
tenuato-adnexed, almost free, ven- 
tricose, yellow then pale cinnamon. 
Spores rust-colored. Fries. 

Two-thirds natural size. 

Thinner than B. Boltoni, etc., very 

fragile, rapidly withering. 

On dung. Common. June to Oc- 
tober. Stevenson. 

Spores subspheroid-ellipsoid, ellip- 
tical, /X3-5/A Massee. 

West Virginia; Pennsylvania. June 
to frost. On rich grass and dung. 

Pileus usually not over 1.5 in. 
across. Often in plenty. Its substance 
does not cook away as with C. mica- 
ceus. It amply repays gathering, 
being highly flavored. 

B. no'bilis Pk. noble. Pileus 
thin, fleshy on the disk, ovate then 
bell-shaped, smooth, plicate-striate, 
pale-yellow, the disk tinged with red, 
the margin at length recurved and 
splitting. Gills subdistant, tapering 
outwardly, attached, the alternate ones 


(Plate LXXXa.) 

About two-thirds natural size. 


Boibitius. more narrow, pale-yellow with a darker edge. Stem long, equal, smooth, 
striate at the top, hollow, white. 

Plant cespitose, 3-5 in. high. Pileus I in. broad. Stem I line thick. 
Ground in woods. Greig. September. 

A fine large species, but probably rare. Peck, 24th Rep. N. Y. 
State Dot. 

I have not seen this species. Figure after Professor Peck. 


Gr. a slipper. 

Crepidotus. Veil wanting or not manifest. Pileus eccentric, lateral or resupinate. 

(Plate LXXXI.) 

Spores rust-color. 

The Crepidoti correspond in shape 
and habit to the smaller Pleuroti and 
the Claudopodes, but they are dis- 
tinguished from both by the rust-color 
of their spores. These are globose 
in several species, in others they are 
elliptical. In some there is a depres- 
sion on one side which gives them a 
naviculoid character and causes the 
spore to appear slightly curved when 
viewed in a certain position. In con- 
sequence of the similarity of several 
of our species, the character of the spores is of much importance in 
their identification, and it is unfortunate that European mycologists 
have so generally neglected to give the spore characters in their 
descriptions of these fungi. In most of the species the pileus is at first 
resupinate, but it generally becomes reflexed as it enlarges. It is gen- 
erally sessile or attached by a mass of white fibrils or tomentum. For 
this reason it is usually somewhat tomentose or villose about the point 
of attachment, even in species that are otherwise glabrous. In several 
species the pileus is moist or hygrophanous and then the thin margin is 
commonly striatulate. This character is attributed to but one of the 


Natural size. 


dozen or more European species. Their mode of growth is usually Crepidotus. 

gregarious or somewhat loosely imbricated, in consequence of which 

the pileus, which in most species is white or yellowish, is often stained 

by the spores, and then it has a rusty, stained or squalid appearance. 

The species occur especially on old stumps, prostrate trunks and soft 

much decayed wood in damp, shaded places. Peck, 39th Rep. N. Y. 

State Bot. 

C. ful'vo-tomento'sus Pk. tawny-tomentose. Pileus %-2 in. 

broad, scattered or gregarious, suborbicular, kidney-shaped or dimidi- 
ate, sessile or attached by a short, white-villose tubercle or rudimentary 
stem, hygrophanous, watery-brown and sometimes striatulate on the 
margin when moist, whitish, yellowish or pale ochraceous when dry, 
adorned with small, tawny, hairy or tomentose scales. Lamellae broad, 
subventricose, moderately close, rounded behind, radiating from a lateral 
or eccentric white villose spot, whitish becoming brownish-ferruginous. 
Spores elliptical often uninucleate, 8-10x5-6/4. 

Decaying wood of poplar, maple, etc. Common. June to October. 

A pretty species, corresponding in some respects to the European C. 
calolepis, but much larger and with tawny, instead of reddish scales. 
The cuticle is separable and is tenacious, though it has a hyaline gelatin- 
ous appearance. The pileus is subpersistent, and specimens dried in 
their place of growth are not rare. Peck, 39th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Haddonfield, N. J. ; Angora, West Philadelphia. On decaying 
hickory. Mcllvaine. 

Substance fair. Taste strong but pleasant. 

20 305 



Cortina, a veil or curtain. 

Cortinarius. Veil resembling the consistency of a cob-web, superficial, distinct 
from the cuticle of the pileus. Flesh of pileus and stem continuous. 
Gills persistent, dry, changing color, powdered with the spores. Trama 
fibrillose. Spores globose or oblong, somewhat ochraceous on white 
paper. Fries. 

This genus is not easily confounded with any other, the cob-webby 
veil stretched from stem to pileus in the young plant not being found in 
other fungi. This must be looked for only in youth, as from its tender 
character it soon breaks and often appears only as a very indistinct 
collar on the stem, colored from catching the falling spores. The colors 
are generally pronounced and often extremely bright, there being very 
few prettier toadstools than those inclined to the blue or purple shades, 
which are not uncommon in the immature form. The color of the 
spores is also a marked feature, being rusty or brownish-ochraceous, 
turning the gills to the same color at maturity. On account of this 
change it is generally necessary to have specimens at both stages of 
growth to accurately determine the species. The gills are thin, attached 
to the stem in various manners, rarely slightly decurrent. 

Cortinarius is distinguished from Flammula by growing on the ground 
and by the bright ferruginous color of its spores. 

Cortinarius is a sturdy, hardy genus preferring northern latitudes and 
autumnal months, though several of its species grow as far south as Ala- 
bama, and one, a new species described by Professor Peck, is found on 
the Helderberg mountains in May. The genus contains many species, 
most of which produce in great numbers, yet being woods-growing, and 
coming as they do when leaves are falling, they are often missed because 
of their similarity to their surroundings. 

Heretofore, less than a dozen species have been reported as eaten. 
This number is now doubled. While several species are bitter and oth- 
ers equally unpleasant, not one has been accused of harm. It is highly 
probable that other varieties than those herein given will prove equally 
acceptable as food. I have tested all I have found in sufficient quantity 
to warrant passing judgment upon them. 

The genus does not contain as many species of superior excellence as 
other fleshy genera of like numbers. The flesh is frequently dry and of 


a strong woody or musky flavor, which it does not lose in cooking. The Cortinarfus. 
stems are seldom cookable. All can be fried in butter, but cut in small 
pieces and well stewed, or stewed and served in patties, or made into 
croquettes are certain ways of keeping them in palate memory. 


PHLEGMACIUM (Gr. shiny or clammy moisture). Page 308. 
Pileus viscid. Stem firm, dry. Veil partial, cobweb-like. 

A. CLIDUCHU (Gr. holding the keys the typical subdivision). Page 308. 

Partial veil as a ring on the upper part of the stem which is equal or 
slightly expanded above. Not distinctly bulbous. 

* Gills pallid then clay-colored. 

** Gills purplish then clay-colored. 

B. SCAURI (Gr. club-footed). Page 310. 

Bulbous. Bulb depressed or top-shaped, with a distinct margin 
caused by the pressure of the pileus before expansion. Veil generally 
ascending from the margin of the bulb. Gills somewhat sinuate. 

* Gills whitish then cinnamon. 

* Gills blue then cinnamon. 

* Gills brownish-white then cinnamon. 

MYXACIUM (Gr. mucus). Page 3 13. 

Universal veil glutinous. Pileus and stem viscid. Stem slightly 
bulbous. Gills adnate. 

INOLOMA (Gr. a fibrous fringe). Page 314. 

Pileus dry, not hygrophanous or viscid, covered at first with innate 
silky scales or fibrils, becoming smooth. Veil simple. Pileus and stem 
fleshy, rather bulbous. 

* Gills violaceous, then cinnamon. 

* Gills pinkish-brown, then cinnamon. 

* Gills yellow, then cinnamon. 



DERMOCYBE. Page 320. 

Cortinarius. Pileus thin, equally fleshy, at first silky with a fine down, becoming 
smooth when adult. Not hygrophanous, but flesh watery when moist 
or colored. Stem equal or larger above, externally rigid, elastic or 
brittle, internally stuffed or hollow. Veil single, thread-like. 

TELAMONIA. Page 323. 

Pileus moist, hygrophanous, at first smooth or sprinkled with the 
whitish superficial evanescent fibrils of the veil. Flesh thin, or when 
thick it becomes abruptly thin toward the margin, scissile. Stem ringed 
below or coated from the universal veil, slightly veiled at the apex, 
hence with almost a double veil. 

HYGROCYBE. Page 325. 

Pileus hygrophanous, smooth or covered with superficial white fibrils, 
not viscid, moist when fresh, becoming discolored when dry. Flesh 
very thin or scissile, rarely more compact at the center. Sem rather 
rigid, bare. Veil thin, rarely collapsing and forming an irregular ring 
on the stem. 

PHLEGMA'CIUM. (Gr. clammy moisture.) 

* Gills pallid, then clay-colored. 

C. seba'ceus Fr. sebum, tallow. PileilS 2^-5 in. broad, unicolor- 
ous, pale, of the color of tallow, equally fleshy, convex then rather 
plane, commonly very repand, viscid, smooth, but at the first covered 
over with a whitish pruinose luster. Flesh white. Stem 3-4 in. long, 
/& I in. thick, solid, stout, compact, never bulbous, often twisted and 
compressed, slightly fibrillose, pale white. Cortina delicate, fugacious, 
adhering only to the margin of the pileus. Gills emarginate, not 
crowded, connected by veins, 4 lines broad, clay-color or pallid-cinna- 
mon, paler at the sides. Fries. 

The flesh of the pileus is not compact at the disk and abruptly thin 
at the circumference, but equally attenuated toward the margin. The 
flesh of the stem is white. The gills never turn bluish-gray. Taste 
mild. Stevenson. 


pip-shaped, 9X7/A Cooke. Cortinarius. 

A very common and prolific species in West Virginia, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, North Carolina. Mcllvaine. 

Pushing from the earth in great clusters it raises the mat of leaves 
above it into hut-like mounds through which it seldom bursts. Yet side 
openings to its huts show its coziness, and reveal the ground thickly 
dusted with its spores. Detecting these mounds is part of the wood- 
craft of a toad-stool hunter. 

Where clusters are not dense, or the fungus is solitary, the stem is 
frequently swollen at the base, even bulbous. 

Both caps and stems are edible, but the stems are not equal to the 
caps. It is a valuable food species, because of its lateness and quantity. 
It is not of best quality. 

C. tur'malis Fr. turma, a troop. (Plate LXXXII, fig. 4, p. 306.) 
PileilS yellow-tan, most frequently darker at the disk, not changeable, 
compact, convex then plane, very obtuse, even, smooth (sometimes 
obsoletely piloso-virgate), when young veiled with pruinate but very 
fugacious villous down, soon naked, viscid. Flesh white. Stem some- 
times 3 in., sometimes 6 in. long, i in. thick, solid, very hard, rigid, 
cylindrical, here and there attenuated at the base, shining white when 
dry, when young sheatJied with a white woolly veil, naked when full 
grown. Cortina entirely fibrillose, superior and persistent in the form 
of a ring, at length ferruginous with the spores. Gills variously adnexed, 
rounded or emarginate, even decurrent with a tooth, crowded, serrated, 
white then clay-color. Fries. 

I find it edible and of great value, being plentiful in pine woods, 
Maryland. I have collected a bushel in less than an hour in October. 
Under pine needles forming mounds. Taylor. 

The localities and the habit of C. turmalis are very like that of C. 
sebaceus. The leaf mat broods the clusters. 

C. turmalis is on a par with C. sebaceus. Personally I prefer the 

** Gills purplish, then clay-colored. 

C. va'rillS (Schaeff. ) Fr. -varius, changeable. PileilS 2 in. and more 
broad, \x\%\tf.ferruginous-tawny, compact, hemispherico-flattened, very 



Cortinarms. obtuse, regular, slightly viscid, even, smooth, the thin margin at first 
incurved, appendiculate with the cortina. Flesh firm, white. Stem 
curt, i% 2% in. long, i in. and more thick, bulbous, absolutely im- 
marginate, compact, shining white, adpressedly flocculose, the superior 
veil pendulous. Gills emarginate, thin, somewhat crowded, at first 
narrow, violaceous-purplish) then broader and ochraceous-cinnamon, 
always quite entire. 

Variable in stature, but the habit and colors are always unchangeable. 
It varies with the stem taller and somewhat equal, the pileus yellow- 
tawny, and the gills dark blue. Fries. 

In woods. Uncommon. September to November. Stevenson. 

Minnesota; Ohio. 

Edible. Cooke, 1891. 


* Gills whitish then cinnamon, 

C. intru'sus Pk. Pileus fleshy, rather thin, convex, then expanded, 
glabrous, somewhat viscid when moist, even or radiately wrinkled on 
the margin, yellowish or buff, sometimes with a reddish tint. Flesh 
white. Lamellae thin, close, rounded behind, at first whitish or creamy- 
white, then cinnamon, often uneven on the edge. Stem equal or slightly 
tapering either upward or downward, stuffed or hollow, sometimes 
beautifully striate at the top only or nearly to the base, minutely floe- 
cose when young, soon glabrous, white. Spores broadly elliptical, 
brownish-cinnamon, 6 8x4 5//,. 

Pileus 1-2.5 m - broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Mushroom beds, manured soil in conservatories or in plant pots. 
Boston, Mass. R. K. Macadam. Haddonfield, N. J. C. Mcllvaine. 

This interesting species is closely allied to Cortinarius multiformis and 
belongs to the Section Phlegmacium. It has a slight odor of radishes 
and is pronounced edible by Mr. Mcllvaine. Its habitat is peculiar, 
but it possibly finds its way into conservatories and mushroom beds 
through the introduction of manure or soil, or leaf mold from the woods. 
It seems strange, however, that it has not yet been detected growing in 
the woods or fields. Hebeloma fastibile is said sometimes to invade 
mushroom beds, and our plant resembles it in so many particulars that 
it is with some hesitation I separate it. The chief differences are in 
the stem and spores. The former, in Hebeloma fastibile, is described 


as solid and fibrous-squamose and the latter as 10x6 micromillimeters Cortinarius. 
in size. The brighter color of the smaller spores and the stuffed or 
hollow smooth stem of our plant will separate it from this species. 
Peck, Bull, of the Torrey Bot. Club, October, 1896. 

Cortinarius intrusus was a happy find. Several pints of it were col- 
lected by the author in February usually a famine month for the 
mycophagist. They grew on the ground, in beds among plants, and 
with potted plants in a hot-house in Haddonfield, N. J. The crop con- 
tinued well into the spring. The species is delicate, savory, and a most 
accommodating renegade from its kind. I have never found it else- 

** Gills bhie, then cinnamon. 

C. Cfierules cens Fr. Pileus 2-3 in. across, equally fleshy, convex 
then plane, obtuse, regular, even, almost glabrous, but often fibrilloso- 
streaked ; viscid, when dry shining or opaque, dingy yellow, almost 
tan-colored, varying to yellowish-brown, etc. Grills slightly rounded 
behind, adnexed, thin, closely crowded, 2 lines broad, at first clear 
intense blue then becoming purplish, at length dingy cinnamon. Stem 
about 2 in. long, % in. thick (bulb more than an inch), firm, equally 
attenuated upward, at first fibrillose, bright violet, then becoming pale 
and whitish, naked, bulb often disappearing with age; veil fibrillose, 
fugacious. Spores elliptical, 9-10x5^. 

Amongst moss in woods, etc. 

Neither the gills nor the flesh change color when broken, a point 
which distinguishes the present from C. purpurascens. When young 
every part is generally blue. Smell scarcely any. Fries. 

Spores 10-12x5^ Cooke. 

Haddonfield; West Virginia; Mt. Gretna, Pa. In woods September 
to frost. Mcllvaine. 

The American species seldom entirely loses the bluish-purple color 
of its cap. The beautiful color fades somewhat or becomes splotched 
with yellow. Neither does the bulb ordinarily disappear with age. It 
is common. Taste of cap is mild, somewhat woody. They require 
long, slow stewing, and are better made into patties and croquettes. 

C. purpuras'cens Fr. gills becoming purple when bruised. 
Pileus 4-5 m - across, fleshy, disk compact, obtuse, wavy, variable, 



Cortinarius. covered with a dense layer of gluten, but opaque when dry, bay or red- 
dish then tawny-olivaceous, spotted; often depressed round the margin, 
which is at first incurved then wavy, marked with a raised brown line. 
Flesh entirely clear blue. Gills broadly emarginate, 3 lines and more 
broad, crowded, bluish-tan, then cinnamon, violet-purple when bruised. 
Stem about 3 in. long, % in. and more thick, solid, bulbous, every- 
where fibrillose, intensely pallid clear blue, very compact, juicy, becom- 
ing purplish-blue when touched, bulb submarginate. Spores elliptical, 
IO-I2X5-6/X. Fries. 

Var. subpurpuras' cens . Massachusetts. Frost. 

Plentiful in West Virginia mountains in mixed woods, 1882. On 
South Valley Hill, near Downington, Pa., October, 1887. Haddon- 
field, N. J., 1892. In woods. September to frost. Mcllvaine. 

Both stems and caps are juicy when young and of agreeable flavor. 
It is among the best edible species of Cortinarius. 

*** Gills brownish-white, then ferruginous. 

C. turbina'tus Fr. turbo, a top. Pileus unicolorous, dingy-yellow 
or green, becoming pale, hygrophanous, opaque when dry, fleshy, con- 
vex then flattened, obtuse, at length depressed, orbicular, even, smooth, 
viscid. Flesh soft, white. Stem commonly curt, 2 in., but varying 
elongated, yellowish, springing from a globoso-depressed distinctly mar- 
ginate bulb, otherwise equal, cylindrical, stuffed then hollow. Gills 
attenuato-adnate, thin, crowded, broad, quite entire, at first pallid light- 
yellowish, at length somewhat ferruginous. 

The typical form is regular, distinct from its allies in the hygrophan- 
ous pileus, in the gills being isabelline- ferruginous and quite entire, and 
in being without any dark-purple or purple color. Easily distinguished 
by its turbinate bulb. Fries, 

In woods. Uncommon. Stevenson. 

Spores rough, i4-i6x7/*; rough, Cooke. 

Cap 2-4 in. across. Stem commonly about 2 in. long, sometimes 
longer. Mas see. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz ; Pennsylvania, Schweinitz ; Massachu- 
setts, Frost; Minnesota; Nova Scotia. 

Edible. Cooke. 



MYXA'CIUM. (Gr. mucus.)' 

C. COllin'ituS Fr. collino, to besmear, 
glabrous, glutinous when moist, shin- 
ing when dry. Gills rather broad, 
dingy-white or grayish when young. 
Stem cylindrical, solid, viscid or glu- 
tinous when moist, transversely crack- 
ing when dry, whitish or paler than 
the pileus. Spores subelliptical, 13- 

Convex, Obtuse, Cortinarius. 
(Plate LXXXIII.) 

About natural size. 

The Smeared cortinarius is much 
more common than the Violet cor- 
tinarius and has a much wider range. 
Both the cap and stem are covered 
with a viscid substance or gluten 
which makes it unpleasant to handle. 
The cap varies in color from yellow 

to golden or tawny-yellow and when the gluten on it has dried it is 
very smooth and shining. The flesh is white or whitish. The young 
gills have a peculiar bluish-white or dingy-white color which might be 
called grayish or clay color, but when mature they assume the color of 
the spores. They are sometimes minutely uneven on the edge. 

The stem is straight, solid, cylindrical and usually paler than the cap. 
When the gluten on it dries it cracks transversely, giving to the stem a 
peculiar scaly appearance. 

The cap is 1/23 in. broad, and the stem 24 in. long, and M % 
in. thick. 

The plant grows in thin woods, copses and partly cleared lands and 
may be found from August to September. 

It is well to peel the caps before cooking, since the gluten causes dirt 
and rubbish to adhere tenaciously to them. Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

In 4ist Rep. N. Y. State Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 71, Professor Peck de- 
scribes a closely allied species, C. muscigenus, n. sp., "separated by its 
more highly-colored pileus, striate margin and even, not diffracted- 
squamose stem." 


Cortinarius. Prof. L. B. Mendel gives the following analysis: "Young specimens 
gathered in New Haven early in November, 1897, gave: 

Water 91.13$, 

Total solids 8.87 

Total nitrogen of dry substance 3.63 

Edible. Cooke. 

In appearance the Smeared cortinarius does not appeal to be eaten. 
Neither does an eel. But peeled both are inviting. Raw, the caps of 
this fungus have a strong woody smell and taste. This is somewhat 
subdued by cooking. 

I have found the plant in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and North 
Carolina, often among the leaves in mixed woods, but it prefers a goodly 
supply of light and the freedom of open places. It is often gregarious, 
sometimes tufted. 

C. io'des B. and C. PileilS 1/^-2 in., convex, at length plane, 
viscid, firm, violet-purple. Flesh white, thick. Veil fugacious, spider- 
web. Stem 23 in. long, i/4 in. thick, solid, thickened below. Gills 
violet, at length cinnamon, ventricose, adnate, sub-emarginate, irregular, 
sometimes forked. B. and C. 

This is a small but beautiful species, the pileus, lamellae and stem 
being of a bright-violet or purplish-violet hue. The spores are sub- 
elliptical, generally uninucleate, iox6. Peck, 32d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

The pileus in this species is sometimes spotted with white. The 
bulbous white stem is adorned with lilac-colored fibrils. Peck, 35th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Sparingly found among roots at Mt. Gretna, Pa., September, 1897- 

The caps are fairly good. 

INOLO'MA. (Gr. fiber; Gr. a fringe.) 
* Gills violaceous then cinnamon. 

C. viola'ceus Fr. (Plate LXXXII, fig. 2, page 306.) One of our 
most plentiful and beautiful autumnal fungi. As the American plant 
differs somewhat from the European, Professor Peck's description is 

Pileus convex, becoming nearly plane, dry, adorned with numerous 

314 spores 

persistent hairy tufts or scales, dark violet. LamellSB rather thick, dis- Cortinarius. 
tant, rounded or deeply notched at the inner extremity, colored like the 
pileus in the young plant, brownish-cinnamon in the mature plant. 
Stem solid, fibrillose, bulbous, colored like the pileus. Spores sub- 
elliptical, 12. 5/n long. 

The Violet cortinarius is a very beautiful mushroom and one easy of 
recognition. At first the whole plant is uniformly colored, but with age 
the gills assume a dingy ochraceous or brownish-cinnamon hue. The 
cap is generally well formed and regular and is beautifully adorned with 
little hairy scales or tufts. These are rarely shown in figures of the 
European plant, but they are quite noticeable in the American plant and 
should not be overlooked. The flesh is more or less tinged with violet. 

The gills when young are colored like the cap. They are rather 
broad, notched at the inner extremity and narrowed toward the margin 
of the cap. When mature they become dusted with the spores whose 
color they take 

The stem also is colored like the cap. It is swollen into a bulb at 
the base and sometimes a faint ochraceous band may be seen near the 
top. This is due to the falling spores which lodge on the webby fila- 
ments of the veil remaining attached to the stem. 

Cap 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-5 in. long, about > in. thick. Peck, 
48th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Minerva, Essex county. A form of this species occurs here, having 
the pileus merely downy or punctate-hairy under a lens, no squamules 
being distinguishable by the naked eye. July. Peck, 5oth Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Spores I2-I4XIO/A Cooke. 

The spider web veil is exquisitely displayed in this species. This, 
with its strongly bulbous base and violet tinge throughout, easily mark 
it. Though usually solitary great numbers of it are found in its settle- 
ments. The mixed woods of central New Jersey abound with it in July, 
August and September. Throughout Pennsylvania and West Virginia 
it is common, and is reported from several other states. In Redman's 
woods, near Haddonfield, N. J., a densely clustered form of singular 
beauty occurs. A dozen individuals of various forms and sizes with 
swollen stems form a compact mass, rich in color, and cutting crisp and 
juicy as an apple. They are far better than other Cortinarii I have 
eaten. I have not seen it elsewhere. 



(Plate LXXXIV.) 


One-half natural size. 

Cortinarius. C. violaceus is everywhere eaten, and is in my opinion the best of its 
genus. The American plant is not inodorous, but has a decided mush- 
room smell and taste. 

C. albo-viola'ceus Pers. Pileus fleshy, rather thin, convex, then 

expanded, sometimes broadly sub- 
umbonate, smooth, silky, whitish, 
tinged with lilac or pale violet. 
Lamellae generally serrulate, whitish- 
violet, then cinnamon-color. Stem 
equal or a little tapering upward, 
solid, silky, white, stained with violet, 
especially at the top, slightly bulb- 
ous, the bulb gradually tapering into 
the stipe. 

Height, 3-4 in. ; breadth of pileus, 
2-3 in. ; stipe, 3-6 lines thick. 

Ground in thin woods, more fre- 
quently under poplars. Center. Oc- 

The stem is sometimes subannulate, and being violet above and white 
below the obscure ring, it appears as if sheathed with a silky-white cov- 
ering. Inodorous. Sometimes the stem gradually tapers from the base 
to the top, so that it can scarcely be called bulbous. Peck, 23d Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 12x5-6/4 Cooke; 6-9x4-5/4 K.; pruniform, io/* Q. 
An allied species C. (Inoloma) lilacinus, Peck, with the stem and 
bulbous part much broader than the cap, is not as common, but of far 
better flavor. 

Common in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, in mixed 
woods. September to frost. Mcllvaine. 

A mushroom flavor develops in cooking. The consistency of the 
flesh is good. It is of medium grade. 

C. lilaci'nus Pk. Pileus firm, hemispherical, then convex, minutely 
silky, lilac-color. Lamellae close, lilac, then cinnamon. Stem stout, 
bulbous, silky-fibrillose, solid, whitish, tinged with lilac. Spores nucle- 
ate, iox6/*. 



(Plate LXXXV.) 

Plant 4-5 in. high. Pileus 3 in. broad. Stem 4-6 lines thick. Cortinarius. 
Low mossy ground in woods. Croghan. September. This is a rare 
but beautiful plant, allied to C. alboviolaceus, from which it may be 
distinguished by its stouter habit, deeper color and bulbous stem. In 
the young plant the bulb is much broader than the undeveloped pileus 
that surmounts it. Peck, 26th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Massachusetts, Frost; Minnesota, Nova Scotia. 

I have found a few specimens in several places: West Virginia, Red- 
man's woods, Haddonfield, N. J., in which place it is more plentiful 
than in any locality I have noted. Near lake at Eagle's Mere, Pa., 
August, and at Springton, Pa. Excellent. 

C. as'per Pk. rough. Pileus fleshy, firm, hemispherical, then con- 
vex, rough with minute, erect, brown 
scales, ochraceous. Grills close, 
rounded behind and slightly emar- 
ginate, dull violaceous, then pale cin- 
namon. Stem equal, bulbous, solid, 
fibrillose-scaly, colored like the pileus 
but smooth and violaceous at the top, 
the bulb white with an abundant 
mycelium. Spores broadly elliptical, 
with a pellucid nucleus, 8/t long. 

Plant 3-4 in. high. Pileus 2-3 in. 
broad. Stem 3-5 lines thick. Ground 
in cleared places. Greig. September. 

A fine species. The flesh of the 
stem is violaceous. Peck, 24th Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

This plant sometimes grows in tufts 
or clusters and bears a very close re- 
semblance to Armillaria mellea, both 
in color and in the character of the 
scales of the pileus. Peck, 2/th Rep. 

In thin woods and clearings, West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. 
The whole fungus is edible when young, and ranks high in Cortinarii. 
When full grown the stem is hard. Cut in thin, transverse slices it 

About two-thirds natural size. 



Cortinarius. cooks tender, but does not equal the cap. 
it is found in the autumn until frost kills it. 

Like most of the Cortinarii 


Gills pinkish-brown then cinnamon. 

(Plate LXXXVI.) 

C. squamulo'sus Pk. (Plate LXXXII, fig. i, p. 306.). Pileus 

thick, fleshy, convex, densely fibril- 
lose -squamulose, cinnamon -brown, 
the scales darker. Lamellae not 
crowded, deeply emarginate, pale 
pinkish-brown, then cinnamon-col- 
ored. Stipe thick, solid, shreddy, 
subsquamulose, concolorous, swollen 
at the base into a very large tapering 
or subventricose bulb. 

Height 4-6 in., breadth of pileus 
2-4 in., stipe 6-9 lines thick at the 
top, 1 2- 1 8 lines at the bottom. 

Borders of swamps in woods. 
Sandlake. August. 

Related to C. pholideus and C. 
arenatus, but distinct by the deep 
emargination of the lamellae. It gives out a strong odor while drying. 
The color of the flesh is pinkish-white. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. 

This species was discovered in 1869, and had not since been observed 
by the writer until the past season. It is manifestly a species of rare 
occurrence. Peck, 28th Rep. 

Massachusetts, Frost; Wisconsin, Minnesota. Ranges from New 
England to Kentucky unchanged. Morgan. 

Specimens from E. B. Sterling, Trenton, N. J., September, 1897. 
Asylum grounds. Several .found at Mt. Gretna, August and Septem- 
ber, 1897. Solitary in oak woods, gravelly soil. Mcllvaine. Sent to 
Professor Peck and identified. Specimens were much darker than Pro- 
fessor Peck's plates. 

C. squamulosus is not attractive in appearance. The caps, only, are 
edible. Their consistency is very pleasant and flavor fairly good. 



C. autumna'lis Pk. Pileus fleshy, 
convex or expanded, dull rusty-yel- 
low, variegated or streaked with in- 
nate rust-colored fibrils. Gills rather 
broad, with a wide shallow emargina- 
tion. Stem equal, solid, firm, bulb- 
ous, a little paler than the pileus. 

Height 3-4 in., breadth of pileus 
2-4 in. Stem 6 lines thick. 

Pine woods. Bethlehem. Novem- 
ber. The plant is sometimes cespi- 
tose. The flesh is white. Peck, 23d 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. , 1 899. Mcllvaine. 

Quality fair. Caps meaty. 

( Plate LXXXVIa.) Cortinarius. 


C. ochra'ceus Pk. (Plate LXXXII, fig. 3, p. 306.) Pileus fleshy, 
convex, at length* broadly subumbonate or gibbous, smooth, even or 
obscurely wrinkled, pale ochraceous. Stem solid, fibrillose, ochraceous 
at the top, white below, gradually enlarged into a thick bulbous base. 

Height 2-4 in., breadth of pileus 2-3 in. Stem 4-6 lines thick at 
the top, 1 2-1 8 lines at the base. 

Under balsam trees in open places. Catskill mountains. October. 

The stem appears as if sheathed. In some specimens the stem is 
short and rapidly tapers from the base to the top. Peck, 23d Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Many of the species were found by the writer in mixed woods among 
leaves at Mt. Gretna, Pa., September, 1898, Specimens were identified 
by Professor Peck. 

The gills are bright yellow when young. Cap smooth, innately 
fibrillose, not viscid. Spores light brown. 

Tasteless ; smell faint. Good consistency. A fair flavor develops in 

*** Gills yellow, 

C. (Inoloma) aimula'tus Pk. Pileus broadly convex, dry, villose- 
squamulose, yellow. FlesL yellowish. Lamellae rather broad, subdis- 
tant, adnexed, yellow. Stem solid, bulbous, somewhat peronate by the 





Natural size. 

yellow fibrillose annular-terminated 
veil. Spores broadly elliptical or 
subglobose, 8/u, long. 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 
in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Thin woods. Whitehall. August. 
The whole plant is yellow inclin- 
ing to ochraceous. It has the odor 
of radishes. The squamules of the 
pileus are pointed and erect on the 
disk, and often darker-colored there. 
The species is allied to C. tophaceus 
and C. callisteus, from which it is 
separated by its persistently annulate 
stem and more yellow color. Peck, 
43d Rep. 

Specimens received from E. B. 
Sterling, Trenton, N. J., September 
5, 189/0 Identified by Professor 
Peck. Mixed woods Kingsessing, 
near Bartram's Garden, Philadelphia, September, 1897. 

Solitary among grass and leaves. The permanent marking of the 
veil is conspicuous. Eight specimens were found and eaten. The caps 
cook tender, and have a decided but not unpleasant flavor. 

DERMO'.CYBE. (Gr. skin; Gr. ahead.) 

C. cinnabari'nus Fr. cinnabaris, dragon's blood. Pileus 2-3 in. 
broad, scaf let-red, truly fleshy, campanulate, then flattened, obtuse or 
very obtusely umbonate, silky, then becoming smooth and shining, or 
obsoletely scaly; the firm flesh paler. Stem 1^-2 in. long, 3-4 lines 
and more thick, solid, equal, sometimes however bulbous, fibrillose or 
striate, scarlet-red, reddish brick-color internally. Cortina fibrillose, lax, 
cinnabar. Gills wholly adnate, somewhat decurrent, 3 lines broad, some- 
what distant, connected by veins, unequal and darker at the edge, dark 
blood-color when bruised. 

Odor of radish. Readily distinguished from all others by '^splen- 
did scarlet color, and from C. sanguineus by its short solid and firm 



stem, its broad pileus and somewhat distant gills. Stem never becom- Cortinarins. 
ing yellow. Fries. 

Spores 7-8x4/x Cooke. 

It is a variable species with us. 

Cap i % in. across, convex, broadly umbonate, margin involute, yel- 
lowish-brown, silky, innately fibrillose, shining, when young the cap is 
round, margin involute. Veil white, fibrillose, fugacious, leaving no 
trace on stem. Flesh thick in center, solid, close-grained, white, tinged 
with brown. Tastes strongly as radishes. Skin partially detachable. 

Gills exceedingly beautiful in their deep claret-color, which is perma- 
nent, decurrent. 

Stem 3 in. long, shining, smooth, white near top, brownish below, 
equal, fibrous, stuffed, skin removable. 

On ground among pines, near station, Mt. Gretna, Pa^ August to 
frost. Solitary, gregarious and cespitose. 

Taste and smell like radishes. The caps cook well and are of fair 
flavor. Makes good patties and croquettes. 

C. cinnabarinus, Var. i. Mt. Gretna, Pa., August to frost. On de- 
caying chestnut stumps. 

Cap i in. across, shining, convex, orange-brown, white on margin 
and under minute appressed squamules, but few on margin ; apparent 
remnant of a veil on cap, as a viscid skin. 

Gills rounded behind, slightly emarginate, like Tricholoma, grayish- 
brown when young, becoming a brilliant scarlet, unequal. 

Stem 2 in. high, over K in. thick, white, covered with brownish- 
orange appressed squamules, often with stained marking of veil or frag- 
ments of veil as ring. Cespitose, connate. 

Taste and smell strong like radishes. Flavor in dish is decided but 
pleasant. Makes good patties and croquettes. 

Specimens were identified by Professor Peck as C. cinnabarinus, as 
were those of the preceding. The variations are so great that I give 
this place as a variety. 

C. sanguin'eus Fr. sanguis, blood. Pileus i-iK in. broad, 
blood-color, becoming slightly pale when dry, fleshy, thin, convex then 
plane, obtuse, occasionally depressed, silky or squamulose. Flesh red- 
dish, paler. Stem 2-3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, stuffed then hollow, 
equal (rather attenuated than thickened at the base), here and there 
21 321 


Cortinarius. flexuous, with fibrils of the same color, almost darker than the pileus. 
Cortina arachnoid, fugacious, red blood-color. Gills adnate, crowded, 
2-3 lines broad, quite entire, dark blood-color. 

Wholly dark blood-color, the stem when compressed pouring forth 
bloody juice. Odor of radish, Thinner than species nearest to it. The 
spores are ochraceous on a white ground, somewhat ferruginous on a 
black ground. Fries. 

Spores 6x41* W.G.S. 

North Carolina, Curtis; Massachusetts, Sprague, Farlow, Frost; Con- 
oecticut, Wright; New York, Peck, 23d Rep. 

Edible. Leuba. 

(Plate LXXXVII.) 

C. cinnamo'meilS Fr. Pileus I-2& in. across. Flesh thin, convexo- 

campanulate, umbonate, somewhat 
cinnamon color, silky squamulose 
with yellowish innate fibrils, becom- 
ing almost glabrous. Gills adnate, 
broad, crowded, shining, yellowish, 
then tawny-yellow. Stem 2-4 in. 
long, equal, yellow, as is also the 
flesh and the veil, hollow. Spores 


Natural size. 

A very common species, especi- 
ally in mossy places in pine woods, 
occurring under many well defined 
forms, which can not be separated as 
species. Essential points common 
to all. ( I ) Stem everywhere equal, 

stuffed, then hollow, yellowish, fibrillose from the similarly colored veil. 
(2) Pileus thin, flattened and obtusely umbonate, silky with yellowish 
down, often glabrous when adult, and then bright cinnamon, but the 
color is variable. (3) Flesh splitting, yellowish. (4) Gills adnate, 
crowded, thin, broad, always shining. (5) Spores dark ochraceous, 
size and color very variable; pileus from ^34 in. across; color of 
pileus changeable, depending on the more or less persistence of the 
down (fundamental color and veil constant in this species and its allies) ; 
gills varying through blood-red, reddish cinnamon, tawny saffron, golden 
and yellow. Fries. 



PileilS thin, convex, obtuse or umbonate, dry, fibrillose at least when Cortinarius. 
young. Flesh yellowish. Lamellae thin, close, adnate. Stem slen- 
der, equal, stuffed or hollow. Spores elliptical, 8/* long. Peck, 48th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 7-8x4^ Cooke. 

The Germans are said, to be very fond of this species, which is gen- 
erally stewed in butter and served with sauce for vegetables. 

Catalogued by Dr. M. A. Curtis, North Carolina, as edible. Edible. 

Var. semi-sanguiri ens received from E. B. Sterling, Trenton, N. J., 
August, 1897. Juicy and good. 

The species is common over the United States and plentiful in its 
numerous varieties from August to frost. It frequents mixed woods, 
borders and open and mossy places. The* pine woods of New Jersey 
yield it in quantity, as do the hemlock forests of Eagle's Mere, Pa., and 
oak woods of West Virginia. 

It has a smell and taste mildly of radishes. Its flavor when cooked 
is decided but pleasant. 

TEL AMO'NI A . ( Gr . lint . ) 

C. armilla'tus Yr.armilla, a ring. (Plate LXXXII, fig. 5, p. 306. ) 
Pileus 35 in. broad, red-brick color, 
truly fleshy, but not very compact, at 
first cylindrical, soon campanulate, at 
length flattened, dry, at first smooth, 
soon innately fibrillose or squamulose, 
flesh dingy pallid. Stem 3-6 in. long, 
% in. thick, solid, firm, remarkably 
bulbous (bulb I in. thick, villous, 
whitish) and fibrillose at the base, 
when old striate and reddish-pallid, 
internally dirty yellow. Exterior veil 
woven, red, arranged in 24. distant 
cinnabar zones encircling the stem; 
partial veil continuous with the upper 
zone, arachnoid, reddish-white. Gills 

adnate, slightly rounded, distant, at first pallid cinnamon, at length 
very broad ( % in.), dark ferruginous, almost bay-brown. 


(Plate LXXXVIII.) 



Cortinarins. Odor of radish. A very striking species. From the pileus not being 
hygrophanous, at the first smooth and at length torn into fibrils or 
squamulose, it might easily be taken for a species - of Inoloma. The 
cortina itself is paler than the zones. It differs from all others in these 
zones. The rings are usually somewhat oblique. Pries. 

Professor Peck in the 23d Rep. N. Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist., describes 
the American species as follows : 

"PiletlS fleshy, thick, convex or subcampanulate, then expanded, 
minutely squamulose, yellowish-red. Lamellae not close, broad, slightly 
emarginate, whitish-ochraceous, then cinnamon. Stipe stout, solid, 
fibrillose, whitish, girt with one to four red bands, bulbous. 

"Height 4-6 in., breadth of pileus 2-4 in., stipe 4-8 in. thick. 

"Woods. North Elba. August. 

"A large and noble species. The margin of the pileus is thin and 
sometimes uneven ; the upper band on the stem is usually the brightest 
and most regular. The pileus is not distinctly hygrophanous." 

Spores iox6/u. Cooke. 

Edible. Cooke. 

September 8, 1897, Mr E. B. Sterling, Trenton, N. J., sent me 
several specimens new to me and remarkable in having two well-defined 
veils, the lower and thicker one of which left a dark zone upon the 
stem, the upper, fibrillose, was more persistent, but left a fainter im- 
pression. These veils are not mentioned in Professor Peck's description 
of the American species, but are prominently noted in that of Fries, as 
above. In a very young specimen both veils were present. Cap light 
brown, minutely squamulose, with a few small red spots; margin thin, 
involute, flesh thick, yellowish, firm; gills distant, rounded behind, 
slightly emarginate, alternate ones short, light brown inclined to cinereous 
on edge. 

Spores brown. Small young specimens did not show bulbous stem 
as distinct as larger and older ones. 

I afterward found several specimens at Mr. Gretna, Pa., September 
and October, 1897. 

The flesh is excellent, closely resembling Pholiota subsquarrosa. 
The species seems to be rare. If found in quantity it will prove one of 
our very best edibles. 



C. dis'tans Pk. Pileus thin except the disk, convex, squamulose, Cortinanus. 
bay-brown when moist, tawny when dry. Lamellae broad, distant, 
thick, dark cinnamon-color. Stipe subequal, often a little tapering up- 
ward, solid, slightly fibrillose-scaly, concolorous. 

Height 2-3 in., breadth of pileus 1-2 in., stipe 4-6 in. thick. 

Grassy ground in pine woods. Greenbush. June. 

The flesh is dull-yellowish. The pileus, when drying, has for a time 
a brown-marginal zone. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

New Jersey pines. Eagle's Mere, Pa., coniferous woods. August. 
Mt. Gretna, Pa., pines. August, September. Mcllvaine. 

Like most of the hygrophanous Cortinarii, the taste is more or less 
that of rotten wood. The flavor is flat and undesirable. 

C. furfurel'lus Pk. Pileus thin, convex, furfuraceous with minute 
squamules, hygrophanous, watery-tawny when moist, pale ochraceous 
when dry. Lamellae broad, thick, distant, adnate or slightly emargi- 
nate, tawny-yellow, then cinnamon. Stem equal, peronate, colored like 
the pileus, with a slight annulus near the top. Spores subelliptical, 
minutely rough, 8-iox6/A. 

Plant 1-2 in. high. Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 2-4 lines thick. 

Moist ground in open places. Gansevoort. August. Peck, 32d 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Haddonfield, N. J., Mt. Gretna, Pa. Mcllvaine. 

Strong woody flavor like rotten wood. Not poisonous, but not 


C. casta'neus Bull. chestnut. Pileus fleshy, thin, campanulate or 
convex, then expanded, dark chestnut-color when moist, paler when 
dry. Lamellae rather broad, violet-tinged, then cinnamon. Stipe 
fibrillose, stuffed or hollow, lilac tinged at the top, white below. 

Height 2-3 in., breadth of pileus 1-2 in., stipe 3-4 lines thick. 

Ground under spruce or balsam trees. Catskill mountains. October. 
Edible. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 8x5/a. 

It is certainly a wholesome, esculent species, but a great number 
would be required to make a good dish. M ' . C, Cooke. 

Catalogued by Rev. M. A. Curtis, North Carolina, as edible. 



Cortinarius. Eaten in Italy. Inodorous, edible and agreeable. Cordier. More 
than fair. I have often eaten it. R. K. Macadam. 


Paxillus, a small stake. 

PaxUlns. Hymenophore continuous with the stem, decurrent. Gills membra- 
naceous, somewhat branched, frequently anastomosing behind, distinct 
from the hymenophore and easily separable from it. Spores dingy-white 
or ferruginous. 

Fleshy putrescent fungi, margin of pileus at first involute, then con- 
timially and gradually unfolding and expanding. Fries. 

Pileus symmetrical or eccentric. Stem central, eccentric or wanting. 
Edge of gills entire, sharp. 

The marked features of this genus are the strongly involute margin, 
the soft, tough, decurrent gills, separating readily from the flesh, and 
the color of the spores. 

The members of this genus possess some of the characters of Boletus. 
The gills separate easily from the hymenophore as do the tubes of the 
latter, and their anastomosing tendency is in P. porosus so marked that 
the hymenium consists of large angular tubes. The gills of P. solidus 
B. and C. form pores at the base, and its spores are elongated, both 
features indicating an affinity with Boletus. 


LEPISTA (a pan). Page 327. 

Pileus entire, central. Spores dingy-white, in P. panaeolus somewhat 
rust-color. On the ground. 


TAPINIA (to depress). Page -i-^.O 

Pileus generally eccentric or resupinate. Spores rust-color. On the Paxillus. 
ground or on stumps. 

So far as known the species of this genus are harmless. Many of 
them are large, fleshy and inviting in appearance, but their flesh is 
usually dry and coarse, and, though absorbent, is hard to cook tender. 
P. atrotomentosus, which seems to be rare, is an exception. The flesh 
of this species being firm in texture and readily made into a first-class 


P. lepis'ta Fr. lepista, a pan. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, flat or depressed, 
dirty-white, smooth, sometimes minutely cracked near the margin 
which is thin,. involute and often undulate. Stem very variable in length, 
1-4 in., %% in. thick, dingy white or cream, solid, white inside, 
equal, with a cartilaginous cuticle passing between the gills and the 
flesh of the pileus, base blunt, villous, white. Gills very decurrent, 
crowded, 2-3 lines broad, slightly branched but not at the base, dingy- 
white becoming darker, 

Spores reddish, becoming dingy brown. Broadly pyriforme 6x8/* 

Pennsylvania. September, 1894. Mcllvaine. Albion, N. Y., Dr. 
CnsJdng, 1898. 

On ground in woods and margins of woods. 

Flesh white. Gills narrow, crowded, brittle, decurrent, dingy-white 
or pale-buff, easily separating from cap. Stem solid, elastic, at length 
hollow, often short, an inch long, tapering downward, frequently up to 
four inches in length and equal, base villose. 

Resembling Lactarius piperatus and some forms of Clitocybe. It is 
separated from the former by the absence of milk and from the latter by 
its involute margin. The Clitocybe resembling it are all edible. 

Smell strong, like old oily nuts. Edible but coarse. 

P. li'vidus Cke. Pileus 1-2 in. across, convex, at length slightly 
depressed at the disk, margin slightly arched and incurved, dingy- 
white, or livid ochraceous, opaque. Gills decurrent, arcuate, almost 


Agaric aceae 

Paxiiius. crowded, iK line broad, white. Stem 3-4 in. long, K in. thick at the 
apex, attenuated downward, white, fibrillose, stuffed then hollow, usu- 
ally rather flexuous. Flesh nearly white. Spores globose, 3-3.5/4 
diameter, nearly white. 

In woods. Usually in small clusters. Closely allied to Paxiiius revo- 
lutus, but distinguished by the absence of any tinge of violet on the 
pileus or stem, and by the persistently white gills. Massee. 

Received from Katherine A. Hall, Danville, N. Y. October, 1898. 

Raw it tastes like a drug-store smell. Edible, pleasant. 


(Plate XC.) 

P. involu'tllS (Batsch) Fr. involutus, rolled inward. Pileus 2-5 

in. broad, fleshy, compact, con- 
vexo-plane then depressed , smooth , 
viscid when moist, shining when 
dry, yellowish or tawny-ochrace- 
ous, strongly involute, margin 
densely downy, flesh pallid. Stem 
2-4 in. high, about '2 in. thick, 
solid, firm, paler than the pileus, 
central or eccentric. Gills 2-3 
lines broad, crowded, branched, 
anastomosing, forming pores be- 
hind, whitish then yellowish or 
rusty, spotting when bniised, 

Spores rust-color, ellipsoid or 
oblong-ellipsoid 8-i6x6/n K.; 5x 
6/i W. G. S. Elliptical, 8-io/ 

It grows singly or in groups and likes damp mossy soil. Common 
in cool hemlock or spruce woods in the Adirondack mountains ; not 
rare in the mixed woods of all our hilly districts. When growing on 
decayed stumps the stem is sometimes eccentric. August, November. 
C. H. Peck. 

In open woods near Haddonfield, N. J., it grows to a large size and 
in quantity. In Angora woods near Philadelphia a complete ring of it 
20 ft. in diameter was seen. 


One-half natural size. 


Considered edible throughout Europe and said to be highly esteemed Paxiiius. 
in Russia. The flesh of the American plant is dry and coarse, does not 
cook tender and is rather tasteless. 

P. a'tro-tomento'sus (Batsch.) Fr. ater, black/ tomentum, down. 
Pileus 3-6 in. broad, rust-color or reddish-brown, compactly fleshy, 
eccentric, convex then plane or depressed, margin thin, frequently- 
minutely rivulose, sometimes tomentose in the center. Flesh white. 
Stem 3-6 in. high, /z-i in. thick, stout, solid, elastic, eccentric or 
lateral, unequal rooting, covered with dense velvety down, very dark 
brown. Grills adnate, 3 lines broad, close, anastomosing at the base, 
yellowish, interspaces venose. 

Spores subhyaline 4-6x3-4^ K. Elliptical, pale-yellowish, 5x2.5- 
3/A Massee. Elliptical 5-6x4^ Peck. 

Found near Philadelphia, gregarious in old woods. September. In 
New Jersey in pine woods on stumps and on the ground, probably 
growing from roots. Mcllvaine. 

Grows singly or cespitose, sometimes in large tufts, when the pileus is 
frequently irregular from compression. In wet weather the pileus is 
moist and sometimes obscurely mottled with dark spots. Occasionally 
it has an unpleasant dirt-like odor. Peck. 

Cordier considers this species suspicious and Paulet inutile on account 
of its bad taste. 

The flesh differs from most Paxilli in being very fine grained and 
cooked is of the consistency of a marshmallow. The taste is marked 
but pleasant. 


Series IV, PORPHYRO'SPOR-ffi (Pratelli). Gr. purple. 

Spores typically black-purple or brownish-purple, more rarely dusky 
brown. (It is to be observed that the spores vary in color according to 
the color of the ground on which they are deposited. ) There are sterile 
forms with the gills persistently white (A. obturatus, A. udus) . Those 
species are more deceptive in which the gills continue for a long time 
white, and even begin to decay before they are discolored by the spores ; 
these may be easily mistaken for Leucospori. Fries. 

Pratelli is the name given by the early authors to this series, based 
upon the spore color; Porphyrosporae is the name now used. The spe- 
cies within the group are closely allied to those having black spores 
without a tinge of purple or violet (Melanosporae), but in none of the 
species do the gills deliquesce as in Coprinus, neither are there resupi- 
nate or lateral stemmed species. 

There is a present tendency to do away with this series and include 
all dark-spored species in the Melanosporae. Professor Atkinson and 
Bertha Stoneman, in their "Provisional Key to the Genera of Hymen- 
omit the series and give " Melanosporae, Gill and Butz 
(Pratellae and Coprinariae in broadest sense). 
Spores dark brown, purplish-brown or black." 
It is frequently difficult to determine by the 
spore-color of this series even to which series a 
specimen belongs. Many of our best edibles 
belong in this series. I know of none noxious. 





Universal veil distinct from the pileus, at ma- 
turity forming a distinct volva round the base of 
the ringless central stem. Gills free from the 
stem. Spores brownish-purple. 

Analogous in structure with Volvaria and 
Amanitopsis. An exotic genus imported into 
this country. 
No American species reported. 

Two-thirds natural size. 










Agaricon, a Greek name for fungi, said to be derived from the name 

of a town, Agara. 

Pileus fleshy, flesh of the stem different from that of the pileus, fur- 
nished with a distinct ring. Gills at first enclosed by the veil, free, 
rounded behind, at first white or whitish, in some species this stage last- 
ing but a short time, then pink or reddish, at length dark purplish- 
brown from the spores. Spores brown, brownish or reddish-purple. 

On the ground, generally in pastures, meadows or manured ground, 
a few species occur in woods. 

Analogous with Lepiota of the white-spored series. Stropharia also 
bears a ring and has similar colored spores, but is separated by the flesh 
of stem and pileus being continuous and the gills being more or less 

Formerly in Agaricus as sub-genus Psalliota (psallion, psalion, in 
poetry, a ring). When Psalliota was raised to generic rank it was given 
the name of the great genus Agaricus as a mark of distinction on ac- 
count of its including the most widely known and useful mushroom of 
the world Agaricus campester. The name Psalliota is not in modern 

Old Agaricus included many subgenera and consequently many more 
species. Now it contains but few. All of them are highly flavored and of 
marked excellence. Before the subgenera under Agaricus were promoted 
to full generic standing it was customary to state the name of a species 
thus: Agaricus (Psalliota) campester. Agaricus (Stropharia) semi- 
orbicularis. This was lengthy and clumsy. In 'the older books this 
form prevails. Often, however, the subgenus is omitted before the 
name, which compels the student to look up the subgenus to which the 
species belongs. The older books are therefore puzzling to modern 
students, who find there simply the name Agaricus to guide them. The 
present genus of a known species in old Agaricus can be easily found 
by looking in the index for its specific name. The name of the genus 
follows it in parentheses. 

All of the genus can be cooked in any desired way. 




Agaricus. * Gills at first or very soon pink or rosy. 
* Gills at first brownish or gray. 
** Gills .at first white or whitish. 

* Gills at first or very soon pink or rosy. 

A. campes'ter Linn. campus, a field. (Plate XCIII, fig. 4 (3 figs.) 
XCIIItf. PileilS at first hemispherical or convex, then expanded 
with decurved margin or nearly plane, smooth, silky floccose or 
hairy squamulose, the margin extending beyond the lamellae, the flesh 
rather thick, firm, white. Lamellae free, close, ventricose, at first deli- 
cate pink or flesh color, then blackish-brown, subde liquescent. Stem 
equal or slightly thickened toward the base, stuffed, white or whitish, 
nearly or quite smooth. Ring at or near the middle, more or less lacer- 
ated, sometimes evanescent. Spores elliptical, 6-8x4-5^. 

Plant 2-4 in. high. Pileus 1-5-4 in- or more broad. Stem 4-8 
lines thick. Peck, 36th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid, 9x6/1* K.; 6x8/* W.G.S. 

The varieties of A. campester are numerous. All of them are edible 
and vary but slightly in their excellence. 

Var. at bus Berk. albus, white. A very common wild form. Cap 
2-4 in. across, smooth or slightly fibrillose. Stem 1^2-3 in. long, 
K-% in. thick, white or whitish. Spring to autumn, in rich grassy 
places. Sometimes very large. It is cultivated. 

, Var. gri'seus Pk. griseus, gray. Cap grayish, silky, shining. Rinfif 
vanishing. Reported from Virginia. 

Var. prati'cola Vitt. pratwn, a meadow; colo, to inhabit. Meadow 
variety. Cap covered with reddish scales. Flesh pinkish. Parade 
ground, Mt. Gretna, Pa. 

Var. timbri'mis Vitt. umber, dark brown. Cap brown, smooth. 
Stem short, minutely scaly. 

"Var. rufescens Berk.nifescens, becoming red. PileilS reddish, 
minutely scaly. Gills at first white. Stem elongated. Flesh turning 
bright red when cut or bruised. This departs so decidedly from the 
ordinary characters qf the type, especially in the white color of the 
young gills, that it seems to merit separation as a distinct species. ' ' Peck, 
36th Rep. 


; IWJfcra XC/il. 



Photograph by C. F. Millspaugh. 




Var. villa ticus Brond. belonging to a villa. Cap scaly. Stem scaly. Agaricus. 

Var. Jiorteri sis Cke. growing in gardens. Cap brownish or yellow- 
ish-brown, covered with fibrils or minute hairs. This is a cultivated 

"Var. Bu'channi. Cap white, smooth, depressed in center, the mar- 
gin naked. Stem stout. Ring thin, lacerated. A rare variety, some- 
times occurring in mushroom beds. 

"Var. elongdlus elongated. Long-stemmed variety. Pileus small, 
smooth, convex, the margin adorned with the adherent remains of the 
lacerated veil. Stem long, slender, slightly thickened toward the base. 
Ring slight or evanescent. This is also a variety of mushroom beds. 

"Var. vaporarius. Green-house variety (A. vaporarius Vitt. ) Pileus 
brownish, coated with long hairs or fibrils. Stem hairy-fibrillose, be- 
coming transversely scaly. Conservatories, cellars, etc. Not differing 
greatly from Var. hortensis." Peck, 36th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

The A. campester is known the world over as the common mush- 
room. It is cosmopolitan, appearing in pastures and rich places from 
spring and until long after severe frosts. It is the sweet morsel of gour- 
mets. Indirectly it has done more damage than the assembled vicious- 
ness of all other toadstools. It is by mistaking the young button forms 
of the deadly Amanita for the button forms of the common mushroom 
that most cases of fatal toadstool poisoning are brought about. It is, 
also, usually the persons who think they know the mushroom, and can 
not be deceived, that get poisoned. If two rules are observed danger 
can be avoided, (i) Never eat a fungus gathered in the woods be- 
lieving it to be the mushroom. The typical A. campester does not 
grow in the woods ; species of Agaricus somewhat resembling it do. 
(2) Look at the gills; those of the mushroom are at first a light-pink 
which rapidly, as the plant matures, darken to a dark-brown, purplish- 
brown, or purplish-black. This is due to the ripening of the spores. 
Those of the Amanita are constantly white. 

Pages could be written upon the mushroom and its culture, and reci- 
pes for the cooking of it would fill a volume. One important thing is 
omitted from them all it is culinary heresy to peel a mushroom. Much 
of the flavor lies in the skin, as it does in that of apples, apricots, 
peaches, grapes, cherries and other fruits. The mushroom should be 
wiped with a coarse flannel or towel until the skin is clean. See chapter 
on cooking, etc. 



Agaricus. Lafayette B. Mendel, in American Journal of Physiology, March, 
1898, gives the following analysis of A. campester: 

Two varieties of the common mushroom were collected in New Ha- 
ven. Fifteen specimens of one variety weighed i% ounce, an average 
weight of 43 grains each. The analysis gave : 

a. b. 

Water 87.88$ 92.20$ 

Total solids 12.12 7.80 

Total nitrogen in dry substance 4.42 4.92 

Ash in dry substance n.66 17.18 

A. COmp'tulllS Fr. comptus, gaily adorned. PileilS i-i / in. broad, 
yellowish-white, slightly fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, adpressedly 
fibrilloso-silky , becoming even. Flesh thin, soft, of the same color as 
the pileus. Stem 2 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, hollow, stuffed with floc- 
cules when young, somewhat attenuated, even, smooth, white, becoming 
somewhat light yellow. Ring medial, torn, fugacious, of the same 
color. Gills rounded-free behind, crowded, soft, broader in front, 
flesh-color then rose, not dingy-flesh-color except when old. 

Closely allied to A. campestris, but constantly distinct in its more 
beautifully colored gills. Fries. 

Cultivated ground. Menands. August. Peck, Rep. 41. 

Closely allied to A. campestris, from which it may be separated by 
its smaller size, the yellowish hue of the dry plant and by the smaller 
spores. Peck, 4ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot.. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Parade ground, with A. campester; Haddonfield, 
N. J. August to frost. Mcllvaine. 

A. comptulus appears frequently in the latitude of Philadelphia. It 
is a neat species, but not substantial in flesh. Here it usually grows 
close to the ground. The ring is very evanescent. 

Its edible qualities are those of A. campester. 

A. Sllvat'icus Schaeff. belonging to woods. Pileus thin, at first 
convex or bell-shaped, then expanded, gibbous or subumbonate, fibril- 
lose or variegated with a few thin tawny brownish or reddish-brown 
spot-like adpressed scales, whitish, brownish or smoky-gray, the disk 
sometimes tinged with red or reddish-brown, the flesh white or faintly 
reddish. Lamellae thin, close, free, narrowed toward each end, red- 



dish, then blackish-brown. Stem rather long, equal or slightly taper- Agaricus. 
ing upward, hollow, whitish. Spores elliptical, 5-6.5x4-5^. 

Plant 3-5 in. high. PileuS 2-4 in. broad. Stem 4-6 lines thick. 

Woods. Summer and autumn. Not common. Peck, 36th Rep. 
N. Y. State Hot. 

Massachusetts, Farlow; Minnesota, Johnson; California edible, H. 
and M. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. August to 
frost. In pine and mixed woods. Mcllvaine. 

Edible, Curtis. Edible, Peck. 

In taste and smell A. silvaticus resembles A. silvicola, but is stronger. 
It is a frequent but not common species in the localities where I have 
found it. Quantities of it have not occurred, but myself and friends 
have eaten it for years, knowing no distinction in effect between it and 
allied species. Its strong taste requires that it be well cooked. It does 
not lose its high flavor, which may be objectionable to some. I prefer 
using its juices as a flavoring. 

A. diminuti'vus Pk. diminutive. PileuS thin, fragile, at first con- 
vex, then plane or centrally depressed, sometimes slightly umbonate, 
whitish or yellowish, faintly spotted with small thin silky appressed 
brownish scales, the disk brownish or reddish-brown. ' Lamellae close, 
thin, free, ventricose, brownish-pink becoming brown, blackish-brown 
or black. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, 
smooth, pallid. AimulllS thin, persistent, white. Spores elliptical 5x4/^1. 

Plant 1.5-2 in. high. PileuS I-I-5 m - broad. Stem 1-2 lines 

Woods. Croghan and Sandlake, N. Y. August. Autumn. 

This is a small but symmetrical and beautiful Agaric. It is perhaps 
too closely related to the preceding species (A. silvaticus) , of which it 
may possibly prove to be a mere variety or dwarf form. Its pileus is 
quite thin and fragile. Usually the darker or reddish hue of the disk 
gradually loses itself in the paler color of the margin, but sometimes the 
whole surface is tinged with red. Peck, 36th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Chester county; W 7 est Philadelphia, Pa., September; Mt. Gretna, 
Eagle's Mere, Pa., August. Mcllvaine. 

I have found A. diminutivus so intimately associated with A. sil- 



vaticus that its being a dwarf form of the latter seemed more than prob- 
able. Its edible qualities are the same. 

A. Rod'mani Pk. Pileus rather thick, firm, at first convex, then 
nearly or quite plane, with decurved margin, smooth or rarely slightly 
cracked into scales on the disk, white or whitish, becoming yellowish 
or subochraceous on the disk, the flesh white, unchangeable. Lamellae 
close, narrow, rounded behind, free, reaching nearly or quite to the 
stem, at first whitish then pink or reddish-pink, finally blackish-brown. 
Stem short, subequal, solid, whitish, smooth below the ring, often 
scurfy or slightly mealy-squamulose above; ring variable, thick or thin, 
entire or lacerated, at or below the middle of the stem. Spores broadly 
elliptical or subglobose, generally uninucleate, 5-6x4-5^. 

Plant 2-3 in. high. Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 6 10 lines thick. 

Grassy ground and paved gutters. Astoria, L. I. Rev. W* Rodman. 
Washington Park, Albany. May to July. 

This species is intermediate between A. campestris and A. arvensis, 
from both of which it may be distinguished by its narrow gills, solid stem 
and smaller, almost globose, spores. In size, shape of the pileus and 
general appearance it most resembles A. campestris, but in the whitish 
primary color of the gills and in the yellowish tints which the pileus 
often assumes, it approaches nearer to A. arvensis. Peck, 

36th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

I can now add my own testimony to that of Mr. Rodman as to its 
edibility. Its flesh is firm but crisp, not tough, and its flavor, though 
not equal to that of the common mushroom, is nevertheless agreeable, 
and its use as food is perfectly safe. Peck, Rep. 49. 

This species has grown freely for several years at Hull and Cohasset, 
Mass. It is usually found about June ist, and is not seen again until 
early autumn. It is the handsomest mushroom I have seen, and its 
edible qualities are on a par with its appearance. Macadam. 

A. hsemorrhoida'rms Shulzer. Gr. discharging blood. Pileus 4 
in. across, reddish-brown, fleshy, ovate then expanded, covered with 
broad adpressed scales, margin at first bent inward. Flesh when broken 
immediately blood-red. Stem 4 in. high, I in. thick, soon hollow, 
fibrillose, the solid base somewhat bulbous. King superior, large. Gills 
free, approximate, crowded, rosy-flesh-color, at length purple-umber. 



Very striking, 3-4 in. high. The pileus and the white stem become 
spotted blood-red when touched. The stem when young is adpressedly 
squamulose below, when full grown mealy, becoming smooth. Fries. 

Spores purple-brown, 7-8x5;* Massee; brown, elliptical, $-6x41*. Peck. 

A rare or overlooked plant in United States, first recorded by Professor 
Peck, who found it but once, growing under a hemlock tree. Rep. 45. 

Nebraska, Clements; West Virginia; Eagle's Mere and Mt. Gretna, 
Pa. In hemlock and mixed woods. Autumn. Mcllvaine. 

Cap 2-4 in. across. Stem 3-4 in. long, up to % in. thick. 

Every part of the plant turns red and has a congested appearance 
when bruised. The flesh is white but immediately becomes red when 

It is a frequent but not common species, growing singly, or in small 

In flavor and substance it is equal to any mushroom. 

A. mari'timus Pk. Pileus very fleshy, firm, at first subglobose, 
then broadly convex or nearly plane, glabrous, sometimes slightly 
squamose with appressed spot-like scales, white becoming dingy or 
grayish-brown when old. Flesh whitish, quickly reddening when cut, 
taste agreeable, odor distinct, suggestive of the odors of the seashore. 
Lamellae narrow, close, free, pinkish becoming purplish-brown with age, 
the edge white. Stem short, stout, firm, solid, equal, sometimes bulb- 
ous, white, the annulus delicate, slight and easily obliterated. Spores 
broadly elliptic, purplish-brown, 7~8p. long, 5-6/A broad 1 . 

PileilS 2-8 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, .6 in. thick. 

Sandy soil near salt water, Lynn, Mahant and Marblehead, Mass. 
June to December. R. F. Dearborn. 

This is a very interesting and an excellent mushroom. Dr. Dearborn 
writes that he has used it on the table for fourteen years and that it is 
the only mushroom that he has ever eaten in which the stem is as good 
as the cap. He considers it the most hearty and satisfying of all the 
numerous species that he has ever eaten. Both its taste and odor is 
suggestive of the sea. The latter is quite strong, and perceptible by 
one riding along the road by whose side the mushrooms are growing. 
They sometimes grow in semicircles and attain a larger size in warm 
weather than in the colder weather of autumn. They are most abun- 
dant in August. The flesh, when cut or broken, quickly assumes a pink 
22 337 


Agaricus. or reddish hue on the freshly-exposed surface. This is a very distinctive 
character and with the maritime habitat makes the species easy to rec- 
ognize. Another species, Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Kalchb. exhibits 
a similar change of color in its wounded flesh, but is of very rare occur- 
rence with us, does not, so far as ascertained, grow near the sea, has a 
darker cap and a long hollow stem. The stem in the maritime mush- 
room is short and solid. Its collar is very slight and easily destroyed. 
Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 26, No. 2, F. 1899. 

A. Califor'nicilS Pk. Pileus at first subconical, becoming convex, 
minutely silky or fibrillose, whitish, tinged with purple or brownish- 
purple on the disk. Flesh whitish. Gills close, free, pink becoming 
purplish, then blackish-brown. Stem rather long, solid or stuffed, equal 
or tapering upward, distinctly and rather abruptly narrowed above the 
entire externally silky ring, pallid or brownish. Spores broadly ellipti- 
cal, 5-6x4-5 p.. 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g> 2 ~4 l mes thick. 

Under oak trees. Pasadena. January. McClatchie. 

This fungus is similar in size, shape and habitat to A. hemor- 
rhoidarius, but it is unlike that species in color, in the adornment of the 
pileus and in its color not changing where bruised or broken. Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club, 22-5 My. 95. 

A. Elven'sis B. and Br. Name from river Elwy, Wales, where first 
found. Tufted.' Pileus 46 in. or more across, subglobose then hemi- 
spherical, fibrillose, broken up into large persistent brown scales, areo- 
late in the center, margin very obtuse, thick, covered with pyramidal 
warts. Stem at first nearly equal, at length swollen in the center, and 
attenuated at the base, 46 in. high, 2 in. thick in the center, fibrillose 
and areolate below, nearly smooth within the pileus, solid, stuffed with 
delicate threads. Ring thick, very large, deflexed, broken here and 
there, warted in areas beneath. Gills rather crowded, H in. broad, 
free, of a brownish flesh-color. Spores elliptic oblong, 8x4/x. 

Under oak trees, etc. Edible, delicious eating. Flesh of pileus % in. 
thick, red when cut. Masses. 

California, H. and M. 

Edible. Cooke, 1891. 



A. fc^dera'tllS Berk, and Mont. confederated. Pileus fTeshy, thin, Agaricus. 
at first ovoid then bell-shaped, finally convex, somewhat umbilicate 
with the center slightly depressed, margin hanging down (when dry 
involute), fragments of the veil hanging from the margin, tawny, scaly 
with minute, scattered, white, persistent granules, 2-3 in. broad, % \% 
in. high. 

Stem stout, hollow, stuffed with fibers, gradually increasing in size 
to the base; below the ring rough from the ruptured bark, 4 in, high. 
Ring superior, broad, reflexed, torn, persistent. Gills linear, medium 
broad, at first pinkish-lilac, when adult brownish, edge white, pulveru- 
lent, adnate, gradually attenuated toward the margin. Spores dingy- 
brown, ovoid oblong, io/x long. Somewhat cespitose. Elegant. 

On the ground in pastures. July. Columbus, Ohio. Sullivant, 
Mont. Syll., p. 121. 

Edibility not reported. I have not seen this species. 

A. xylo'genus Mont. Gr. produced on wood. Pileus membrana- 
ceous, at first ovoid, then conical, bell-shaped, umbonate, finally con- 
vexo-plane, smooth, pale-yellow, center brownish, margin split, striate 
when dry, i/^ 2/ in. broad, iK in. high. Stem cartilaginous, white, 
3 in. high, K in. thick, gradually thickened toward the base, hollow. 
Ring of medium size, inferior, erect or reflexed. Gills free, remote, 
lance-shaped, rounded behind, attenuated toward the margin, pink as 
in A. campester. Spores spherical, colorless, hyaline, S~7-Sl J -- 

On dead wood. August. Columbus, Ohio. Sullivant. Mont. Syll., 
p. 122. 

Edibility not reported. I have not seen this species. 

** Gills at first brownish or gray. 

A. argen'teus Braendle of silver. Pileus thin, convex becoming 
nearly plane, slightly silky or glabrous, pale grayish- white or grayish 
brown, shining with a silvery luster when dry, the margin sometimes 
striate, at first incurved, often revolute when old. Flesh whitish, 
becoming blackish where cut. Lamellae close, free, at first brownish 
becoming blackish brown or black with age. Stem short, glabrous, 
solid, often narrowed toward the base, the annulus slight, evanescent. 
Spores broadly elliptic, 7-iOft long, 6/x, broad. 



Agaricus. Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-1% in. long, M-X in. thick. 

Lawns and grassy places in rich soil. Often associated with Stro- 
pharia bilamellata Pk. After rains from April to November. Wash- 
ington, D. C. F. J. Brcendle. 

This is a small mushroom, peculiar in having the young gills of a dark 
color and in the absence of any pink hues. The gills sometimes be- 
come moist and manifest a tendency to deliquesce. The drying speci- 
mens emit a strong but not unpleasant odor. Mr. Braendle says that 
their edible quality is excellent and that it is not impaired by drying. 
Peck, Bull. Torr. Dot. Club, Vol. 26, F. 1899. 

A. praten'sis Schaeff. a meadow. Pileus 23)^ in. across, ovoid 
then expanded, becoming smooth or sometimes broken up into scales 
more or less concentrically arranged, whitish, then grayish. Flesh 
thick in the center, thin toward the margin, white. Gills free, rounded 
behind, about K in. broad, grayish, then brown. Stem about 2 in. 
long, %% in. thick, base thickened, smooth, whitish. .Ring median, 
simple, usually deciduous. Stem becoming more or less hollow. Spores 
elliptical, apiculate, 6x3.5^. 

On pastures and woods. Distinguished by the grayish gills becoming 
brown without any intermediate 'pink or fleshy tinge, and in being 
rounded behind, the median deciduous ring, and the more or less hollow 
stem. Massee. 

California. Common. Edible. H.andM. Not elsewhere reported. 

A. achi'menes B. and C. Gr. an amber-colored plant. Pileus 4-6 
in. broad, pallid or yellowish-white, smooth like kid leather, but studded 
with warty excrescences especially toward the center. Stem 4-6 in. 
high, 3-4 lines thick, white, stuffed with floccose fibers, furnished toward 
the apex with a large deflexed ring. Gills broad, crowded at first, 
whitish then ash-colored and dingy-brown, free. Spores brownish, oval 
or ovate. . 

A splendid species allied to A. fabaceus, but differing in its pal^r 
spores, warty cap, ample ring, etc. 

On the earth. Solitary. June. S. C. Ravenel. Am. Jour. Sci. 
and Arts, 1849. 

I have not seen this species. 



A. faba'ceus Berk. relating to beans. Pileus 4-5 in- across, Agaricus. 
thin, almost submembranaceous, umbonate, conical when young, be- 
coming nearly plane as it expands, white, viscid when moist; epidermis 
smooth, tough, feeling like fine kid leather, turning yellow when bruised. 
Stem 3-4 in. high, K in. thick, white, smooth, with the exception of 
a few fibrilla, equal except at the base. Veil large, at first covering 
the gills and connecting the margin with the stem, white, externally 
floccose. Gills crowded, very thin, not ventricose, free, brown when 
young, then darker brown, at length almost black like the dark part of 
a bean flower. A fine species allied to A. arvensis. When young it 
has a peculiar but not unpleasant smell. On the ground, amongst dead 
leaves in open woods. Waynesville, September 10, 1844. Hooker's 
London Jour, of Botany, 1847. 

Described by Berkeley from specimens collected by Thomas G. Lea, 
in the vicinity of Cincinnati. 

On ground among old leaves in woods. Common. Pileus 3-4 in. 
broad. Stem 3-4 in. high. Spores brown, nucleate on one side, 
small, 5-5/^long. Morgan. 

This is among the most delicious species for the table. Fresh speci- 
mens have a distinct taste and odor of peach kernels or bitter almonds 
which is nearly lost in cooking. Am. Jour. Science and Arts, 1850. 

Ohio, Lea, Morgan; North Carolina, Curtis; South Carolina, Rave- 
nel; Massachusetts, Sprague. 

*** Gills at first whitish. 

A. arven'sis Schaeff. belonging to cultivated ground. HORSE 
tensis Scop., A. edulis Krombh., A. exquisitus Vitt.) Pileus at first 
convex or conical, bell-shaped then expanded, at first more or less floc- 
cose or mealy, then smooth white or yellowish. Flesh white. Gills 
close, free, generally broader toward stem, at first whitish, then pinkish, 
finally blackish-brown. Stem equal or slightly thickened toward the 
base, smooth, hollow or stuffed with a floccose pith; ring rather large, 
thick, the lower or exterior surface often cracked in a radiate manner. 

Plant 2-5 in. high. Pileus 3-5 in. or more broad. Stem 4-10 
lines thick. 



Agaricus. Cultivated fields and pastures. Summer and autumn. 

This species is so closely related to the common mushroom that it is 
regarded by some authors as a mere variety of it. Even the renowned 
Persoon is said to have written concerning it : " It appears to be only a 
variety of A. campestris." Fries also says that it is commonly not dis- 
tinguished from A. campestris, but that it is diverse in some respects; 
its white flesh being unchangeable, its gills never deliquescing, remain- 
ing a long time pale and not becoming dark-red in middle age. Berk- 
eley says of it: "A coarse but wholesome species, often turning yellow 
when bruised." Peck, 36th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores spheroid-elliptical, gx6p K.,- Iix6/i W. G.S.; elliptical, 8-10 
X5-6.5/* Peck. 

Indiana, H. I. Miller; Minnesota, B. L. Taylor; West Virginia, 
North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. 

Unless the numerical system of John Phoenix to express degrees of 
quality is adopted by a mycophagists' congress, and one species of 
fungus is chosen as the standard of excellence, the comparative excel- 
lence of species will never be settled. English epicures shun A. 
arvensis ; the French prefer it. Berkeley says it is inferior to the com- 
mon mushroom; Vittadini says it is very sapid and very nutritious. So 
opinion varies. Individual tastes must decide excellence. Comparison 
never will. Toadstools differ in substance, texture and taste as one 
meat or vegetable differs from another. Beef could not be chosen as 
the standard for meats, or cabbage as the standard for vegetables. 
Agaricus arvensis is good. 

A. Hiagni'ficus Pk. magnificent. (Plate XCIV. ) Pileus 5- : 5 cm. 
(2-6 in.) broad, fleshy, thick, convex, becoming nearly plane or cen- 
trally depressed, bare, often wavy and split on the margin, white or 
whitish, often brownish in the center. Flesh 1-5-2 cm. ( % in.) thick 
in the center, thin on the margin, white, unchangeable. Gills numer- 
ous, rather broad, close, free, ventricose, white becoming dark purplish 
brown with age, never pink. Stem 10-15 cm. long (4-6 in.), about 
2.5 cm. thick (i in.), firm, stuffed with cottony pith, bulbous or thick- 
ened at the base, fibrillose, striate, minutely furfuraceous (covered with 
scurf) toward the base, ringed, pallid or whitish, the ring thin, persistent, 
white. Spores small, elliptic, 5-6/u. long, 3-4/4 broad. 



Grouped by F. D. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 


A new species of Agaricus. 



Gregarious or cespitose; thin woods, Mt. Gretna, Pa. August. Agancus- 
CJiarles Mcllvaine. 

A large fine species distinguished from its near allies by the absence 
of pink hues from the gills. Mr. Mcllvaine remarks that it has an anise- 
like flavor and odor and that when young the whole fungus is tender 
and high flavored, but when full grown the caps only are edible. Peck, 
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 26, F. 1899. 

A. silvic'ola Vitt. silva, a wood; colo, to inhabit. (Plate XCIII, fig. 
2, p. 332.) (A. arvensis, var. abruptus Pk. ; now A. abruptus Pk.) 
Pileus convex or sub-bell-shaped, sometimes expanded or nearly plane, 
smooth, shining, white or yellowish. Gills close, thin, free, rounded 
behind, generally narrowed toward each end, at first whitish, then pink- 
ish, finally blackish-brown. Stem long, cylindrical, stuffed or hollow, 
white, bulbous; ring either thick or thin, entire or lacerated. Spores 
elliptical, 6-8x4-5^1. 

Plant 4-6 in. high. PileilS 3-6 in. broad. Stem 4-8 lines thick. 

Woods, copses and .groves or along their borders. Summer and 
autumn. Peck, 36th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Very good eating, though scarcely as highly flavored as the common 
mushroom. Reck. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, June to frost. Mcllvaine. 

A. s-ilvicola, by many authors considered a variety of A. campester, 
is, seemingly, becoming common. Professor Peck in 46th Rep. has 
made the abrupt bulb and its usual double veil distinctive marks which 
ally it to A. arvensis. He therefore calls it var. abruptus. As this 
book goes to press Professor Peck writes me that he concludes var. 
abruptus to be a good and distinct species. It is therefore given as 
such. While familiar with it since 1881, I never found it in quantity 
until 1898, at Mt. Gretna, Pa. There, among the straw and rubbish 
of abandoned camps on wood margins, it grew in great quantity; 
sometimes singly, at others in crowded clusters. When growing singly 
it exhibits all the characteristics of its description; when clustered, 
the stems are not always bulbous. The caps are thin but fleshy, 
brittle and bear a disproportionate width to the stem like a plate on 
a pipe stem. The cap^s when mature are usually tinged with yellow and 
are spread flat; the ring is large, often double, yellowish, often torn, 
fragments of it frequently hang from the cap margin ; the bulb when 



Agaricus. perfect is small, abrupt, as if it had once been round but the stem 
pushed into it. It has a strong spicy mushroom odor and taste, and 
makes a high-flavored dish. It is delicious with meats. It is the 
very best mushroom for catsup. Mixed with Russulae or Lactarii or 
other species lacking in mushroom flavor, it enriches the entire dish. 
The stems, excepting of the very young, are tough. 

Larvae do not infest A. silvicola. Its habit of growth shows it to be 
cultivatable. It has but one draw-back. Growing as it does in woods 
and in the presence of the poisonous Amanita, it is possible for the 
careless collector to confound the two. The Amanitae have larger bulbs, 
cups at the base, and white gills; the A. silvicola has no volva, has 
whitish gills when very young only, they become pinkish, then a marked 

A. creta'ceilS Fr. creta, chalk. Pileus 3 in. and more broad, 
wholly white, fleshy, lens-shaped-globose when young, then convexo- 
flattened, obtuse, dry, sometimes even, sometimes rivulose chiefly round 
the margin from the cuticle separating into sqtiamules. Flesh thick, 
white, unchangeable. Stem 3 in. long, 3-6 lines and more thick, hol- 
low, stuffed with a spider-web pith, firm, attenuated upward, even, 
smooth, not spotted, white. Gills free, then remote, ventricose but 
very much narrowed toward the stem, crowded, remaining long white, 
becoming dingy-brown only when old. Fries. 

Spores 3x4/1. W.G.S.; 5-6x3.51". Massee. 

Under certain conditions the spores are white. M. /. B. 

In lawns and rich ground. 

North Carolina, on earth and wood. Edible, Curtis; Minnesota, rare, 
Johnson; California, H. and M.; Ohio, Lloyd; Kentucky, Lloyd, Rep. 
4; New York, Peck, Rep. 22. 

A. Subrufes'cen-S Pk. siib, under; rufescens, becoming red. PileilS 
at first deeply hemispherical, becoming convex or broadly expanded, 
silky fibrillose and minutely or obscurely scaly, whitish, grayish or dull 
reddish-brown, usually smooth and darker on the disk. Flesh white, 
unchangeable. Lamellae at first white or whitish, then pinkish, finally 
blackish-brown. Stem rather long, often somewhat thickened or 
bulbous at the base, at first stuffed, then hollow, white; the annulus 
flocculose or floccose-scaly on the lower surface; mycelium whitish, 



forming slender branching root-like strings. Spores elliptical, 6-Jp. Agaricns. 
Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Indiana, H. I. Miller, 1898; Haddonfield, N. J., Mcllvaine. 

June 2, 1896, I found several specimens of a fungus new to me, and 
sent them to Professor Peck for identification. He pronounced it a 
dwarf form of his species A. subrufescens. The cluster grew on a flor- 
ist's compost pile at Haddonfield, N. J. Its flesh has a flavor like that 
of almonds. 

This species is now cultivated and has manifest advantages over the 
marketed species it is easier to cultivate, very productive, produces in 
less time after planting the spawn, is free from attacks of insects, carries 
better and keeps longer. 

Amateurs are likely to succeed in growing it, and to have goodly crops 
of mushrooms instead of disappointments. 

A. placo'myces Pk. Gr. a flat cake. (Plate XCIII, fig. 3, p. 332.) 
Pileus thin, at first convex, becoming flat with age, whitish, brown in 
the center and elsewhere adorned with minute brown scales. Lamella} 
close, white, then pinkish, finally blackish-brown. Stem smooth, an- 
nulate, stuffed or hollow, bulbous, white or whitish, the bulb often 
stained with yellow. Spores elliptical, 5-6.5/1* long. 

Cap 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-5 in. long, H to nearly % in. thick. 

It grows in the borders of hemlock woods or under hemlock trees 
from July to September. It has been eaten by Mr. C. L. Shear, who 
pronounces it very good. I have not found it in sufficient q-uantity to 
give it a trial. This mushroom is very closely related to the wood 
mushroom or silvan mushroom, Agaricus silvaticus, a species which is 
also recorded as edible, but which is apparently more rare in our state 
(New York) than even the flat-cap mushroom. This differs from the 
silvan mushroom in its paler color, in having the cap more minutely, 
persistently and regularly scaly, and in its being destitute of a prominent 
center. In the silvan mushroom thte scales, when present, are few, and 
they disappear with age. Peck, 48th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mrs. E. C. Anthony, Gouverneur, N. Y., June, 1898, writes: "In 
great abundance on lawn, tumbling over one another in their haste to 
make their appearance. One of the largest, which did not have half a 
chance to display its proportions, would probably measure 7 in., per- 
haps more. When mature they crack across the top, showing the white 



Agaricus. flesh. The gills are pink, stem white, solid and bulbous. There is no 
perceptible odor when fresh." 

Indiana, H '. I. Miller, edible, good. 

Specimens sent to me by Mrs. Anthony, though not fresh, were eaten 
by me. They very much resembled the common mushroom, but proba- 
bly, owing to their condition, were not so tender. 

I have not found the species. The illustration is after a painting by 
Mrs. E. C. Anthony, 

A. varia'bilis Pk. variable. (Plate XCIII, fig. i, p. 332.) Cap 
2-6 in. across, ovate, bell-shaped, irregularly convex and wavy, margin 
incurved but never striate, smooth, minutely fibrillose, with few remain- 
ing floccose scales; mature plant pure white, when young distinctly 
tinged with lilac and here and there with yellow when mature, slightly, 
broadly umbonate and depressed around umbo, cracks along gills. 
Flesh thick in center, very thin, even membranaceous toward, margin, 
spongy, unchangeable. Gills free, close, thin, flaccid, ventricose, nar- 
row next stem, but few short, pure-white when young, then dark-umber 
without purple tinge. Stem equal, tubed, white, silky, smooth above 
ring, rippled and minutely furfuraceous (scurfy) below, flocculose-fur- 
furaceous when young, densely hairy at base, and occasionally slightly 
expanding, but not bulbous, densely cespjtose with a coarse, white, 
root-like mycelium. Veil heavy at first, mottled with yellow scales be- 
neath ; as cap expands veil becomes, thin, like tissue paper, ruptures at 
both stem and margin leaving torn ring on stem and appendiculate frag- 
ments on edge of cap. 

Spores shed in great quantity, rich dark umber-brown without shade 
of purple. 

Taste strong like almond. Smell slightly of musk, like the* running 
mycelium of A. campester. 

Found at Mt. Gretna, Pa. Charles Mcllvaine. 

I have never found worms in this species. It is very prolific and its 
habitat shows that it can be cultivated. Its freedom from worms and 
lasting carrying quality will make it commercially valuable. 

It grew in an old roofless stable from September until after several 
frosts, in enormous quantity, 25 or 3.0 pounds in a patch. It differs 
from A. subrufescens in not having a shade of red about it, in its very 
distinct light-lilac cap when full grown, and in its snow-white youth. 



The young gills are pure white as are the caps. The stems sometimes Agaricus. 
taper upward, but they are usually remarkably equal. 
It is delicate when cooked and of excellent flavor. 

A. tabula'ris Pk. relating to boards. Pileus 5-10 cm. broad, very 
thick, fleshy, firm, convex, deeply cracked in areas, whitish, flesh whit- 
ish, tinged with yellow, the areas pyramidal, truncate, the sides hori- 
zontally striate, their apices sometimes tomentose. LamellaB narrow, 
close, free, blackish-brown when mature. Stem short, thick, solid. 
Spores broadly elliptical, 7. 5-90, long, 6-7. 5/* broad, generally contain- 
ing a single large nucleus. 

In clay soil by roadsides. Craig, Colorado. August. E. Bethel. 

This species is remarkable for the peculiar upper surface of the pileus 
which is broken into pyramidal areas. The sides of these are marked 
by parallel lines in such a way that they appear as if formed by small 
tablets placed one upon another, each successive tablet being a little 
smaller than the one immediately preceding it. Only dried and broken 
specimens have been seen by me and the notes of the collector do not 
give the color of the young lamellae. There is a trace of a thick ring on 
the broken stem of one specimen. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 
25, No. 6, 1898. 

Not elsewhere reported. Edible qualities not given. 




PUosace. Hymenium differentiated from the stem. Gills free from the stem ; 

general and partial veil both absent, 

(Plate > CV.) hence there is no ring on the cen- 

tral stem. Spores purple-brown. 
A peculiar genus, with the habit 
of Agaricus, but without a trace of 
a ring. Massee. 

P. eximius Pk., 24th Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. , is the only species thus 


far reported in America. Edible qualities unknown. 


Gr. a sword-belt. (Referring to the ring. ) 

stropharia. Flesh of stem and pileus continuous. Veil present, when ruptured 
forming a distinct ring on the stem. Gills more or less adnate. 

On the ground or epiphytal. 

Separated from all the genera of the purple-spored series but Agari- 
cus by the presence of a distinct ring, and from that by the continuity 
of flesh in stem and pileus, and by the gills not being free. Pileus 
somewhat fleshy, sometimes viscid. 

The species belonging to this genus are rather small, and from their 
habitats are frequently passed or overlooked. Yet many of them are 
common and plentiful. Those which have been tested are excellent and 
worth seeking in their season. The entire genus has been under a 
cloud. Writers upon it assert some of its members to be dangerously 
poisonous. So far as carefully tested by the writer no doubtful one has 



been encountered, and one semiglobata has been eaten by himself stropharia. 
and friends since 1881, notwithstanding its dangerous reputation. 

The division between this genus and Agaricus is not always sharply 
defined. S. aeruginosa, S. semiglobata and S. stercoraria were formerly 
placed in Psalliota, now Agaricus. 


A. VISCIPELLES (yiscum, bird-lime; pellis, a skin). Page 349. 

Pellicle of the pileus even or scaly, generally viscid. 
* Mundi mnndns, clean. Not growing on dung. 
** Merdarii merda, dung. Ring often incomplete. 

B. SPINTRIGERI (Stropharia spintriger). 
Pileus without a pellicle, but fibrillose, not viscid. None known to 

be edible. 

A. VISCIPELLES. Pellicle of the pileus even or scaly. 
* Mun'di not growing on dung. 

S. fierugmo'sa Curt. czrugo, verdigris, 
compact, convex-bell-shaped then 
flattened, somewhat umbonate (ob- 
tuse when larger), with very viscid 
pellicle, the ground color yellowish 
but verdigris from the azure-bhte 
slime with which it is more or less 
covered over, becoming pale as the 
slime separates. Stem hollow, soft, 
equal, at the first scaly or fibrillose 
below the ring, viscid, becoming more 
or less aztire-blue green . Ring distant. 
Gills adnate, plane, 2 lines and more 
broad, not crowded, soft, whitish 
then dusky, becoming somewhat pur- 

Pileus fleshy, but not 
(Plate XCVI.) 

Natural size. (After Stevenson.) 

The above are the essential marks of this species. 


Variable in form, 


Stropharia. sometimes cespitose. The typical and handsomest form is gathered in 
soaking weather in later autumn in shaded woods; it is large (pileus 
and stem 3 in. and more), stem squarrose with white spreading scales, 
intensely verdigris or azure-blue-pelliculose and very glutinous. From 
this there is a long series of forms with the gluten more separating (on* 
the separation of the gluten the pileus becomes yellow), and the scales 
alike of the pileus and stem rubbed off. Finally, a smaller form occurs 
in open meadows, stem scarcely 2 in. long, only 2 lines thick, becoming 
azure-blue-green and without scales, pileus 12 in. broad, pale verdigris 
soon light yellowish, less viscid. In this form the ring is incomplete, 
while in the typical form it is entire, spreading, and persistent. 

In woods, meadows, etc. Common. July to November. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid or spheroid-ellipsoid, 8x4-^ K.; SX//A W.G.S.; 
elliptical, 10x5/4 Massee. 

POISONOUS. Stevenson. 

"There is a white variety, in which the pileus is perfectly white from 
the first." Cooke. 

S. aeruginosa has been noted here by Schweinitz in Pennsylvania, 
Curtis in North and South Carolina, Frost in Vermont and Massachu- 
setts, Harkness .and Moore, California, Morgan, Ohio. The qualities 
of the American representatives are not reported. I have not seen the 
species. As it is asserted to be poisonous by European writers it may 
be. M. C. Cooke says: "It has the reputation, which is somewhat 
general on the continent, of being poisonous, but probably this is only 
assumed from its disagreeable taste and repulsive appearance." Collect- 
ors are cautioned to look out for it, and not to eat of it carelessly. 

I can find no case of poisoning by this species reported. It presents 
another case of "Not proven." 

** Merda'rii ring often incomplete. 

S. Stercora'ria Fr. stercus, dung. Pileus I in. broad, yellow, fleshy, 
but thin at the margin, hemispherical then expanded, obtuse, orbicular, 
with a viscid pellicle, naked, smooth, even or at length slightly striate 
only at the margin. Stem 3 in. and more long, 23 lines thick, stuffed 
with a separate fibrous pith, equal, clpthed to the ring (which is scarcely 
i in. distant from the pileus, viscous, narrow, but somewhat spreading) 
with the flocculose veil which is at the same time viscous (so that it 



appears as if smooth), yellow. Gills adnate, very broad behind, 2 stropharia. 
lines broad, somwhat crowded, dusky-umber or dusky-olivaceous, of 
one color, quite entire. 

Stem silky-viscous when moist, when dry becoming even, shining and 
yellowish-white, and without a manifest veil. The gills are truncate and 
somewhat decurrent. Fries. 

Spores 17x13^ W.G.S.; elliptical, 1 8-20x8- 1 o/x Massee. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885; Pennsylvania; New Jersey. June to No- 
vember. Mcllvaine. 

I have enjoyed this species, which is common, since 1881. It is 
usually conspicuous upon droppings and manure piles. It also occurs 
on richly-manured ground, in wood and field, usually single; some- 
times two or three are united. 

Caps and stems are edible, but do not cook in the same time. It is 
better to cook the caps only. They are delicious. 

Pileus com- 

(Plate XCVIrz.) 

S. semigloba'ta Batsch. semi, half; globus, a ball, 
monly % in. broad, lig Jit-yellow, slightly 
fleshy, hemispherical, not expanded, very 
obtuse, even, viscous. Stem about 3 in. 
long, i line thick, tubed, slender, firm and 
straight, equal, even, smooth, becoming 
yellow, paler at the apex, powdered with 
the spores, otherwise smeared with the 
glutinous veil which is abrupt above ter- 
minating in an incomplete (not membra- 
naceous) viscous, distant ring. Gills ad- 
nate, very broad, plane, clouded with black. 

Spores dusky-purple. Stevenson. 

Spores blackish-purple, I3x8/u, W.G.S.; elliptical, ends rather acute, 
12x6^. Massee. 

Grows on dung, rich lawns and pastures. April to November. A 
common, frequent, solitary species, easily recognized by its hemi- 
spherical cap, dark mottled gills. At first sight it resembles* Naucoria 

The caps are equal to any mushroom. I have eaten it since 1881. 
M. C. Cooke says : "It was Sowerby who drew attention to this species 


Natural size. (From Massee.) 



stropharia. as dangerous, and intimated that it had been fatal. Since that period 
we are not aware of any further evidence against it. 
It is tender, good and harmless. 


Gr. a web; Gr. a fringe. 

( Plate XCVIa.) 

Hyphoioma. Pileus more or less fleshy, margin at first incurved. Veil webby, ad- 
hering in fragments to the margin of 
the pileus, not forming a distinct ring 
on the stem. Stem fleshy, similar 
in substance to that of the pileus with 
which it is continuous. Gills at- 
tached to the stem, sometimes with a 
notch at the juncture (emarginate), 
occasionally separating and then ap- 
pearing to be free. 

Generally cespitose, mostly grow- 
ing on wood above or under the 

Spores brownish -purple, some- 
times intense-purple, almost black. 

Corresponding to Tricholoma, En- 
toloma and Hebeloma. 

Natural size. 




FASCICULARES (H. fascicularis). Page 354. 
Pileus tough, smooth, bright colored, not hygrophanous. Hyphoioma. 

VlSClDl (viscidus, viscid). 
Pileus naked, viscid. None known to be edible. 

VELUTINI (H. velutinus). Page 360. 
Pileus silky or streaked with small fibers. 

FLOCCULOSI (floccus, a lock of wool). 

Pileus covered with superficial floccose scales, at length disappearing. 
(None reported edible.) 

APPENDICULATI (//". appendiculatus) . Page 362. 
Pileus smooth, hygrophanous. 

Members of this purple-spored genus grow upon decayed wood, 
either standing or as roots in the ground, or from ground heavily laden 
with woody material. They grow singly, in groups, or in densely- 
tufted or overlapping masses. The several species vary in shades of 
yellow, red, orange, brick-color and brown; their caps are from i 6 in. 
across ; their stems are short or long, as the number in the cluster per- 
mits ; when growing singly the stems are short and sturdy. There is a 
floccose veil, or remnants of one, about the stem. The gills are yel- 
lowish, greenish, olivaceous or greenish shades of yellow, gray, purple, 
almost black. They are showy, easily recognized and are found from 
September until mid-winter. I have gathered them when frozen hard. 
The flesh is solid, or spongy, flexible or fragile, white or yellowish; the 
tastes are sweet, nutty, bitter and saponaceous. Patches of them and 
they are frequent in almost every woods in the land often yield several 
bushels. Tons of them annually go to waste. 

Old authors and some copyists say "the species are not edible, the 
tough ones being bitter, the fragile ones almost void of flesh." Eighteen 
years of experience with them warrants my saying that there is not a 
single wild genus approaching it in economic value, and when its most 
prominent species are properly cooked, few equal it in consistency and 
flavor. As a pickle the Hypholomas have no superior. 
23 ' 353 


Hyphoioma. Half a dozen or more of the species are exceedingly difficult to sep- 
arate. Professor Peck has happily made a new species, H. perplexum, 
which is well named. For all culinary purposes these affiliated species 
may be gathered under that convenient name ; for botanic purposes his 
description covers several perplexing characteristics common to what 
have been written as separate species, and covers a composite species. 

The occasional bitter taste of some species is not constant, and can 
not be relied upon as a distinguishing mark. In the same tufts some 
individuals may be mild, others bitter; some individuals in groups are in 
a position and of an age to absorb water ; others are not. There will 
be a marked difference in their taste raw. A few in the same group may 
have been infested by insects ; others not. Those infested are often in- 
tensely bitter, while their companions are of pleasant flavor. The same 
remarks apply to neighboring clusters and individuals. I am of the 
opinion, from long observation, that the bitter is largely due to the in- 
jury and excrement of larvae. Changes of taste occur in toadstools in 
a most marked and rapid manner. Apples from the same tree, chest- 
nuts from the same tree, acorns from the same oak, radishes from the 
same seed, blackberries from the same bush, differ widely in taste. Why 
not toadstools of the same species? 

I have often seen species of this genus, described as having stems up 
to 5 in. long, stretch and twist their stems to over a foot in order to get 
their caps from the inside of, or from a crack in a decaying stump, out into 
the light; and I have seen stems of the same species stout, solid and 
sturdy when individuals grew upright and singly. But wherever and 
however they grow, Hypholomas are safe. I have eaten them indis- 
criminately since 1 88 1, and as long ago as 1885 published their edibility. 

FASCICULA'RES. Pileus smooth, etc. 

H. perplex'um Pk. perplexus, perplexed. Perplexing Hyphoioma. 
(Plate XCVII, fig. 2, p. 352.) Pileus convex or nearly plane, gla- 
brous, sometimes broadly and slightly umbonate, reddish or brownish- 
red fading to yellow on the- margin, the flesh white or whitish. La- 
mellae thin, close, slightly rounded at the inner extremity, at first pale- 
yellow, then tinged with green, finally purplish-brown. Stem nearly 
equal, firm, hollow, slightly fibrillose, whitish or yellowish above, rusty- 
reddish or reddish-brown below. Spores elliptical, purplish-brown, 

354 f 


The Perplexing Hypholoma has received the name because it is one Hyphoioma. 
of a group of five or six very closely allied species, whose separation 
from each other is somewhat difficult and perplexing. Of these six 
species three have a decidedly bitter, unpleasant flavor, and three are 
mild, or not decidedly bitter, if we may rely on the published descrip- 
tions of them. The three bitter ones, also, have no purplish tints to 
the mature gills; but two of the mild ones have. By using these and 
other distinguishing characters the six species may be tabulated and 
their several peculiarities more clearly shown. 

Taste bitter I 

Taste mild, or not clearly bitter 3 

I. Stem solid or stuffed, flesh whitish, gills whitish, then 

sooty-olive sublateritium 

I . Stem hollow, flesh yellow 2 

2. Cap yellow or tinged with tawny, stem yellow, gills 

yellow, becoming greenish fasciculare 

2. Cap brick-red, stem ferruginous, gills green, becom- 
ing olive elaeodes 

3. Cap red or brick-red, with a yellow margin; gills yel- 
low, then greenish, finally purplish-brown perplexum 

3. Cap yellow, or slightly tawny on the disk only 4 

4. Gills gray, becoming purplish-brown capnoides 

4. Gills yellow, becoming gray, neither green nor pur- 
plish epixanthum 

Probably in general appearance the Perplexing hypholoma most 
nearly resembles the brick-red Hypholoma, H. sublateritium; but it has 
often been mistaken for the tufted Hypholoma, H. fasciculare. From 
this it may be separated by the more red cap, the whitish flesh, the 
purplish-brown color of the mature gills, and the mild flavor. FromH. 
sublateritium it is distinguished by its usually smaller size, more slender 
hollow stem, the yellow greenish and purplish tints of the gills, and the 
absence of a bitter flavor. Some may prefer to consider it a variety of 
this fungus, rather than a distinct species. 

Its cap is 1-3 in. broad, its stem 2-3 in. long and 2-4 lines thick. 
It commonly grows in clusters, though sometimes singly, on or about 
old stumps or prostrate trunks of trees, in woods or open places. The 
caps of the lower ones in a cluster are often defiled and apparently dis- 
colored by the spores that have lodged on them from the upper ones. 



Hyphoioma. It appears in autumn, and continues until freezing weather stops its 
growth. It is a very common species, as well as a late one, and may 
often be gathered in large quantity. Its flavor is not first quality, but 
with good preparation it makes a very acceptable dish. It has been 
tested by myself and correspondents several times, and has been proved 
harmless. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885; New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsyl- 
vania, October to January. On stumps, roots, ground containing de- 
cayed woody matter. Mcllvaine. 

H. perplexum is abundant in most if not all the states. I have eaten 
it and its allied species since 1881 ; dried them, pickled them, and fed 
them to many. If the collector gets puzzled, as he will, over one or 
all of these species, because no description fits, he can whet his patience 
and appetite by calling it H. perplexum and graciously eating it. 

H. capnoi'des Fr. Gr. like smoke, from the color of the gills. 
Pileus I in. sometimes 3 in. broad, ochraceous-yellowisJi, fleshy, convex, 
then flattened, obtuse, dry, smooth. Flesh somewhat thin, white. Stem 
23 in. long, 24 lines thick, growing together at the base, hollow, 
equal, often curved and flexuous, becoming silky-even, pallid, whitish at 
the apex, here and there striate, becoming rust-colored under the surface- 
covering when old. Cortina appendiculate, white, then becoming 
brownish-purple. Gills adnate, easily separating, somewhat crowded, 
rather broad, arid, at first bluish-gray then becoming brownish-purple. 

Cespitose, fasciculate; odor and taste mild. On pine-stumps. Un- 
common. Fries. 

Spores ellipsoid-spheroid, 7x5/4 K.; elliptical, brownish-purple, 8x4^ 

California, H. and M.; Minnesota, not necessarily in fir-woods, Jolm- 
son; New York, on or about stumps or decaying wood of spruce. Peck, 
50th Rep. 

Haddonfield, N. J., 1894. Pine roots and stumps, and on ground. 
Cespitose. September to frost. Mcllvaine. 

A pretty species with caps up to \% in. across. Stem 2-4 in. long, 
%% in. thick, growing together (connate). The taste and smell are 
pleasant. The basket is soon filled from its clusters. There is not a 
better Hyphoioma. The slightly soapy taste which attaches to most of 
the abundant and better known species is absent in this. 



H. fascicula'ris Huds. fasciculus, a small bundle. (Plate XCVIII, 
P- 352.) PileilS about 2 in. broad, light yellow, the disk commonly 
darker, fleshy, thin, convex, then flattened, somewhat umbonate or 
obtuse, even, smooth, dry. Flesh light yellow. Stem very variable 
in length, hollow, thin, incurved or flexuous, fibrillose, of the same 
color as the pileus and flesh. Gills adnate, very crowded, linear, some- 
what deliquescent, sulphur-yellow then becoming green. 

It is very easily distinguished from the preceding species by its bitter 
odor and taste, light-yellow flesh, and somewhat deliquescent, sulpJiur- 
yellow then green gills. It forms also more crowded clusters. There 
are many remarkable varieties ; one robustior ( more robust ) , stem 
thickened at the base, another nana (dwarf), both on the ground. 

Cespitose on old stumps and the ground. Extremely common. 

Spores elliptical, 7x4^ Massee; 67x4/1, K.; 6x4^ W.G.S.; ferrugin- 
ous purple, 6x4/i Morgan. 

"It is very usual to regard this as a poisonous species, but possibly 
it is not so in reality." Cooke. 

West Virginia, 1881, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina, 

A very common species appearing in October and lasting until well 
into the winter, growing in large, overlapping masses or in tufts from 
old stumps or roots, and about trees where decay has begun. Some- 
times solitary. It is then short-stemmed and sturdy. There are sev- 
eral closely allied species. To know the one from the other, a careful 
study of the group is necessary. (See introduction to genus, H. 
epixanthum, H. sublateritium, H. capnoides, H. elaeodes, and H. per- 
plexum.) Old authors give it as bitter and poisonous. The bitter is 
not always present. Any there is disappears in cooking. It is not 
poisonous, but one of our most valuable species. I have eaten it since 
1 88 1. A little lemon juice or sherry will cover the slightly saponaceous 
taste sometimes present. The caps only are good. It makes a choice 
pickle and a good catsup. 

H. epixan'thum Fr. Gr. epixanthos, yellowish-brown. Pileus 2-3 
in. broad, light-yellow or becoming pale, the disk commonly darker, 
fleshy, moderately thin, convexo-plane, obtuse or gibbous, even, slightly 
silky then becoming smooth. Flesh white, becoming light-yellow. Stem 



Hyphoioma. about 8 in. long, 34 lines thick, hollow, attenuated from the thickened 
base or equal, floccose-fibrillose , pale rust color or becoming dingy-brown 
below, with a frosty bloom at the apex ; veil hanging from margin of 
pileus, white. Gills adnate, crowded, at first light yellow-white, at 
length becoming ash-colored, not deliquescent, and not becoming purple 
or green. 

Strong smelling, odor acid ; extremely variable in stature ; not hy- 
grophanous. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, 7x4^ Massee. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina. On oak, 
chestnut stumps and growing from tree roots in ground. October to 
December. Mcllvaine. 

(See H. perplexum, H. sublateritium and compare descriptions.) 

This species, in common with its allies, is extremely hard to deter- 
mine. When growing singly from roots or from ground heavily charged 
with decaying wood, it is a sturdy, solid plant; when in clusters the 
stem is longer, more flexible and the whole character of the plant is 
modified. Except for botanic purposes there is no occasion to puzzle 
over it. It is in every way an excellent and useful fungus. 

H. disper'sus Fr. dispergo, to scatter. Pileus i-i/ in. broad, 
tawny-honey-color, not hygrophanous, slightly fleshy, bell-shaped then 
convex, at length expanded, even, superficially silky round the margin 
with the veil, or squamulose, otherwise even and smooth. Flesh thin, 
a little paler than the pileus. Stem 2 in. or a little more long, 2 lines 
thick, tubed, equal, tense and straight, tough, fibrilloso- silky , somewhat 
rust-colored, becoming dingy-brown at the base, pale at the apex. 
Gills adnate, thin, ventricose, broad, 3-4 lines, crowded, at first pallid- 
straw color, at length crowded, obsoletely green. Fries. 

Gills broader than H. fascicularis, etc. Solitary, scarcely ever ces- 
pitose. On pine stumps and the ground. April to November. 

Spores elliptical, 7x3-4^ Massee. 

North Carolina, in pine woods, Curtis; California, H. and M.; West 
Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New Jersey, Mcllvaine. 

Difficult to distinguish from H. fascicularis when growing solitary. 
Its edible qualities are precisely the same. 

H. elseo'des Fr. Gr. an olive; Gr. eidos, appearance. Pileus 



brick-red or tan, fleshy, rather plane, somewhat umbonate, dry, smooth, Hyphoioma. 
opaque. Flesh yellow. Stem stuffed then hollow, equal, commonly 
slender, incurved or flexuous, fibrillose, of the same color as the pileus, 
becoming rust-color. Gills adnate, crowded, thin, green then pure 

Cespitose. Odor bitter. On trunks and on the ground. Fries. 

Cap 1-2 in. across. Stem 2-4 in. long, %-% in. thick, stuffed 
then hollow. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885, Haddonfield, N. J.; Pennsylvania. On 
stumps, roots and ground in woods, etc. Mcllvaine. Not reported 

Its habit is the same as H. fascicularis, to which it is closely allied, 
and to me seems but a form of this very variable species. It is equally 

H. sublateri'tium Schaeff. sub and later, a brick. (Plate XCVII, 
fig- 3 P- 35 2 -) Pileus 2-3 in. and more broad, tawny-brick-red, but 
paler round the margin and covered over with a superficial, somewhat 
silky, whitish cloudiness (arising from the veil), fleshy, convexo-plane, 
obtuse, discoid, dry, even, becoming smooth. Flesh compact, white, 
then becoming yellow. Stem 3-4 in. long, 3-5 lines thick, stuffed, 
stout and firm, commonly manifestly attenuated downward, rarely equal, 
scaly-fibrillose , fibrils pallid, rust-colored downward. Cortina superior, 
at first white, at length becoming black. Gills adnate, more or less 
crowded according to stature, narrow, at first dingy-yellowish and darker 
at the base, then sooty, and at length inclining to olivaceous. 

Spores brownish purple. Somewhat cespitose. Stem incurved from 
position. There are many varieties: B, somewhat solitary, the pileus 
and stem, which is thickened at the base, of the same color, reddish. 
C, smaller, pileus light yellowish, the hollow stem equal. Schaeff. 

Var. sqnamo'sum, Cooke. Pileus convex, bright brick-red, shading 
to yellow at the margin, spotted with superficial scales. Flesh very 
thick, yellowish. Gills narrowish, adnate. Stem elongated, stout, pale 
above, rust-colored below, hollow, veil hanging from the margin when 

On trunks. A very beautiful variety, larger and more robust than 
the typical form. Massee. 

Spores 6x3/x. W.G.S.; elliptical, sooty-brown, 8x4/4 Massee 



Hyphoioma. West Virginia, 1881-1885; Pennsylvania, New Jersey, densely ces- 
pitose on stumps and roots. October to long after frosts. Mcllvaine. 

Edible. Dr. Taylor, 1893. Dept. of Agr. Rep. No. 5. 

H. sublateritium has many forms. Both Fries and Stevenson indi- 
cate this as a variable species and my own observation confirms the 
truth of this. 

This is a very common autumnal species, lasting into the winter. Old 
authors give it as bitter and very poisonous. I tested it in 1881 and 
have been eating it, in common with all Hypholomas I have found, ever 
since. At times it is bitter. I believe this to be due to the passage of 
larvae through the flesh. Unattacked specimens are slightly saponaceous 
to the taste while others in the same bunch are bitter. 

VlS'CIDI. Pileus viscid, etc. (None known to be edible.) 
Velutini. Pileus silky, etc. 

H. veluti'miS Pers. vellus, a fleece. Velvety. Pileus fleshy, thin, 
convex or expanded, brittle, minutely tomentose-scaly, becoming 
smooth, hygrophanous, yellow with the disk reddish. Lamellae rather 
broad, attached, tapering toward the outer extremity, dark brown tinged 
with red, the edge whitish-beaded. Stem equal, rather slender, hollow, 
fibrillose, subconcolorous, white-mealy and slightly striate at the top. 
Spores black. 

Height about 2 in., breadth of pileus 1-1.5 m - 

Roadsides. Albany Cemetery. September. The pileus sometimes 
cracks transversely. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores 6x8/x, W.G.S.; elliptical, 10x5/1* Massee. 

Often used in catsup. Innocent and edible. Cooke. 

West Virginia. 1881-1885, Pennsylvania, West Philadelphia, Bart- 
ram's Creek, 1887, Mcllvaine. 

Var. leiocepli alus B. and Br. (GV. smooth; Gr. head, from its 
smooth pileus). Pileus hygrophanous, rugged, smooth except at the 
margin, where it is fibrillose, pallid as is the stem, whose apex is mealy. 

Densely cespitose, much smaller than the common form, but ap- 
parently a mere variety, though a striking one from its smooth but very 
rugged disk. On old stumps. Stevenson. 

New York, Peck, 23d Rep. ; West Virginia, West Philadelphia, Bart- 
ram's Creek, Haddonfield, N. J., September to November. Mcllvaine. 



Quantities of var. leiocephalus grow in the West Virginia forests on Hyphoioma. 
stumps and on the ground from decaying roots. \% in. is the limit of 
its width. Its frequent and dense clusters, its tenderness and deli- 
cacy of flavor make it a favorite. 

H. aggrega'tum Pk. aggrego, to grow together. Densely cespitose. 
PileilS thin, convex or subcampanulate, grayish-white, obscurely spotted 
with appressed brownish fibrils. Lamella? subdistant, rounded behind, 
nearly free, at first whitish, then brown or blackish-brown with a whitish 
edge. Stem rather long, hollow, somewhat woolly or fibrillose, white. 
Spores brown, elliptical, 8x4-5^. 

Pileus about i in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 1.5-2 lines thick. 

At the base of trees and stumps in woods. Alcove. September. 

The cespitose habit and obscurely spotted grayish-white pileus are 
marked features of this species. From H. silvestre the species may be 
distinguished by its smaller size, adnexed or nearly free lamellae which 
have no rosy tint, and by its very cespitose mode of growth. Peck, 
46th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., about trees and stumps. September to November, 
1898-1899. Mcllvaine. Not reported elsewhere. 

The caps are oyster-color. Amateurs accustomed to the gayer colors 
of the autumnal Hypholomas will not suspect this of belonging to the 
genus, until the color of the spores is obtained. 

The caps are fine. 

H. lachrymabun'duni Fr. lachryma, a tear. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, 
whitish when young, then dingy-brown, becoming pale around the mar- 
gin, truly fleshy but not compact, convex, obtuse, scaly with hairs, the 
innate scales darker. Flesh white. Stem 2 in. long, 3-4 lines thick, 
hollow, somewhat thickened at the base, scaly with fibrils, becoming 
brownish-whitish. Veil separate, clothed with fibers, hanging from the 
pileus, white. Gills adnate, crowded, 3 lines broad, whitish then 
brownish-purple, edge whitish and distilling drops in wet weather. 

Spores brownish-purple. From mutual pressure the caps are often 
irregular. Very cespitose, firm. Fries. 

Spores brownish-purple, 9x41". Massee. 

On ground and on trunks. Truly cespitose. Smaller than H. velu- 


Hyphoioma. tinus, but firmer, truly fleshy, not hygrophanous. Bushy pastures. 
Bethlehem. October. 

Our specimens do not agree in all respects with the published de- 
scription of the species. The pileus is sometimes wholly destitute of 
scales and sometimes densely clothed with hairy, erect ones. The species 
is manifestly variable. Peck, 3Oth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

" Like H. fascicularis in quality. Intensely irritant. It is bound with 
the weight of its own guilt." Hay. 

This is a good specimen of Hay's comments. H. fascicularis is never 
irritant, is good eating, is innocent. 

There is irony in the comment of Dr. Cooke: "This doubtful spe- 
cies is used by the smaller ketchup makers." 

I have not seen this species. When I do I shall eat it and expect to 

APPENDICULA'TI. Pileus hygrophanous, smooth. 

H. incer'tum Pk. (Plate XCVIII.) Pileus fragile, convex or sub- 
campanulate, then expanded, hygrophanous, often radiately wrinkled, 
whitish with the disk yellowish, the thin margin sometimes purplish- 
tinted, often wavy, adorned by fragments of the white flocculent fuga- 
cious veil. Lamellae close, narrow, whitish then rosy-brown, the edge 
often uneven. Stem equal, straight, hollow, easily splitting, whitish 
with a frosty bloom or slightly scurfy at the top. Spores elliptical, 
purplish-brown, 8x5^*. 

Plant gregarious or subcespitose, 2-3 in. high. Pileus 1-2 in. 
broad.' Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Ground among bushes. Green Island and Sandlake. June and July. 

The veil is sometimes so strongly developed as to form an imperfect 
ring. The color is nearly white from the first. Peck, 2Qth Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

As the name indicates, I was uncertain whether this was a form of H. 
Candolleanum, to which it is very closely related, but as Fries says of 
that "Gills at first violaceous," and as our plant has them at first white 
or whitish, I concluded to risk the uncertainty on a new species. 

I have seen Central Park, New York, well covered with it in May. It 
is also common in the vicinity of Boston. Of very agreeable flavor and 
delicate substance. The profusion of its growth compensates for its 
small size. Macadam. 








Indiana, H. I. Miller; Mt. Gretna, Pa., in great clusters between Hyphoioma. 
railroad ties and beside track, Mcllvaine. 
Tender. One of the best. 

H. appendicilla'tum Bull. a small appendage. From the veil ad- 
hering to margin of pileus. (Plate XCVII, p. 352.) Pileus 2-3 in. 
broad, date-brown then tawny, becoming pale yellowish when dry, 
fleshy-membranaceous, thin, ovate then expanded, at length flattened, 
obtuse, smooth, when dry slightly wrinkled, somewhat sprinkled with 
atoms. Stem 3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick, fistulose, equal, smooth, 
white, pruinate at the apex; veil fringing the margin of the pileus, 
fugacious, white. Gills somewhat adnate, crowded, dry, white then 
flesh-colored, at length dingy-brown. 

Densely cespitose, very fragile and hygrophanous. Much thinner 
and more fragile than A. Candolleanus. It may be safely distinguished 
from species which are nearest to it by the gills being whitish then 
brownish-flesh color. 

Var. lana'tum, A curious form, densely woolly when young, traces 
of the woolly coat remaining at the apex when the pileus is fully ex- 
panded. Sibbertoft. B. and Br., 1876. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid, pellucid, 6-8x3-4^ K.; 4x6/i W.G.S.; elliptical, 
5x2. 5 p Massee. 

Angora, West Philadelphia, October, November, December, 1897; 
Haddonfield, N. J., Mt. Gretna, Pa., cespitose and gregarious in woods ' 
about stumps. Mcllvaine. 

"It is very common and edible." Farlow. 

At Mt. Gretna, Pa., October, 1898, in great abundance. When 
found it was gregarious in large patches and cespitose on stumps. My 
identification was confirmed by Professor Peck. 

It dries well, and retains flavor and esculent qualities. Cooked it is 
among the best. 

H. Candol'leanum Fr. After DeCandolle. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, 
date-brown then becoming white, the top somewhat yellowish, some- 
what fleshy, acorn-shaped then bell-shaped, soon convex and at length 
flattened, obtuse and unequal, smooth, even. Flesh thin, white. Stem 
3 in. long, 2-4 lines thick, fistulose, solid at the base, somewhat thick- 
ened, fibrillose, white, striate at the apex; veil in the form of a cortina, 



Hyphoioma. web-like, appendiculatc (depending from the margin of the pileus), 
white, at length becoming dingy-brown. Grills rounded-adnexed, then 
separating, crowded, violaceous then brownish-cinnamon, the edge at 
first whitish. 

Readily distinguished from neighboring species by the gills being at 
first beautifully dark violaceous, never flesh-colored. Densely cespitose, 
fragile, very hygrophanous. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptical, 8x4^ Massee. 

Edible, often used in catsup. Cooke. 

A species variable in color with the weather. Its gills are cream- 
colored at first, then purplish, then very dark. After rain the fragile 
cap often turns up at the margin and splits. 

It differs somewhat in texture from other Hypholomas, being more 
delicate in texture and substance. It is excellent. 

H. suba'qililum Banning. aquilus, brownish, tawny. Pileus brown, 
convex, smooth, hygrophanous, often shaded into ocher at margin, veil 
delicate, silk-like, encircling and covering the marginal extremities of 
the lamellae but forming no ring on the stem. Flesh white, turning 
umber when cut. Lamellae adnexed or nearly free, close, forked, um- 
.ber. Stem cespitose, regular, hollow, silky, white, 2-3 in. long. 

Spores brown, 4x5^. Banning MS. 

Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, Miss Banning; decaying wood, Adiron- 
dack mountains. August and September. New York. Peck, 45th 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

H. subaquilum is closely allied to H. appendiculatum, but is dis- 
tinguished by its darker colored cap and gills. 

Its edible qualities are the same. It is among the best. 



Gr. naked; head. 


Pileus more or less fleshy, smooth, margin at first incurved. Gills PsUocybe. 
becoming brownish or purple. Stem somewhat cartilaginous, rigid or 
tough, tubular, hollow or stuffed, often rooting. Veil absent or rudi- 
mentary, never forming a membrane. Spores purple, purple-brown or 

Generally growing on the ground, gregarious, sometimes cespitose. 

Psilocybe is analogous in form to Collybia, Leptonia and Naucoria, 
which are distinguished by their spore colors. Separated from Psathyra 
by the incurved margin of the pileus. 

But one species of Psilocybe is herein given as edible. Of it, alone, 
the writer has had opportunity to eat meals. Several others of the 
species have been found by him and tested in small quantity. They are 
all of good texture, substance and flavor, though most are small. He 
is of the opinion that increased testing will prove the entire genus edi- 
ble. Nothing can or should be prognosticated about a toadstool, but 
the indications are all in favor of Psilocybe. 

P. spadi'cea Schaeff. spadiceus, date-brown. Pileus thin, submem- 

(Plate XCIX.) 

branaceous, hemispherical, then con- 
vex or expanded, smooth, hygro- 
phanous, pale grayish -brown and 
striatulate when moist, white or yel- 
lowish when dry. Gills narrow, close, 
attached, easily separating from the 
stem, at first whitish, then brown, 
tinged with flesh-color. Stem straight, 
equal, hollow, smooth, white. 

Height 1-2 in., breadth of pileus 
1-1.5 m - Stem 1-2 lines thick. 

Grassy ground in yards and fields. 
Albany. June. Gregarious or cespi- 
tose. The pileus is fragile, the spores 
are brown. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Spores brown, 9x47* Massee; purplish brown, 7.6x5.1^ Morgan. 

Haddonfield, N. J., October, November, December, 1896. In large 
patches and where stumps had been taken from the ground. Mcllvaine. 


Two-thirds natural size. 


Psiiocybe. Var. Jiygro philus Fr. Gr. moist; loving. 

Pileus tawny, then clay-color. Stem 4-6 in. long, rather fusiform, 
rooting. Gills emarginate with a deeply decurrent line; at length 

Var. polycepli alus Fr. polus, many; cephale, head. 

Densely crowded. Stem thinner, flexuous. Gills nearly free, at 
length tawny-umber. 

The plant is tender, cooks easily and is of fine flavor. 

P. semilancea'ta Fr. semi, half; lancea, a spear. Pileus % in. 
high, not broad, various in color, becoming yellow, green, dingy-brown, 
somewhat membranaceous, acutely conical, almost cuspidate, never ex- 
panded, but the margin when young at first bent inward, covered with a 
Pellicle which is viscous and separable in wet weather, slightly striate 
chiefly round the margin. Stem as much as 3 in. long, scarcely i line 
thick, tubular and containing a pith, equal, more frequently flexuous, 
smooth, capable of being twisted round the finger, smooth, becoming 
pale; furnished with a veil when young. Gills ascending into the sum- 
mit of the cone, adnexed, almost linear, crowded, becoming purple- 
black. Fries. 

Gregarious, very tough. Pastures and roadsides, etc. Common. 
August to November. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid, 9-16x4-9^1 K.; 14x9/4 W.G.S. 

New York, Peck, Rep. 23 ; No via Scotia, Somers. 

Var. ccerules cens Cooke becoming blue. Base of stem turning indigo- 

Not common in America, but frequently found. According to M. 
C. Cooke a careful authority P. semilanceata has a dangerous reputa- 
tion. It is said to have proved fatal to children when eaten raw. It is 
not deleterious when cooked. 



Gr. friable. 

Veil none or only universal, and 
floccoso-fibrillose. Stem somewhat 
cartilaginous, fistulose with a tube, 
polished, fragile. PileilS conical or bell- 
shaped, membranaceous , the margin at 
the first straight and adpressed to the 
stem. Gills becoming purple or brown- 
ish. Slender, fragile, hygrophanous. 

Some of the last species of Hypho- 
loma and Psilocybe are very closely 
allied to them. The Coprinarii are 
readily distinguished by the gills being 
white or ash-color, then black, not 
dusky-brown nor becoming purple. 

Psathyra corresponds with Mycena, 
Nolanea, Galera and Psathyrella. All 
the species grow on the ground or on 
trunks. Stevenson. 

But four American species reported. 

(Plate C.) 


Natural size. (After Massee.) 
Omitted from Index to Species. 

Small and unimportant. 


Stem tough; margin of Pileus at first incurved. Gills subtriangu- 
larly decurrent. Corresponds with Omphalia, Eccilia, Tubaria. 
Few American species. Small and unimportant. 




o.-.w.t . 

F. MELANOS'POBJE (spores black). Gr. black; GV. seed. 

'ARIOUS as are the spore colors in this series (in 
its broadest sense), there is an entire absence of 
brown and purple shades in the black spores of four 
of the genera belonging to this group or series. In 
Gomphidius the spores are dingy-olivaceous. It 
is an outsider affiliating with thoroughbreds because 
of more technical congeniality than other genera 
afford. Like comets in the universe, it has no 

home. The singular genus Montagnites (of which but one species has 
been found in America, and that in Texas) has the relationship of 
spore-color. Panaeolus, Anellaria, Psathyrella, when young, have gills 
free from each other; Coprinus, in early life, presents them pressed 
tightly together; as the plants age and the spores ripen, the entire gill 
structure becomes black and dissolves into an inky fluid, the color of 
which is due to the spores. 

The species are all of delicate body, and many of them add gener- 
ously to table luxuries. 

Gr. dung. 

Coprinus. Pileus separate from the stem. Gills membranaceous, at first closely 
pressed together, cohering, at length melting into a black fluid. Trama 
obsolete. Spores oval, 1 even, black. 

The extreme closeness of the gills and their entire deliquescence into 
a fluid, black from the spores, sharply define this genus and separate it 
from all others. At first the form is oval or cylindrical; most are 
furnished with a downy or scurfy veil often adhering to the pileus, 
sometimes forming an adhering volva at the base of the stem. Nearly 
all are ephemeral, many completely disappearing in a day. 

Cystidia (sterile cells) of large size are frequent on the gills of many 







The majority grow on richly manured ground or dung, some on rotten Copriuus. 
wood and other materials Bolbitius, the only ally, has the same 
ephemeral existence, and grows in similar situations, but the gills only 
soften (not melting) and the spores are somewhat rust-colored. 

The blackening of the gills is not a process of decay, but is due to 
the growth of the spores, and the plant is still (before deliquescence) 
perfectly edible although not so inviting in appearance as before. 

Species of Coprinus are very common and are easily recognized by 
the deliquescent gills which, when mature, stain the fingers black. 

In "Once upon a Time," when country people made their own writ- 
ing inks, the convenient Coprinus gave its juices for this purpose. A 
little corrosive sublimate added to the boiled and strained fluid pre- 
vented it from molding. 

With few exceptions the species are small. They are tender, of real 
mushroom flavor and highly enjoyable. They make a thin, well flavored 
catsup, but are better used to give flavor to their less favored brethren. 

They stew in from two to fifteen minutes, depending upon the solidity 
of the species. 


A. PELLICULOSI (pellicula, a thin skin). Page 370. 

Gills covered above with a fleshy or membranaceous skin, hence the 
pileus does not split along the lines of the gills, but becomes lacerated 
with the edges turned upward. 

* Comati coma, hair. Furnished with a ring formed from the free 
margin of the volva. The skin of the pileus torn into innate scales. 

* Atramentarii atramentum, ink. Ring imperfect. Volva absent. 
Pileus dotted with minute innate scales. 

* Picacei pica, a magpie. Universal veil downy, at first continu- 
ous then broken up into superficial scales forming patches on the pileus. 
f Tomentosi tomentum, down. Pileus at first covered with a 
loose hairy down, becoming torn into distinct scales, at length disap- 
pearing. Ring absent. 

* Micacei mico, to glitter. Pileus at first covered with minute 
glistening scales, soon disappearing. Ring none. 
****** Glabrati. Pileus smooth. Veil absent. 
24 369 


B. VELIFORMES (velum, a. veil; forma, form). Page 380. 

Coprinus. Pileus very thin without a skin, at length opening into furrows along 
the backs of the gills and becoming folded in furrows. Stem thin, hol- 
low. Gills wasting away into thin lines. 

* Cyclodei. Gr. a circle; appearance. Stem with a ring or volva. 

** Lanatuli lanatus, woolly. Pileus covered with superficial woolly 
floccules, at length disappearing. Ringless. 

*** Furfurelli furfttreus, branny. Pileus mealy or scurfy. Gills 
generally attached to a collar at the apex of the stem. Ringless. 
. **** Hemerobii. Gr. living a day. Pileus always smooth. 

None known to be edible. 

A. PELLICULO'SI. Cap becoming torn, edge turning upward, etc. 
* Comati. Furnished with a ring, etc. 

C. COma'tus Fr. coma, hair. (Plate CII.) Pileus 2-7 in. high, 
white, fleshy, at first oblong, becoming bell-shaped, seldom expanded, 
when in mature deliquescing state, splitting at the margin along the line 
of the gills, the cuticle, except upon the apex, separating into shaggy, 
often concentric scales, at times yellowish, at others tinged with pur- 
plish-black. Gills free from the stem, crowded and at first cohering, 
broad, white then tinged with pink or salmon color, then purple to 
black and dissolving into ink. Stem up to 10 in. long, up to % in. 
thick, attenuated upward, most part concealed within the cap, hollow, 
but with spider-web threads within, smooth or fibrillose, white or lilac- 
white, easily pulling out of cap, brittle. Ring thin, torn, sometimes 
entire and movable. 

On rich soil, lawns, gardens, roads, dumps, especially where ashes 
have been placed. Solitary or in large dense clusters. August until 
after frost, but it is occasionally found during the spring months. 

Spores elliptical, black, i3-i8/i long Peck. Almost black, elliptical, 
i3-i8x7-8/x. Massee; 1 1-13x6-8^ K.; 15x8;* W.G.S. 

Var. brev'iceps Pk. Pileus before expansion subovate, shorter and 
broader than in the typical form, 1.5-2.5 in. high. Dumping ground. 
Albany. November. H. Neiman. Peck, 49th Rep. 

Coprinus comatus is common to the United States. In its perfection 
it is a stately and beautiful plant. I have seen it with the oblong cap 



Photographed by Dr. J. R. Weist. 



eight inches long, but its usual height is from 2-4 in. It occurs after Coprmus. 
hard rain and often in the most unexpected places. It is a rather do- 
mestic species, usually in troops, but often in clusters of from five to 
fifty individuals. I have seen it lift firmly sodded ground about rail- 
road stations, and again, bulging the surface of gardens like mole-hills. 

There are toadstools of higher flavor, but not one of greater delicacy. 
In this C. comatus is not excelled from its earliest stage until fully 
ripened. It is everywhere commended. 

Lafayette B. Mendel, in American Journal of Physiology, gives the 
following analysis : 

The specimens were freshly gathered and had not yet turned " inky." 
They varied very widely in size, thirty-six mushrooms weighing 1485 
grams, of which 980 grams belonged to the caps (pileus) and 505 
grams to the stems. The average weight of a fresh specimen was thus: 

Pileus 27 grams 

Stem 14 

Total weight 41 

A specimen which had attained the average growth weighed : 

Pileus 43 grams 

Stem 25 

Total weight 68 

An analysis yielded the following results : 

Water 9 2 - T 9 per cent. 

Total solids 7.81 

The dry substance contained : 

Total nitrogen 5.79 per cent. 

Extractive nitrogen 3.87 

Protein nitrogen 1.92 

Ether extract 3.3 

Crude fiber 7.3 

Ash 12.5 

Material soluble in 85 per cent, alcohol 56.3 

C. SOboli'feruS Fr. Pileus iK-2& in. across, subcylindrical, then 
oval bell-shaped, lower half of pileus usually undulate but not furrowed 
or striate, disk obtuse, usually depressed, distinctly scaly, dingy white, 
toward the apex tinged with pale brown, scales darker. Flesh very 
thin. Gills free, tapering toward each end, % in. or more broad, 
crowded, pale then blackish. Stem 5-8 in. long, K in. thick at the 



Coprinus. base, slightly attenuated upward, silky-white, stuffed; toward the base 
there is a depressed zone caused by the edge of the pileus when young. 
King fugacious. Spores elliptical, 15x7^. 

Amongst grass near to trunks, buried wood, etc. A very large and 
beautiful species, distinguished from Coprinus atramentarius, its nearest 
ally, by the larger size of every part, the costate (ribbed) or waved 
lower portion of the pileus, the truncate, depressed disk, with distinct 
squamules, the whitish color of the pileus, and the imperfectly hollow or 
stuffed stem. 

Spores elliptical, 15x7/4 Massee. 

Almshouse grounds, Philadelphia. On maple roots in grass-grown 
places, May, 18971898. Mcllvaine. Not previously noted in United 

C. soboliferus is a substantial food-giving species, very heavy for its 
size. It grows singly and in clusters and will immediately attract atten- 
tion, wherever found. It is of fine flavor and substance. Cook at once. 

C. OVa'tus (Schaeff. ) Fr. ovum, an egg. Pileus white, somewhat 
membranaceous, at the first egg-shaped and densely imbricated with 
thick spreading concentric scales, covered with an even hood at the apex, 
then expanded, striate. Stem 3-4 in. long, solid at the base, rooting, 
otherwise hollow, with spider-web threads within, attenuated upward, 
downy, shining white. Ring not very conspicuous and soon vanishing. 
Gills free, remote, slightly ventricose, at the first somewhat naked and 
remaining long shining white, at length timber-blackish, never becoming 

Smaller, thinner, less handsome than C. comatus. For the most part 
solitary. Fries. 

Spores 1 1-12x7-8/4 Massee. 

On rich ground, dumps, etc. Same habitat as C. comatus. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New Jersey. Mcll- 

So closely allied to C. comatus that it is with difficulty distinguished 
from it. However, its edible qualities are the same, and into these the 
name does not enter. 

C. sterquili'nus Fr. sterquilinium , a dunghill. Pileus about 2 in. 
across when expanded, conical, then expanded, sulcate more than hali 



o o 

fl -0 

5 3 

d c2 
cc oi 



way from margin to disk, at first villous or silky, disk rather fleshy with Coprinus. 
rough scales, silvery-gray, tinged with brown at the apex. Flesh thin. 
Gills free, ventricose, about 2 lines broad, pale then umber-purple. 
Stem 46 in. high, slightly attenuated upward, white, fibrillose, hollow, 
thickened base solid, and booted for about an inch from the base, mar- 
gin of sheath ending in a free border or ring. 

On dung. A fine large species known by the scaly apex of the pi- 
leus, the basal portion of the stem surrounded by a volva-like, adnate 
structure with a free upper margin. The stem soon becomes black when 
bruised. Base of stem not rooting but abrupt, and furnished with a few 
white fibers. Massee. 

Edible, Cooke, 1891 ; also Leuba. 

Nova Scotia, Dr. Somers. 

This species is not reported as found in the United States, 

**Atramentarii. Ring imperfect, etc. 

C. atramentarius (Bull.) Fr. atramentum, ink. (Plate CIII, fig. 
i, p. 372.) Pileus i%-4 in. across, ovate, expanding, grayish, lead- 
color or grayish-brown, with occasionally a few obscure scales on disk, 
often covered with bloom ; margin ribbed, sometimes notched, soft, ten- 
der. Gills free, ventricose, up to % in. broad, crowded and at first 
cohering and white with white floccose edges, then becoming black and 
dissolving into ink. Stem up to 5 in. long, up to > in. thick, smooth, 
whitish, hollow, at first spindle-shaped, then attenuated upward, with 
more or less distinct ring near base. 

Spores subcylindrical, large cystidia numerous, I2x6/* Massee/ 9-10 
x6/A K.; 9x5/x W.G.S.; 8-io/t long Peck. 

Indiana, H . I. Miller; Harrisburg, Pa., Dr. J. H. Fager; West Vir- 
ginia, Mcllvaine. 

The stem is obscurely banded within, by which it may be recognized 
with certainty. 

It grows singly or in clusters of many individuals on rich ground, 
whether lawns, gardens, gutter sides, or in woods, but not on dung. I 
know of a fine cluster growing year after year on a much-decayed pear- 
stump. Occasionally it appears in the spring months, but is common 
during the summer and autumn after rains, and from its first appearance 



Coprinus. it occurs in successive crops until stopped by severe frost. It is com- 
mon in Europe and over the United States. 

The flavor is higher than that of C. comatus. It should be cooked 
as soon as gathered, and kept in a cool place until needed. 

Analysis shows the following: 

Two separate, freshly-gathered lots of this species were examined. 
The one () contained six young small specimens weighing 5.5 grams, 
or .9 gram each; the other (<$>) contained eight mushrooms weighing 
12 grams, or 1.5 grams each. An analysis gave: 

a. b. 

Water 92-3 1 percent. 94.42 percent. 

Total solids 7.69 5.58 

The dry substance contained: 

Total nitrogen 4.68 4.77 

Ether extract 3.1 5.7 

Crude fiber 9.3 

Ash 16.8 20.1 

Lafayette B. Mendel in American Journal of Physiology. 

C. fusces'cens (Schaeff.) Fr. fuscus, dark or swarthy. Pileus I 
l/ in. across, submembranaceous, ovate, expanded, dull, disk rather 
fleshy, even or cracked into squamules, grayish-brown, disk reddish. 
Gills adfixed, blackish-umber. Stem 4-5 in. long, about K in. thick, 
equal, fragile, hollow, subfibrillose. Ring indistinct or absent, whitish. 
Mas see. 

Smaller and more slender than Coprinus atramentarius. Pileus 
brownish-gray, disk becoming reddish, not sprinkled with micaceous 
particles, but at first covered with a mealy bloom. Gills adnexed, 
attenuated from the stem to the margin, deliquescent. Fries. 

Spores elliptical, pointed at the ends, iox6/* Massee; iox5/x. W.G.S. 

Solitary and in tufts. On stumps, trunks, etc. May to October. 

West Philadelphia, Pa., Mcllvaine. 

C. fuscescens is tender, delicate and of excellent flavor. In this it 
ranks with C. atramentarius 

C. macro'spoms Pk. Pileus ovate, then expanded, rimose-striate 
(cracked in lines), obscurely floccose-squamulose, white, the small even 
brownish disk scaly. Lamellae crowded, free, white then black. Stem 




Enlarged one-third. 

glabrous, white, with traces of an annulus (ring) near the thickened or Coprinus. 
subbulbous base. 

Spores very large, elliptical, 20 
20.5 long, 12-16/4 broad. (Plate CIV.) 

Plant cespitose, 2-3 in. high. Pi- 
leus 1-2 in. broad. Stem I line 

Ground in open fields. Ticonder- 
oga. August. 

The prominent characters of this 
species are the cracked pileus, squam- 
ose disk, free lamellae and large 
spores. In its early state it resembles 
some species of Lepiota. It seems 
to be intermediate between the sec- 
tions Atramentarii and Micacei. Peck, 
3istRep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Found in quantity at Mt. Gretna, 
Pa. August to September, 1898, 
growing among old stable bedding 
on parade ground. 

C. macrosporus is an excellent species, higher in flavor than any other 

***Pica'cei. Universal downy veil, etc. 

C. pica'ceus (Bull.) Fr. Pileus 2-2^ in. across, membranaceous, 
ovato-bell-shaped, striate up to the disk, smoky-black, variegated with 
large, irregular, superficial white patches. Gills free, % in. or more 
broad, ventricose, grayish-black. Stem 5-6 in. long, base bulbous, 
abrupt, otherwise equal, %% in. thick, white, hollow, fragile, smooth. 
Spores elliptical, apiculate, 14x8/4; cystidia large, numerous. Massee. 

Decaying trunks or branches of trees in woods. Lyndonville. June. 

The form here referred to this species differs somewhat from the 
description of the type in being smaller, in having no bulb to the stem 
and in having smaller spores. It is probably the "smaller variety 
growing on rotten wood" noticed by Stevenson in his British Fungi. I 



have seen the true form of the species from Kansas. The New York 
plant seems to me to be worthy of distinctive designation, at least as a 
variety, and I call it 

Var. ebulbo'sus. Plant smaller. Stem destitute of a bulb. Spores 
8-iox5)U,. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Minnesota, Johnson, 1897; Kansas, Cragin, 1884; Wisconsin, Bundy; 
Nebraska, Clements. 

Edible. Leuba. 

Large quantities grew on rotting chestnut and oak rails at Mt. Gretna, 
Pa., from June to August, 1899. It is strong and unpleasant. 

****Tomento'si. Pileus at first veiled with a loose hairy veil. 

(Plate CV.) 

C. fimeta'rius Fr. fimetum, a dunghill. PileilS 1-2 in. across, 

membranaceous, thin, at first cylindrical ', 
soon conical, the edge at length revolute and 
torn at the margin, when young everywhere 
covered with floccose-squarrose white scales 
(from the universal veil), which separate 
from the vertex toward the circumference, 
at length naked, longitudinally cracked, 
but not opening into furrows, the vertex 
which remains entire, livid. Stem about 
3 in. long, 23 lines and more thick, hol- 
low, fragile, thickened and solid at the base, 
attenuated upward, shining white and 
downy with squamules of the same color. 
Gills free, reaching the stem, at first ven- 
tricose, then linear, flexuous, black. Stem 
when young curt and firmer. Fries. 

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid ,15-1 8x9- 1 2/x 
K.; 15x9/4 W.G.S.; 12-14x7-8/4 Massee. 
Sometimes there is a root as long as the 

stem. M.J.B. Common on dung heaps in successive crops. Spring 
to autumn. 

Var. pulla'tus. Pileus with adpressed scales and tomentose, soon 
naked, brownish, then blackish. Stem equal, becoming smooth. 
On dung. Clustered. Stature of the type. 




Var. cinereus. Pileus membranaceous, floccosely mealy, then naked, Coprinos. 
ashy-gray. Stem subequal, rootless, hollow to the base, often twisted. 
Spores 12-8/t. 

On dung and rich soil. 

Var. macrorhi'za. Pileus at first with feathery squamules. Stem 
short, hairy, rooting, sometimes more or less marginately subbulbous. 
Spores 13-14x8-9^. 

On dung. Pileus pale and smaller than in the typical form, stem 
shorter, with a more or less elongated rooting base. Berkeley. 

Of this very variable species there is a small form growing on de- 
cayed wood in woods. It has the spores rather smaller than in the 
type, they being 10-1 i/u. long, Syu. broad. It might be designated Var. 
silvi'cola. Peck, 43d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885, May to October. Mcllvaine, 

Common to the United States. Of excellent flavor and tender. It 
must be cooked at once. 

C. tomento'sus (Bull.) Yr.tomentum, pubescence. Pileus very 
thin, at first oblong-oval and floccose-scaly, soon bell-shaped, naked, 
closely striate, grayish-brown or blackish-brown, often with a leaden 
hue, finally expanded, the disk smooth, reddish or ochraceous-brown, 
the margin turned upwards and much split or lacerated. Lamellae 
closely crowded, narrow, free, white then pinkish, finally black. Stem 
white, tall, fragile, tapering upward, finely floccose-squamulose, hollow, 
sometimes with a large tap root. Plant gregarious or cespitose. 

Height 3-6 in., breadth of pileus 6-18 lines. 

Very variable in size and color. The covering of the pileus is easily 
rubbed off. It soon disappears and the plant quickly decays, seldom 
continuing through the day. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., about old picketing places in camp grounds. Prof. 
M. W. Easton, July, 1898. 

West Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, May to 
September, on dung, rich ground, gardens and in woods. Mcllvaine. 

Very delicate ; of strong mushroom flavor. It is common, and can 
usually be collected in numbers. It is of little food value in itself, but 
yields an excellent flavor to anything it is cooked with. It must be 
cooked as soon as gathered. 



Coprinus. C. Ili'veilS Fr. nix, snow. PileilS white, 1-2 in. across, thin, ovate 
then bell-shaped, margin at length turned upward, split or covered with 
a dense white, mealy or downy covering, slightly pink. Gills adnexed, 
narrow, crowded, at first cohering, white then pinkish, then black. 
Stem at first short, then up to 4 in., slender, attenuated upward, cov- 
ered with white down, fragile, hollow. 

Spores i6x.iii3pMassee f ' 10x12/4 W.G.S. 

Common on dung and dung heaps, clustered. May to frost. 

West Virginia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Mcll- 

Very variable in size, but clearly distinguished by its snow-white color 
and adnexed gills. Like all of the thin, delicate species of this genus 
there is little substance left after cooking, but the savory flavor is im- 
parted to the cooking medium. 

***** Mica'cei. Pileus at first covered with minute, glistening 

scales, etc. 

C. micaceus (Bull.) Fr. mica, grain, granular. (Plate CIII, fig. 
2, p. 372.) Pileus thin, ovate, then bell-shaped, with the margin 
more or less revolute, wavy, splitting, closely striate, with a few minute 
scales and sparkling atoms, or naked, varying in color from whitish- 
ochraceous to livid-brown, generally darker when moist or old. Gills 
rather narrow, crowded, white then pinkish, finally black. Stem slender, 
fragile, easily splitting, slightly silky, white, hollow, often twisted. 
Plant mostly cespitose. 

Height 2-4 in., breadth of pileus, 1-2 in. 

Streets, yards and fields, on or about old stumps. May to Septem- 
ber. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores elliptical, blackish, 7-8x4-5/4 Massee; 7x8/4 W.G.S./ iox5/*. 
W.P.; elliptical, brown, 6 %[* Peck. 

Var. gramtla ris . Pileus sprinkled with granules or furfuraceous 
scales. New York. August. Peck, 47th Rep. 

Indiana, H. I. Miller; West Virginia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey. May to October. Mcllvaine. 

Common from spring until frost. This is the oval-capped toadstool 
found in clusters about trees, posts, along grassy sides of pavements, pop- 
ping up, Brownie-like, from sodded places. Although small and thin, its 



clusters soon fill baskets, and its continuous growth in some places, from Coprinus. 
month to month, year to year, makes it one to be depended upon. 
Stewed for ten minutes it makes a rich, luscious dish. C. congregatus 
closely resembles it and is equally good. 

****** Glabra'ti. Pileus smooth, etc. 

C. deliques'cens (Bull.) Fr. Pileus 3~4 ' n - broad, livid-fuliginous, 
membranaceous, bell-shaped then expanded, smooth, but dotted with 
minute points on the disk, never downy or split, the edge turning up- 
ward and striate, the striae broad but not deep. Stem 4 in. long, 2-4 
lines thick, hollow, with a bark-like covering, equally attenuated up- 
ward, smooth, shining white. Gills free, at length remote from the stem, 
very crowded, flexuous, very narrow, only % line broad, lurid-blackish. 

Frequent on stumps and among fallen leaves, sometimes in tufts. 
July to October. 

Spores elliptical, obliquely apiculate, 8x5/1. Massee. 

Sometimes confounded with C. atramentarius. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Mcllvaine. 

C. deliquescens is of good size and quality. The stems do not cook 
well with the caps. The flavor is the same as C. atramentarius. 

C. COngrega'tllS (Bull.) Fr. Pileus /-K in. high, cylindrical, then 
bell-shaped, finally expanded and split at the margin, smooth, viscid, 
margin slightly striate, ochraceous. Gills about I line broad, slightly 
adnexed, white, finally becoming black. Stem i^ in. high, equal, 
smooth, hollow, whitish. 

On the ground, also in hot-houses. Massee. 

Readily distinguished by the densely cespitose mode of growth, the 
small size, the viscid, ochraceous, glabrous pileus which remains elon- 
gato-cylindrical for some time, then becomes campanulate and finally 
expands and splits at the margin. 

Densely cespitose, fragile, readily distinguished from C. digitalis by 
its much smaller size. Fries. 

Spores ;x8/x W.G.S.; ioxs/* W.P. 

Fries and Cooke considered this a good species. 

So closely allied to neighboring species that it is difficult to deter- 
mine it. Edible qualities are included in the alliance. 



B. VELIFORMES. Pileus very thin, etc. 

* Cyclodei. Stem bearing ring, etc. 
Coprinus. None edible. 

** Lanatuli. Pileus with superficial downy covering, etc. 

C. lagopus Fr. Gr. , a hare; a foot. Pileus I in. broad, whitish, 
disk livid, very tender, cylindrical then bell-shaped, when young beau- 
tifully downy then naked, flattened and split, radiately furrowed. Stem 
5 in. and more long, I line thick, very weak, very fragile, slightly at- 
tenuated at both ends, everywhere white-woolly. Gills at length re- 
mote, narrow, black. Fries. 

Fries distinguishes two forms. A, nemorum. Stem slender, 4-6 in. 
long. B, viarum. Stem 2-3 in. long. Pileus broader, livid. Both 
forms are inodorous. The pileus of the long-stemmed form is sometimes 
entirely clear brown, at others grayish with a brownish disk. Stem 
very weak, 5 in. and more in length, I line thick, attenuated at both 
ends. Pileus thin, expanded bell-shaped, about I in. across, when 
young elegantly flocculose, then furrowed, disk livid. Gills rather dis- 

New York, Peck, 38th Rep.; Mt. Gretna, Pa., July, 1898, on rub- 
bish about abandoned camp. Prof. M. W. Easton. 

A strikingly beautiful species. Both forms were found in abundance, 
tested and eaten with enjoyment. They are extremely delicate, and of 
attractive but not high flavor. 

C. VirgineilS Banning. PileilS ovate, bell-shaped, or cylindrical, 
pale ocher, the margin thin, torn, downy. Lamellae narrow, close, 
forked, at first white, turning dark but never black, adnexed. Stem 
3)2 in. long, stout, somewhat stuffed, attenuated where it meets the 
pileus, flattened, downy. Spores black. 

Cespitose or gregarious at the roots of trees or about old stumps. 
Also found in Virginia. 

The plant is not rapidly deliquescent, remaining perfect for some 
hours. Banning MS. 

Maryland. Virginia. Miss M. E. Banning MS. Peck, 44th Rep. 

Chester county, Pa. New Jersey, about pear -trees and stumps. 



This little Coprinus is a valuable species when found. A patch of it Coprinus. 
about a tree or stump is treasure trove. Patches of it appear in July 
and bear until October. The not-particular observer would mistake it 
for C. micaceus. 

*** Furfurel'li. Piletis micaceous or scurfy, etc. 

Pileus 2 in. broad, 

(Plate CVI.) 

C. domes'ticus (Pers.) Fr. damns, a house, 
fuliginous, disk date-brown, thin, ovate 
then bell-shaped, covered with small 
branny scales, then opening into furrows 
and flattened, undulately silicate, disk 
obtuse, even. Stem 23 in. long, 23 
lines thick, fistulose, slightly firm, at- 
tenuated upward, adpressedly silky, be- 
coming even, white. Gills adnexed, at 
first crowded, distant when the pileus is 
split, linear, white then reddish, at length 
brownish-blackish . 

A larger and more remarkable species 
than all the neighboring ones. Fries. 

Spores 14-16x7-81". Massee. 

On much decayed wood, damp car- 
pets, in cellars, etc. Often in clusters. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., Prof. M. W. Easton, 
July, 1898; West Virginia, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. 

C. domesticus is the largest of its sec- 
tion and is sometimes of remarkable growth. I have seen it start from 
under a board in a cellar and prolong its stems for over a foot to get its 
caps to air and light. Under such conditions the stems are twisted in 
a confused mass. 

It is very tender with a decided mushroom flavor. Cook at once. 

C. silvat'icus Pk. Pileus membranaceous, with a thin fleshy disk, 
convex, striate in folds on the margin, dark-brown, the depressed 
striae paler. Lamellae subdistant, narrow, attached to the stem, brown- 
ish. Stem fragile, slender, smooth, hollow, white. Spores gibbous- 
ovate, 12.//A long. 


Natural size. 



(Plate CVII.) 

Plant 2 in. high. Pileus 6-10 lines broad. 
Stem -5 lines thick. Ground in woods. Greig. 

The striae extend about half way up the pi- 
leus. Allied to C. plicatilis and C. ephemerus 
Peck, 24th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. 
Frequent, but not common. On ground in 
woods, August to October. Mcllvaine. 

This pretty little fungus is frequently found. 
I have never been able to get it in quantity, but 
have often eaten it. Its flavor is musky, rather 
strong. It is edible, but is not Obtainable in 
sufficient numbers to make it of much food value. 


Enlarged one-fourth. 

(After Peck.) 

C. ephem'erus Fr. Gr. lasting for a day. 
Pileus /-% in. across, very thin, ovate, then 
bell-shaped, finally expanded and splitting, fur- 
rowed radiately, at first slightly scurfy, disk elevated, even, reddish. 
Gills slightly attached, linear, white, then brownish, at length blackish. 
Stem i y^2 % in. high, I line or more thick, equal, glabrous, pellucid, 
hollow, whitish. Spores 1617x910/4. 

On dunghills, manured ground, etc. To the naked eye appearing 
almost glabrous, but under a lens seen to be distinctly scurfy. Known 
from Coprinus plicatilis by the disk of the pileus being prominent and 
not depressed. Massee. 

Common dung and dung heaps. May to October. New York, Peck. 
23d Rep. 

Of such size and delicate substance as to be of little food value. But 
it has a strong mushroom flavor which is choice as a flavoring. It ap- 
pears during the summer months on dung and dung heaps. It must 
be cooked as soon as gathered. 

C. semilana'tus Pk. Pileus submembranaceous, broadly conical, 
then expanded and strongly revolute, and the margin sometimes split, 
covered with mealy atoms, finely and obscurely rimose-striate, pale 
grayish-brown. Lamellae narrow, close, free. Stem elongated, fragile, 
hollow, slightly tapering upward, white, the lower half clothed with 



loose cottony flocci which rub off easily, the upper half smooth or Coprinus. 
slightly farinaceous. Spores broadly elliptical, 12.7/x long. 

Plant very fragile, 4-6 in. high. Pileus 8-12 lines broad. Stem I 
line thick at the base. Rich ground and dung. Sandlake. August. 
(Plate IV, fig. 15-18.) Allied to C. coopertus. Peck, 24th Rep. N.Y. 
State Bot. 

West Virginia. 1881-1885, Mt. Gretna, Pa. July to October. 

I have seldom found it, though at times it was quite common about 
stables in West Virginia. It has good mushroom flavor and is edible. 
It is stately, attracting attention by its peculiar cap. 

C. plica'tilis Fr. plico, to fold. PileilS I in. broad, dusky-brown 
then bluish- a ;ay-cinereous, disk darker, dusky-brown or reddish, oval- 
cylindrical then campanulate, soon expanded, opening into furrows, 
sulcate-plicate, for the most part smooth, disk broad, even, at length 
depressed. Stem 1-3 in. long, fistulose, thin, equal, even, smooth, pal- 
lid, somewhat pellucid. Gills remote from the stem and adnate to a col- 
lar which is formed from the dilated apex of the stem, distant, gray- 
blackish. Fries. 

Very tender and fragile, but when scorched by the sun not melting 
into fluid. Very variable in stature and size. Stevenson. 

Spores 12 1 4x8-1 o/* Massee; broadly elliptic, 5ft long, M.J.B.; 
n-13/A long, 8-io/u. broad Peck, Rep. 50. 

Common in rich pastures, lawns, roadsides, etc. May to October. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Mcllvaine. 

A neat little fungus often found in great plenty. Though small it is 
nevertheless edible and must be written with its edible companions. 




Gr. all; Gr. variegated. 

Panseoius. PHeuS slightly fleshy, not striate, margin exceeding the gills. Gills 

(Plate CVIII.) 

aeolus solidipes. P. 

ascending in a conical manner, 
slate-gray, mottled with the black 
spores. Stem polished. Veil 
woven, often absent. Spores black. 

On the ground in rich earth, and 
on dung. 

In the black-spored series Psathy- 
rella is separated by the striate 
pileus, not exceed 1 '^'; the gills, 
Anellaria by the ri.Vg and Coprinus 
by the deliquescent gills. 

Panaeolus, in its entirety, has a 
precise looking membership. If 
the gills were cut from cardboard 
and fixed by machinery, they could 
not be more correct. Some of the 
species are among the earliest ar- 
rivals at toadstool lawn parties, and 
some are the last to leave. Several 
are culinary favorites, notably Pan- 
papilionaceus possesses intoxicating properties. 

P. campanulatus is reported to be a sedative. 

The edible species are easily cooked and are exceptionally delicate 
and well flavored. 

P. retiru'gis Fr. rete, a net; ruga, a wrinkle. Pileus about i in. 
across, at first almost globose, then hemispherical, subumbonate, mi- 
nutely mealy, opaque, moist, furnished with uniting raised ribs, pinkish 
tan-color; margin with irregular fragments of the veil attached. Flesh 
rather thick. Gills adnexed, ascending, 2 lines or more broad, grayish- 
black. Stem 2-4 in. long, about 2 lines thick, equal, pruinose, pur- 
plish flesh-color, hollow. Fries. 

Spores elliptic-fusiform, 1 1-13x7^ Massee. 

On dung. Distinguished among the species of Panaeolus by the 



raised ribs on the pileus and its appendiculate margin. The pileus is Paneeoius. 
sometimes grayish. Closely resembling, superficially, Psathyra cor- 
rugis, which is, however, distinguished by the violet-black gills. 

Spores elliptical, shortly fusiform, 2O/* Q.; i6xiifi W.G.S. 

New York, Peck, 23d Rep. West Virginia, 1881-1885. Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, frequent on dung. June to frost. Mcllvaine. 

P. retirugis is not a common species, and is a sparse grower, but is 
frequently found. It is seldom that a mess can be had at one time. It 
is an excellent species by itself and imparts a good flavor to others. 

P. fimi'cola Fr. fimus, dung; cola, to inhabit. Pileus 3^-K in. 

across and high, slightly fleshy, convex bell-shaped, obtuse, glabrous, 
opaque, dingy-gray when moist, paler and yellowish when dry, with a 
narrow brown encircling zone near the margin. Gills adnate, 2 lines or 
more broad, gray, variegated with smoky-black. Stem 2-4 in. high, 
i line or more thick, equal, fragile, whitish, powdered with white meal 
upward, hollow. Fries. 

Stem soft, fragile, obsoletely silky-striatulate, 2-4 in. long. Pileus 
when moist commonly smoky-gray, when dry grayish clay-color, some- 
times discoid. Gills semi-ovate with a minute decurrent tooth. Fries. 

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Frequent. On dung and 
"richly manured places. June to September. Mcllvaine, 

P. fimicola is neither as large nor heavy as P. solidipes, but in other 
respects equals it. 

P. SOli'dipes Pk. solidus, solid; pes, a foot. (Plate CIII, fig. 3, 4, 
p. 372.) Pileus 2-3 in. across, firm, at first hemispherical, then sub- 
campanulate or convex, smooth, whitish, the cuticle at length breaking 
up into dingy-yellowish, rather large, angular scales. Grills broad, 
slightly attached, whitish, becoming black. Stem 2-4 lines thick, firm, 
smooth, white, solid, slightly striate at the top. Spores very black 
with a bluish tint. Height of plant jJ-8 in. Dung heaps. West Al- 
bany. June. 

A large species, remarkable for its solid stem. The scales on the 
pileus are larger on the disk, becoming smaller toward the margin. The 
upper part of the stipe is sometimes beaded with drops of moisture. 
Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y State Bot. 

25 385 


Pameoius. West Virginia, 1881-1885. Pennsylvania, New Jersey, frequent on 
dung and dung heaps. May to frost. Mcllvaine. 

On mature plants, or after rains, the scales are not always present. 

P. solidipes is a handsome, readily recognized species of good weight 
and substance. It is one of the best of toadstools. 

P. campanula' tllS Linn. campanula, a little bell. Pileus oval, 
bell-shaped or obtusely conical, sometimes umbonate, smooth, somewhat 
shining, brownish, with a peculiar gray or lead-colored tint, sometimes 
becoming reddish-tinted, the margin, often scalloped or fringed with the 
appendiculate veil. Lamellae not broad, attached, becoming grayish- 
black. Stem long, slender, hollow, reddish, pruinose and slightly 
striate at the top, at length dusted with the spores. 

Height 4-6 in., breadth of pileus 6-12 lines. 

On horse dung and rich soil. June and July. Common. 

In very wet weather the cuticle of the pileus sometimes cracks into 
scales or areas. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Spores subellipsoid, 16-18x10 13/4 K.; 8-9x6)"- Massee, 

Mr. R. K. Macadam, Boston, Mass., informs me that he has infor- 
mation of a case of poisoning by this fungus. "The victim experi- 
enced dizziness, dimness of vision, trembling and loss of power and 
memory. He recovered after simple treatment and was well inside of 
24 hours." 

A full account of this case is in "The London Medical and Surgical 
Journal," Vol. 36, November, 1816. The poison acts as a sedative. 

I have several times eaten of this fungus in small quantities, because 
larger could not be obtained, and with no other than pleasant effect. 
There does not appear to be any case of poisoning reported by it since 
1816, which, considering the inquisitiveness of man, is singular. Caution 
is advised. 

P. papiliona'ceus Fr. papilio, a butterfly. Pileus subhemispherical, 
sometimes subumbonate, smooth, or with the cuticle breaking up into 
scales, whitish-gray, often tinged with yellow. Lamellae very broad, 
attached, becoming black. Stem slender, firm, hollow, pruinose above, 
whitish, sometimes tinged with red or yellow, slightly striate at the top 
and generally stained by the spores. 

Height 3-5 in., breadth of pileus 6-18 lines. 



On dung and rich soil. Common. May and June. 

A small form occurs with the pileus nearly white, scarcely half an 
inch in diameter, and the cuticle not cracking. Peck, 23d Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

The effects of P. papilionaceus are very uncertain. I have seen it 
produce hilarity in a few instances, and other mild symptoms of intoxi- 
cation, which were soon over, and with little reaction. But I have seen, 
at table, the same effects from eating preserved peaches and preserved 
plums which had fermented. Many personal testings have been with- 
out effect. Testings upon others vary with the individuals. The fungus 
seems to contain a mild stimulant. It is not dangerous, but should be 
eaten with caution. Being of small size, and not a prolific species, 
quantities of it are difficult to obtain. Moderate quantities of it have 
no effect whatever. 




Anellus, a little ring. 

Aneiiaria. Pileus slightly fleshy, smooth and even. Gills adnexed, dark slate- 
color, variegated with the black spores. Stem central, smooth, shining, 
rather firm. Ring present at first, either persistent or forming a zone 
around the stem. 

The species of this genus were formerly included in Panaeolus, from 
which this is separated by the presence of a ring, more or less definite. 

In other characters they are similar. As in Amanitopsis and Amanita. 

(Plate CIX.) 

A. separa'ta Karst. separates, distinct, separate. Pileus i-iK in. 

across, height about the same, ovate, then 
bell-shaped, not expanding, viscid, even, 
ochraceous, then whitish, shining, wrinkled 
when old. Flesh rather thick. Gills adfixed, 
ascending, thin, crowded, broad, 2-3 lines, 
grayish-black, margin paler. Stem long, 3-5 
in., straight, base thickened, attenuated up- 
ward, whitish, shining, top somewhat striate. 
Ring persistent, distant. Massee. 

On dung. Rather variable in size. 

Pileus bell-shaped, but very obtuse at the 
summit, >-i M in. from the base to the apex, 
not expanding at the base without cracking. 

Spores broadly elliptic-fusiform, black, 
opaque, iox7/x Massee; ellipsoid, 1622x10 
I2/* K.; i6xn/t W.G.S. 

West Virginia, 1881-1885, New Jersey, 
Mt. Gretna, Pa., July, 1898, on dung. Me- 

A common, frequent species from May to 
October. It is substantial in flesh, excellent 
in substance and flavor. Cook soon and not 
over fifteen minutes. 

Natural size. 




Gr. fragile. 

PileilS membranaceous, striate, margin straight, at first pressed to the Psathyreiia. 
stem, not extending beyond the gills . Veil inconspicuous. Gills sooty- 
black, not variegated. Spores black. 

Closely resembling Psathyra in appearance, but separated by the 
spore color. 

In the black-spored series Panaeolus and Anellaria are distinguished 
by their pilei not being striate and Coprinus by its deliquescent gills. 

The species are small and can seldom be gathered in quantity. But 
those tested have the full mushroom flavor and are valued for the flavor 
they give to less gifted species when cooked with them. 

P. gra'cilis Fr. slender. Pileus 3^-1 in. broad, sooty, livid, etc., 
when dry, tan, rosy or whitish, hygrophanous, membranaceous, bell- 
shaped, obtuse, smooth, even, slightly and pellucidly-striate only round 
the margin. Stem 3 in. and more long, scarcely I line thick, tubular, 
remarkably tense and straight , equal, naked, smooth, whitish, not rooted ', 
wJiite-villons at the base. Grills wholly adnate, commonly broader be- 
hind (rarely linear), almost distant, distinct, at first whitish, then cin- 
ereous-blackish with the black spores, edge rose-colored. Fries. 

When dry the pileus is soft to the touch. Gregarious, fragile. Very 
similar to A. corrugis, and there is a variety corrugated. Stevenson. 

Spores ellipsoid, 13-14x7-8^ K.; 5xi2/u- W.G.S.; 7x3-3.5/4 Mas- 
see; 14x8/4 Morgan. 

New York, Peck, Rep. 23 ; West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
common, rich ground, June to October. Mcllvaine. 

A common and beautiful fungus, growing in patches on rich ground. 
It is decidedly prim. Its conical cap is regular as an extinguisher. It 
pays to gather it for flavoring other species. I have not seen the 
corrugated form mentioned by Fries. P. graciloides Pk. lacks the rosy- 
edged gills; gills are whitish. 



(Plate CX.) 

PsathyreUa. P. graciloi'des Pk. slender. Pileus thin, conical or bell-shaped, 

glabrous, hygrophanous, brown and striatu- 
late when moist, whitish and subrugulose 
when dry. Lamellae ascending, rather 
broad, subdistant, brown, becoming black- 
ish-brown, the edge whitish. Stem long, 
straight, fragile, hollow, smooth, white. 
Spores blackish, elliptical, 15-16.5x8- 


Plant gregarious, 4-6 in. high. Pileus 
I in. broad. Stem I line thick. 

Ground in an old dooryard. Maryland. 

This is allied to A. gracilis Fr., but the 
edge of the gills is not rosy. When dry- 
ing the moisture leaves the disk of the pi- 
leus first, the margin last. When dry the 
plant bears some resemblance to large forms 
of A. tener. Under a lens the texture of 
the surface of the pileus is seen to be com- 
posed of matted fibrils. Peck, 3Oth Rep. 
N. Y. State Bot. 

Pennsylvania and New Jersey, on ground 
about houses and stables, often in barn 
yards, after they have been cleaned out 
and are empty for the summer. Mcllvaine. 

The whitish-edged gills with entire absence of rosiness on gill edges 
distinguish this species from P. gracilis Fr. It is frequent but not 
plentiful. Often a pint can be gathered. It has a fine mushroom flavor, 
resembling the delicate forms of Coprinus. 

P. atoma'ta Fr. atomatus, atomate. Pileus ^-i in. broad, livid, 
when dry becoming pale tan or pale flesh-color, sometimes reddish, hy- 
grophanous, membranaceous, bell-shaped, obtuse, slightly striate, when 
dry without striae, slightly wrinkled, sprinkled with shining atoms. 
Stem 2 in. long, almost I line thick, tubular, equal, not rooted, lax, 
slightly bent (not tense and straight), white and white pulverulent at 




the apex. Gills adnate, broad, ventricose, slightly distant, distinct, Psathyreiia. 
whitish, but cinereous-blackish with the black spores. Fries. 

Solitary or gregarious. Pileus changing like A. gracilis from livid 
to whitish and rose-color, but more fragile. Stevenson. 

Spores elliptical, iox4/u. Massec; 14x9^ W.G.S.; I ix8/* Morgan. 

Chester county, Pa., June to September. Mcllvaine. 

Several specimens were eaten. In flavor they could not be distin- 
guished from C. micaceus. The scarcity and small size of the species 
make it of little value, save as a flavoring. 

P. dissemina'ta Pers. dissemino, to scatter. Found everywhere. 
Densely tufted. Pileus about 14 in. across, (Plate CXI.) 

membranaceous, ovate, bell-shaped, at first 
scurfy, then naked, coarsely striate, mar- 
gin entire, yellowish then gray. Gills ad- 
nate, narrow, whitish, then gray, finally 
blackish. Stem 11^2 in. long, rather 
curved, mealy then smooth, fragile, hol- 
low. Massee. 

Crowded. Pileus ovate, conical, at 
length bell-shaped, l A% in. from the base 
to the apex, striate and plicate, membra- 
naceous, pale buff or reddish-brown, at 
length gray, becoming flaccid and dissolv- 
ing. Gills distant, narrow, pale brown. 
Stipes 13 in. long, slender, weak, brittle, 
crooked, hollow, pale yellowish, whitish or 

grayish. Particularly partial to old willow trees, and when growing on 
a stump of a felled tree often covering nearly a square yard. Grev. 

Spores 8x6^ W.G.S.; 7.6x5/4 Morgan. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Mt. Gretna, Pa., about abandoned camp. 
Densely tufted. May to frost. Mcllvaine. 

Patches of it are very common on old trunks, about decaying trees, 
on ground. The caps rarely reach I in. in diameter. The plants cook 





Psathyreiia. away to almost nothing, but they are of fine flavor, which they impart 
to the cooking medium. 


A wooden bolt or nail. 

Hymenophore decurrent. Gills distant, composed of a mucilaginous 
membrane, which can be readily separated into two plates, continuous 
at the edge which is acute and powdered with the blackish fusiform 
spores. Veil viscoso-floccose. Fleshy, putrescent, pileus at length the 
shape of an inverted cone. 

A small genus with great difference among the species. Intermediate 
in habit between Cortinarius and Hygrophorus. 

Universal Veil glutinous, at first terminating on the stem in a floccose 
ring soon disappearing. The Gills frequently admit of being detached 
and stretched out into a continuous membrane. Fries. 

A genus possessing several well-marked characters. The very decur- 
rent gills differ from all others in their soft mucilaginous consistency. 
The spores are larger than usual in the Agaricaceae and have the elon- 
gated spindle-shape found in Boleti. The stem and pileus are of the 
same substance, and the pileus and veil are both glutinous when moist. 
The spores have been described as greenish-gray becoming black, and 
as dingy-olive, 

I have had opportunity to see but two species of this small genus 
G. rhodoxanthus and G. viscidus. Of these the spores are decidedly 
olivaceous. If the six other species recorded as found in the United 
States are as creditable, they are well worth hunting for. G. Oregonen- 
sis Pk, is reported as edible and as a valuable food species in Oregon. 



The glutinous coatings to pileus and stem do not appear on the Ameri- 
can form of G. rhodoxanthus in the localities I have found it in during 
fifteen years. 

G. glutino'sus (Schaeff.) Fr. glutin, glue. Pileus 2-5 in. broad, 
purple-brown, often mottled with black spots, fleshy, convex, obtuse, 
at length plane, even depressed, even, smooth, very glutinous. Flesh 
thick, about % in., soft, white. Stem 2-3 in. and more long, about 
% in. thick, solid, whitish, thickened and externally and internally 
yellow at the base, viscid with the veil, fibrillose or varying with black 
scales. Cortina often woven in the form of a ring, but soon fugacious. 
Gills deeply decurrent, distant, distinct, branched, quite entire, muci- 
laginous, 3-4 lines broad, at first whitish, then cinereous, clouded with 
the spores. 

Trama none, wherefore the gills easily separate from the pileus. 
Taste watery, moldy. Odor not marked. Stevenson. 

Spores 2O/A Cooke; 18-23x6-8^ K.; 16-17x6^ W.G.S.; 18-20x6/1* 
Mas see. 

Distinguished by the bright yellow base of stem. 

Pine woods. July to November. Nova Scotia. Somers. 

Edible. Letiba. Chiefly used for catsup. Cooke. 

Var. ro'seus. Pileus rose-color. Stem white, attenuated and rosy 
flesh-color internally at the base. Very distinguished, always smaller. 

Spores 2o-22x6fi K. 

Nova Scotia. Massachusetts. Frost. 

I have not seen this species or its variety. Eminent authorities vouch 
for its edibility. 

G. Oregonen'sis Pk. Pileus at first convex, becoming nearly plane 
or somewhat centrally depressed, viscid, brown or dark-brown, becom- 
ing black in drying, taste sweet and pleasant. Lamellae numerous, 
rather close, adnate or slightly decurrent, blackish in the dried plant. 
Stem short, solid, equal or slightly tapering upward, colored like the 
pileus. Spores oblong, I o-i 2. 5/x. long, 4~5/x broad. 

Pileus 5-10 cm. broad. Stem 2.5-5 cm. long, 4-10 mm. thick. 

Fir woods. Oregon. September to December. Lane. 

Dr. Lane writes that this species is edible and grows so abundantly 
in fir woods that it might be gathered by wagon loads and might be 



made a source of an abundant food supply. 
Vol. 25, No. 6, June, 1898. 

Peck. Torrey Bulletin, 

(Plate CXII.) 



One-half natural size. 

Gr. vis'cidus Fr. viscid. Pileus 2-3 in. and more broad, brownish- 
red, compact, at first bell-shaped, 
then expanded, umbonate, slightly 
viscous, shining when dry. Flesh 
yellowish. Stem 3-4 in. and more 
long, )4 in. thick, solid, equal or 
attenuated at the base which is rhu- 
barb-colored internally, scaly-fibril- 
lose, not very viscous, yellowish. 
Cortina very evidently fioccose, not 
glutinous, woven in the form of a 
ring, but readily falling off. Gills 
deeply decurrent, distant, the shorter 
ones adnexed to the longer, not truly 
branched, at first paler, somewhat 
olive, at length brownish -purple, 
clouded with the spores. Fries. 
Hymenophore descending between the gill plates. Odor not unpleas- 
ant. Stevenson. 

Chiefly used in catsup. Cooke. Edible. Leuba. Cooke. 
North Carolina, Massachusetts, Frost. Minnesota, California, Penn- 

Many grew under pines at Mt. Gretna, Pa., September to November. 
The gills seemed branched, but were grown together. Taste and smell 
pleasant. The caps are good, but not equal to G. rhodoxanthus. 

G. rhodoxan'thus Schw. (Plate XCVII, fig. 4, 5, p. 352.) Soli- 
tary. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, cushion-shaped, reddish-yellow, sometimes 
with dusky hues. Gills arched, decurrent, orange-yellow. Stem atten- 
uated, short, firm. 

Spores oblong, IO-I2.5/A in length. Peck. Olivaceous. Mcllvaine. 

Solitary, gregarious or cespitose. 

Among leaves and grass in shady places. August to October. 

When the student has mastered the name and memorized the descrip- 



tion, Gomphidius rhodoxanthus can not be mistaken for any other spe- 

It is not common in localities I have frequented, but its presence is 
pretty general in the United States, specimens having been sent to me 
from Georgia, Iowa, New York, New Jersey, etc., and I have found it 
in West Virginia, North Carolina, Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia, 
and other places in Pennsylvania, from July to September, 1898, in- 
clusive. Having enjoyed it in West Virginia in 1882, I was delighted 
to find it in generous quantity at Mt. Gretna, Pa., and to eat many 
meals of it.. Its caps are not excelled by any edible fungus. They 
have solid, delicious substance and rich full flavor. 

The plant is often cespitose. I have never found its cap viscid or 
glutinous. The cooked flesh has the latter consistency. 


After Montagne. (Plate CI, fig. 6, p. 368.) 

The universal veil forming a volva, persistent. Stem dilated at the Montagnites. 
apex into a plane round disk, even on both sides, to the margin of which 
are ad fixed the gills which are free, not joined by any membrane , radiating, 
razor-shaped, persistent, obtuse at the edge. Trama cellulose. Spores 
oblong, even, black fuscous. Fries. 

A single species is reported from Texas. 




Hymenophore inferior, facing the ground. Hymenium consisting of 
tubes with poriform mouths which are round or angular, sometimes 
sinuous or torn, lined with 4-spored sporophores and cystidia. 

Fleshy, coriaceous or woody fungi, most abundant and luxuriant 
in warm countries. Intermediate between the Agaricaceae and the 
Hydnaceae, connected with the former by Daedalea and Lenzites, and 
with the latter by Fistulina and Irpex. Fries. 

Within this large family are famed edible species, notably in Boletinus, 
Boletus and Fistulina. In the woody species the razor-strop man finds 
material for his strops (Polyporus celulinus) ; the surgeon styptics; the 
peasant punk to catch sparks from his flint, and the 4th of July urchin 
a fire-holder to light his pyrotechnics. The Chinese have placed some 
species in their fathomless materia medica, while the Polyporus of the 
locust tree is used in America as a medicine for horses. No fungoid 
growth is more universal. They are the ever active pruners of our trees 
and converters of forest debris. They begin the task in Nature's labora- 
tory of changing decaying wood into assimilable shape as food to feed 
the very trees that dropped it. Some are of annual growth, others add 
to their substance year after year, often attaining enormous size. In 
summer and in winter they are ever present objects for interesting study. 


BOLETINUS. Page 398. 

Hymenium composed of broader radiating gills connected by very 
numerous more narrow anastomosing branches or partitions and forming 
large angular pores. Tubes somewhat tenacious, not easily separable 
from the hymenophore and from each other, adnate or subdecurrent, 
yellowish. Peck. 

BOLETUS. Page 404. 

Stratum of tubes easily separable from the hymenophore. Stem 



STROBILOMYCES . Page 47 5 . 
Tubes like Boletus, but pileus with large scales. Stem central. 

FlSTULlNA. Page 477. 
Fleshy, lateral, tubes crowded but distinct. 

POLYPORUS. Page 479- 

Stratum of tubes distinct from hymenophore, but not separable, not 
stratose; fleshy and tough, stipitate or sessile. 


Tubes as in Polyporus, often stratose; woody, sessile; dimidiate. 
(No edible species reported.) 


Tubes as in Polyporus, not stratose, generally developing from the 
center to the margin, at first shallow and punctiform, coriaceous or 
membranaceous. (No edible species reported.) 


Tubes as in Polyporus, not stratose; entirely resupinate. (No edible 
species reported. ) 


Tubes studded with reddish-brown spines, intermingled with the ba- 
sidia, otherwise as in Polystictus (and also as in Polyporus and 
Fomes). Atkinson. (No edible species reported.) 


Tubes immersed in flesh of pileus, of various depths, hence not form- 
ing a heterogeneous stratum, subcylindrical, not stratose; corky; sessile. 


Tubes as in Trametes, but sinuous and labyrinthiform ; corky; not 
stratose; sessile. (No edible species reported. ) 




Tubes from the first dilated in hexagonal channels, not stratose; 
plants corky, sessile. Atkinson. (No edible species reported.) 


Tubes large at first, radiating from a central stem, or from a lateral 
attachment in sessile or dimidiate forms ; plants tough and fleshy. At- 
kinson. (No edible species reported.) 


Gills or tubes in concentric circles. Stem central, subcentral or none. 
Atkinson. (No edible species reported.) 

MERULIUS. Page 490. 

Subgelatinous . Tubes very shallow , formed by anastomosing wrinkles ; 

(Plate CXIII, p. 402.) 

Boietinus. Hymenophore not even (as in Boletus), but extended in blunt points 
descending like a trama among the tubes. Tubes not easily separable 
from the hymenophore and from each other. Stem ringed, hollow. 
Spores pale yellowish. Sylloge, Vol. VI, p. 51. 

Professor Peck has for excellent reasons, given in his Boleti of the 
United States, emended the generic diagnosis of Fries thus : Hyme- 
nium composed of broader radiating lamella connected by very numerous 
more narrow anastomosing branches or partitions and forming large 
angular pores. Tiibes somewhat tenacious, not easily separable from the 
hymenophore and from each other, adnate or subdecurrent, yellowish. 
Professor Peck classifies Boietinus as follows : 

Stem hollow B . cavipes 

Stem solid I 

I . Stem lateral or eccentric B. porosus 

I . Stem central 2 

2. Pileus^pale yellow, silky B. decipiens 

2. Pileus red or adorned with red scales 3 



3 . Pileus red B. paluster Boietmus. 

3. Pileus soon red-squamose B. pictus 

Boleti of the United States, p. 76. 

There are six species given as found in the United States B. cavipes 
Kalchb., B. pictus Pk., B. paluster Pk., B. decipiens Pk., B. porosus 
Pk., B. appendiculatus Pk. of these I have found and eaten four. B. 
decipiens has, at this writing, not been seen by Professor Peck, but 
Professor Farlow, of Harvard, has informed him of authentic specimens. 
There is every probability of its being as edible as the others; a descrip- 
tion of it is, therefore, given. 

In consistency Boletinus is of the best, being rather like that of marsh- 
mallows, and the same as Boletus subaureus. The flavor is mild and 

Professor Peck mentions that the smell of B. porosus is sometimes 
unpleasant. I have been fortunate in not having had this experience. 

B. ca'vipes Kalchb. Pileus broadly convex, rather tough, flexible, 
soft, subumbonate, fibrillose-scaly, tawny-brown, sometimes tinged with 
reddish or purplish. Flesh yellowish. Tubes slightly decurrent, at first 
pale-yellow, then darker and tinged with green, becoming dingy-ochra- 
ceous with age. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, somewhat 
fibrillose or floccose, slightly ringed, hollow, tawny-brown or yellowish- 
brown, yellowish at the top and marked by the decurrent dissepiments 
of the tubes, white within. Veil whitish, partly adhering to the margin 
of the pileus, soon disappearing. Spores 8-IOX4//.. 

Pileus 1-5-4 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 
Swamps and damp mossy ground under or near tamarack trees. New 
York, Peck; New England, Frost. 

The pileus is clothed with a fibrillose tomentum which becomes more 
or less united into floccose tufts or scales. The umbo is not always 
present and is generally small. The young stem may sometimes be 
stuffed, but, if so, it soon becomes hollow, though the cavity is irregu- 
lar. The freshly shed spores have a greenish-yellow or olivaceous hue, 
but in time they assume a pale or yellowish-ochraceous hue. This spe- 
cies is apparently northern in its range. It loves cold sphagnous 
swamps in mountainous regions. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 



Boletinus. West Virginia mountains under spruce trees. Haddonfield, N. J., 
among scrub pines. Mt. Gretna, Pa., among pines. 

It is of excellent consistency and of mild pleasant flavor. It is at its 
best in patties, croquettes and escallops. 

B. appendicula'tus Pk. Pileus fleshy, convex, glabrous, ochrace- 
ous-yellow, the margin appendiculate with an incurved membranous 
veil. Flesh pale-yellow, unchangeable. Tubes rather small, yellow, 
their mouths angular, unequal, becoming darker or brownish where 
wounded. Stem solid, slightly thickened at the base, yellow. Spores 
pale-yellow, oblong, io-i2x4/x. Pileus 4-8 in. broad. Stem 23 in. 
long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Under or near fir trees. Washington. September to December. 
Yeemans. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 23, No. 10. 

B. pic'tus Pk. Pileus convex or nearly plane, at first covered with a 
red fibrillose tomentum which seon divides into small scales revealing the 
yellow color of the pileus beneath. Flesh yellow, often slowly changing 
to dull pinkish or reddish tints where wounded. Tubes tenacious, at 
first pale yellow, becoming darker or dingy ochraceous with age, some- 
times changing to pinkish-brown where bruised, concealed in the young 
plant by the copious whitish webby veil. Stem equal or nearly so, 
solid, slightly and somewhat evanescently annulate, clothed and colored 
like or a little paler than the pileus, yellowish at the top. Spores 
ochraceous, 9 11x4 5/*. 

Pileus 2-4 ia. broad. Stem i-5-3 m - l n g> 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods and mossy swamps. New York, Peck; New England, Frost; 
North Carolina, Curtis. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia mountains, 1882. Haddonfield, N. J., Angora, West 
Philadelphia, Mt. Gretna, Pa. August and September. In mixed 
woods, principally oak. Leominster, Mass. C '. F. Nixon, Ph. G. 

It is sometimes found upon much decayed chestnut stumps. 

The caps of some species are so cracked as to appear distinctly 
areolate. The white webby veil is often persistent. The fungus is one 
of the handsomest. Its rich variegated colors impress it upon eye-mem- 
ory. It is one of the very best edible species. 


B. palus'ter Pk. Pileus thin, 
broadly convex, plane or slightly 
depressed, sometimes with a small 
umbo, floccose-tomentose, bright red. 
Tubes very large, slightly decurrent, 
yellow, becoming ochraceous or dingy 
ochraceous. Stem slender, solid, sub- 
glabrous, red, yellowish at the top. 
Spores pinkish-brown, 8-9x4^. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. 
long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Wet places and sphagnous mossy 
swamps. New York, Peck. Maine, 
Harvey. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Angora, West Philadelphia and Mt. 
Gretna, Pa. September. Mcllvaine. 

A few specimens found at Mt. 
Gretna had stems slightly reticulated. 

(Plate CXIIrt.) 



Natural size. (After Peck.) 

Its taste is sweet, smell mild, 

and cooked it is of excellent body and flavor. 

B. deci'piens (B. and C.) Pk. Pileus dry, minutely silky, whitish- 
yellow or pale-buff, flesh buff, one-third in. thick; hymenium plane 
or somewhat concave, yellow, consisting of large, unequal, flexuous 
radiating tubes resembling multiseptate lamellae. Stem equal, solid but 
spongy. Veil floccose, evanescent, adhering for a time to the margin 
of the pileus. Spores rather minute, oblong, ochraceo- ferruginous (rusty 
yellow), 8-10x3.5-4/01. 

Pileus 2 in. broad. Stem 2-2.5 m - l n g> 3-4 l mes thick. 

Thin woods. North and South Carolina. M. A. Curtis. 

Specimens of this species have not been seen by me. The authors 
remark that its affinities are clearly with Boletinus flavidus and its allies, 
from which it is distinguished by its large radiating pores. They also 
say that when dry it is scarcely distinguishable from Paxillus porosus 
Berk., except by its spores. This would imply that its stem is eccen- 
tric or lateral, and I have been informed by Mr. Ravenel that it is some- 
times so. But specimens of this kind, labeled Boletinus decipiens B. 
and C., have been received, which show by their spores that they are 
Paxillus porosus. Besides, Professor Farlow informs me that authentic 
26 401 


Boietinus. specimens of B. decipiens in the Curtisian Herbarium have only central 
stems, from which things I suspect that the two species have been con- 
fused. The spore dimensions here given are derived from a specimen 
in the Curtis Herbarium, through the kindness of Professor Farlow. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

I have not recognized this Boietinus. Its affinities are with excellent 
edible species. 

B. poro'silS (Berk.) Pk. (Plate CXIII.) Pileus fleshy, viscid when 
moist, shining, reddish-brown. Flesh 3-9 lines thick, the margin thin 
and even ; hymenium porous, yellow, formed by radiating lamellae a line 
to half a line distant, branching and connected by numerous irregular 
veins of less prominence and forming large angular pores. Stem lateral, 
tough, diffused into the pileus, reticulated at the top by the decurrent 
walls of the tubes, colored like the pileus. Spores semi-ovate. 

Pileus 2-5 in. broad. Stem 6-1 6 lines long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Var. opa'cus (Paxillus porosus Berk., Bull. N. Y. State Mus. 2, p. 
32). Pileus dry, glabrous or subtomentose, not shining, brown or 
tawny-brown. Spores brownish-ochraceous, 9-nx6-8/A. 

Damp ground in woods and open places. Ohio, Lea, Morgan; North 
Carolina, Curtis; New England, Frost, Farlow ; Wisconsin, Bundy; 
New York, Peck. 

This species is remarkable for its lateral or eccentric stem. There 
is often an emargination in the pileus on the side of the stem which 
gives it a kidney shape. In the typical form it is described as viscid 
when moist, and the Wisconsin plant is also described as viscid, but in 
all the New York specimens that I have seen it is dry and sometimes 
minutely tomentose. I have, therefore, separated these as a variety. 
The color of the pileus varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown or 
umber. A disagreeable odor is sometimes present. The tubes are 
rather short and tough and do not easily separate from the hymeno- 
phore and from each other. In the young plant they are not separable. 
They sometimes become slightly blue where wounded. As in other 
species they are pale yellow when young, but become darker or dingy- 
ochraceous with age. The spores have been described as bright yel- 
low, but I do not find them so in the New York plant. The plant is. 
incongruous among the Paxilli by reason of its wholly porous hymenium, 

















but in this place it seems to be among its true allies. Peck, Boleti of Boiethms. 
the U. S. 

Fine specimens were sent to me by Mr. H.I. Miller, Terre Haute, 
and Dr. J. R. Weist, Richmond, Ind. They were in condition to be 
eaten and enjoyed. No disagreeable odor was perceptible. 

B. borealis Pk. PileilS fleshy, convex, obtuse or subumbonate, 
brownish-yellow, obscurely and somewhat reticulately streaked with 
reddish-brown lines. Pores large, angular, unequal, slightly decur- 
rent, brownish-yellow. Stem short, equal or slightly tapering upward, 
brownish-yellow with a whitish myceloid tomentum at the base. Spores 
oblong, IO-I2.5X4-5/A. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem about I in. long. 

Sandy soil. Capstan Island, Labrador. October. Waghorne. 

The markings of the pileus appear as if' due to the drying of a glutin- 
ous substance. The radiating lamellae and the transverse partitions of 
the interspaces are very plainly shown. Described from two dried speci- 
mens. Peck t Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 22, No. 5. 



Gr. a clod. 

Boletus. ^^^jS^'HE name of a fungus considered a great delicacy 

among the Romans, derived from bolos, a clod, 
probably to denote the round figure of the plant. 
Hymenium wholly composed of small tubes, 
connected together in a stratum, the surface of 
which is dotted with their poriform mouths, and 
which is distinct from the hymenophore on ac- 
count of the latter not descending into a trama. Tubes packed close 
together, .easily separating from the hymenophore and from one another. 
Pores or mouths of the tubes round or angular (in the subgenus Gyrodon 
sinuous or gyroso-plicate). Spores normally fusiform, rarely oval or 
somewhat round. Growing on the ground, fleshy, putrescent, with cen- 
tral stems. Mostly edible, and of importance as articles of food; a few 
poisonous. Fries. 

No American species in Gyrodon. It is therefore omitted in synopsis 
of tribes. C. M. 

This genus abounds in species and is related to Boletinus on one hand 
and to Polyporus on the other. From the latter it is distinguished by 
the absence of a trama and from both by the tubes being easily separa- 
ble from the hymenophore and from each other. Some of the species 
are very variable, others are so closely allied that they appear to almost 
run together. 

The species are generally terrestrial, but B. hemichrysus is habitually 
wood-growing, and others are occasionally so. 

The spores vary so much in color in such closely related species that 
this character is scarcely available for general classification, but it is val- 
uable as a specific character and should always be noted. 


Pileus and stem yellow-pulverulent, stem not reticulated 

with veins (p. 421.) Pulverulent! 

Pileus and stem not yellow-pulverulent, or if so then 

the stem reticulated with veins I 

I. Tubes yellowish with reddish, or reddish-brown 

mouths (p. 453.) Luridi 




05 ^ 
A O 

03 > 


Photograph by Huron H. Smith. 




I. Tubes of one color, or mouths not reddish 2 Boietns. 

2. Stem lacunose-reticulated and lacerated. (p. 436.) Laceripedes 

2. Stem reticulated with veins, not lacerated 3 

2 . Stem not reticulated 5 

3. Tubes white, becoming flesh-colored. . .(p. 466.) Hyporhodii 

3. Tubes not becoming flesh-colored 4 

4. Tubes free, or if adnate then stuffed when young, (p. 444.) Edules 
4. Tubes adnate, not stuffed when young, (p. 438.) Calopodes 

5. Pileus viscid or glutinous when moist 6 

5 . Pileus dry 7 

6. Tubes adnate (p. 406. ) Viscipelles 

6. Tubes free or nearly so, yellowish (p. 444.) Edules 

6. Tubes free or nearly so, whitish (p. 459.) Versipelles 

7 . Stem solid 8 

7. Stemspongy within, soon cavernous or hollow. . (p. 471-) Cariosi 

8. Tubes becoming flesh-colored (p. 466. ) Hyporhodii 

8. Tubes not becoming flesh-colored 9 

9. Tubes adnate 10 

9. Tubes free or nearly so 1 1 

10. Pileus subtomentose (p. 430.) Subtomentosi 

10. Pileus glabrous or pruinose (p. 423.) Subpruinosi 

1 1. Tubes yellowish or stuffed when young (p. 444.) Edules 

1 1 . Tubes whitish, not stuffed ( P- 459- ) Versipelles 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

C. H. Peck, N. Y. State Botanist, has contributed to Mycological 
literature his careful arrangement and analysis of species of this genus, 
in his "Boleti of the United States." Species of the genus are found in 
every state of the Union. Several species are common to all the states. 
Comprehending, as do the states, all sorts of climates within their vast 
range of latitude, differences in appearance and structure in the same 
species must be expected, dependent largely, as they are in most fungi, 
upon habitat and environment. These variations will frequently sug- 
gest new species. Descriptions which are typical and which can be 
recognized as standard are most desirable. Professor Peck's are ac- 
cepted by the writer as such, that there may be uniformity, and are 
quoted as fully as space will permit. Such variations as are attributa- 
ble to locality will be noted. 



Boletus. Since 1882 the writer has given great attention to the edible qualities 
of the Boleti. He is convinced by many personal tests and those made 
by his family and friends, that much, if not all, of the suspicion thrown 
about Boleti is unjust and erroneous. He is able to state positively that 
change of color when bruised or broken ; bitter and pepperiness have 
nothing whatever to do with the edible qualities of species exhibiting 
them, excepting in B. felleus, which exhibits an intense bitter, not lost 
in cooking. It is not poisonous. 

The writer has the courage of his convictions, and has taken interest 
in eating species with a bad reputation whenever opportunity afforded, 
that their just dues might be given them. He has never experienced 
the slightest inconvenience.- But others may not be so fortunate. 

Before cooking Boleti the stem, unless crisp and tender, should be 
removed, as should the tubes unless young and fresh. They broil, fry, 
stew, make good soups and dry well. See recipes. 

It is believed that all species of Boleti up to this time found in 
America are described in this volume. When no remarks of the writer 
follow the descriptions, he has not had an opportunity to test the edible 
quality of the species. 

VlSClPELLES viscum, bird lime; pellfc, a skin. 

Pileus covered with a viscose pellicle. Stem solid, neither bulbous, 
lacerated nor reticulated with veins. Tubes adnate, rarely sinuate, of 
one color. 

The first four and several of the final species here described recede 
somewhat from the character of the central or typical species of the 

Stem with an annulus I 

Stem without an annulus 9 

I. Stem dotted boch above and below the annulus 2 

I . Stem dotted above the annulus 3 

I . Stem not dotted 4 

2. Tubes salmon color B. salmonicolor 

2. Tubes yellowish B. subluteus 

3 . Annulus entirely viscose B. flavidus 

3. Annulus membranous, fugacious B. elegans 

3. Annulus membranous, persistent B. luteus 



4. Pileus squamose B. spectabilis Boletus. 

4. Pileus not squamose 5 

5 . Tubes whitish or grayish . 6 

5 . Tubes yellow or yellowish 7 

6. Flesh white, unchangeable B. Elbensis 

6. Flesh white, changing to bluish B. serotinus 

7. Spores globose or broadly elliptical B. sphaerosporus 

7. Spores much longer than broad 8 

8. Annulus fugacious B. flavus 

8. Annulus persistent B. Clintonianus 

9. Stem dotted with glandules 10 

9. Stem not dotted , 16 

10. Pileus some shade of yellow . 1 1 

10. Pileus some other color , 15 

1 1 . Stem rhubarb color B. punctipes 

1 1 . Stem some other color 1 2 

12. Stem four lines or more thick 13 

12. Stem less than four lines thick B. Americanus 

13. Pileus adorned with tufts of hairs or fibrils B. hirtellus 

1 3 . Pileus glabrous 14 

14. Stem yellow within B. subaureus 

14. Stem whitish or yellowish-white within B. granulatus 

1 5 . Pileus white B. albus 

15. Pileus not white B. granulatus 

16. Stem squamulose. 17 

1 6. Stem not squamulose , 18 

17. Pileus dull red B. dichrous 

17. Pileus some other color B. collinitus 

18. Pileous yellow 19 

1 8 . Pileus bay-red or chestnut 20 

18. Pileus some other color 21 

19. Flesh pale-yellow B. unicolor 

19. Flesh white B. bovinus 

20. Stem short, one inch or less B. brevipes 

20. Stem longer, two inches or more B. badius 

21. Tubes olivaceous or golden-yellow B. mitis 

2 1 . Tubes ferruginous 22 

22. Taste mild B. rubinellus 



Boletus. 22. Taste acrid or peppery. . . . 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S., p. 83. 

, B. piperatus 

(Plate CXV.) 

Natural size. 

B. specta'bilis Pk. spectabilis, distinguished. Pileus broadly con- 
vex, at first covered with a red to- 
mentum, then scaly, viscid when 
moist, red, the tomentose scales be- 
coming grayish-red, brownish or yel- 
lowish. Flesh whitish or pale-yellow. 
Tubes at first yellow and concealed 
by a reddish glutinous membrane, 
thenochraceous, convex, large, angu- 
lar, adnate. Stem nearly equal, an- 
nulate, yellow above the annulus, red 
or red with yellow stains below. 
Spores purplish-brown , 1315 x6 7/*. 
Pileus 2-5 in. broad. Stem 3-5 
in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Thin woods in swamps. New York, 
Peck; Wisconsin, Btmdy. 

This is a rare and showy species 
which inhabits the cold northern swamps of the country. It probably 
extends into Canada. When cut, the flesh emits a strong, unpleasant 
odor. Wounds of the flesh made by insects or other small animals have 
a bright-yellow color! When young, the tomentose veil covers the 
whole plant, but it soon parts into scales on the pileus and partly or 
wholly disappears from the stem. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 
London, Can., 7. Dearness ; Peck, Rep. 44, N. Y. State Bot. 

B. Elben'sis Pk. Pileus convex, glabrous, viscid when moist, dingy 
gray or pinkish-gray inclining to brownish, obscurely spotted or streaked 
as if with patches of innate fibrils. Flesh white. Tubes at first whitish, 
becoming dingy or brownish-ochraceous, nearly plane, adnate or slightly 
decurrent, rather large, angular. Stem nearly equal, annulate- whitish 
above the ring, colored like the pileus below, sometimes slightly reticu- 
lated at the top. Spores ferruginous-brown, 10-12x4-5^. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3-5 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. Thin 
woods of tamarack, spruce and balsam. New York. Peck. 



Its locality is thus far limited to the Adirondack region of this state. Boletus. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. sero'tinus Frost. late. Bulletin Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci., 1874. 
Pileus flat or convex, viscid, sordid brown, streaked with the remnants 
of the veil, especially near the margin, which is white, very thin, and 
when partly grown singularly pendent. Flesh white, changing to bluish. 
Tubes large, angular, unequal, slightly decurrent, at first sordid white 
or gray, sometimes tinged with green near the stem, afterward cinna- 
mon-yellow. Stem reticulated above the ring which adheres partly to 
it and partly to the margin of the pileus, white but stained by the 
brownish spores and tinged with yellow at maturity. Spores iox6jK. 

Shaded grassy ground. New England, Frost. 

Probably this is only a variety of the preceding species. Peck, Boleti 
of the U. S. 

B. salmoni'eolor Frost. Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., 1874. Pileus 
convex, soft, very glutinous, brownish or tawny-white with a faint tinge 
of red, wine-color when dry, the margin thin. Flesh tinged with red. 
Tubes simple, even, angular, adnate, pale salmon color. Stem small, 
dotted above with bright ferruginous red, sordid below, annulus dingy 
salmon-color. Spores 8x2.5/4. 

Borders of pine woods. New England. Frost. 

Apparently a distinct species. No specimens seen. Peck, Boleti of 
the U. S. 

B. el'egans Schum. Pileus convex or plane, viscose, golden-yellow 
or somewhat rust-color. Flesh pale-yellow. Tubes decurrent, golden 
or sulphur-yellow, the mouths minute, simple. Stem unequal, firm, 
golden or reddish, dotted above the fugacious white or pale-yellowisk 

Pileus 3-4-5 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long. 

Woods, especially under or near larch trees. North Carolina, Curtis; 
Wisconsin, Bundy; Minnesota, Johnson. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Cordier and Gillet give the species as edible though not delicate. 

West Philadelphia on lawns under larches, 1887-1891. Mcllvaine. 

The caps are of good flavor and consistency. They are best fried or 



Boletus. B. Clin'tonianus Pk. PileilS convex, very viscid or glutinous, glab- 
rous, soft, shining, golden-yellow, reddish-yellow or chestnut color, the 
margin thin. Flesh pale yellow, becoming less bright or dingy on ex- 
posure to the air. Tubes nearly plane, adnate or subdecurrent, small, 
angular or subrotund, pale-yellow, becoming dingy-ochraceous with 
age, changing to brown or purplish-brown where bruised. Stem equal 
or slightly thickened toward the base, straight or flexuous, yellow at the 
top, reddish or reddish-brown below the annulus, sometimes varied with 
yellow stains, the annulus white or yellow, persistent, forming a thick 
band about the stem. Spores brownish-ochraceous , I 0-11x4-5^. 

Pileus 2-5 in. broad. Stem 2-5 in. long, 4-9 lines thick. 

Mossy or grassy ground in woods or open places, especially under or 
near tamarack trees. New York, Peck; New England, Frost. 

This is apparently closely related to B. elegans, from which it differs 
in its thick persistent ring, in its stem which is not at all dotted and in 
its longer and darker-colored spores. Its smaller tube's and persistent 
ring separate it also from B. flavus. In the typical form the pileus is 
bay-red or chestnut color, but plants growing in open places generally 
have it yellowish or reddrsh-yellow. It is mild to the taste and I have 
eaten it sparingly. It sometimes grows in tufts. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. inflex'us Pk. curving. PileilS convex, glabrous, viscid, yellow, 
often red or reddish on the disk, the margin thin, inflexed, concealing 
the marginal tubes. Flesh whitish, not changing color where wounded. 
Tubes rather long, adnate, yellowish, becoming dingy-yellow with age, 
the mouths small, dotted with reddish glandules. Stem rather slender, 
not ringed, solid, viscid, dotted with livid-yellow glandules. Spores 
yellowish, 10 12x4 5/*. 

Pileus about i in. broad. Stem about 2 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Open woods. Trexlertown. September. Herbst. 

This Boletus belongs to the tribe Viscipelles. It is remarkable for and 
easily recognized by the inflexed margin of the pileus, which imitates to 
some extent the appendiculate veil of Boletus versipellis. It sometimes 
grows in tufts. The paper in which fresh specimens were wrapped was 
stained yellow. Boletus Braunii Bres. has an inflexed margin, but that 
is a much larger plant with a yellowish-brown pileus, a fibrillose stem 
and much smaller spores. Peek, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 22, No. 5. 


B. fla'vilS With. Pileus convex, compact, covered with a brownish Boletus, 
separating gluten, pale-yellow. Flesh pale-yellow. Tubes large, angu- 
lar, adnate, yellow. Stem yellow, becoming brownish, reticulated 
above the membranous fugacious dirty yellowish annulus. Spores 8 

Pileus 2-5 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 6-10 lines thick. 

Woods. Minnesota, Johnson; Wisconsin, Bundy. 

This is apparently a rare species in this country. I have not seen it. 
It is said to resemble B. luteus, from which it is separated by the large 
angular mouths of the tubes. In British Fungi the spores are described 
as "spindle-shaped, yellowish-brown;" in Sylloge, as "ovoid-oblong, 
acute at the base, granulose, pale ochraceous." Peck, Boleti of the 
U. S. 

B. fistulo'silS Pk. Pileus convex, viscid, glabrous, yellow, the 
margin at first incurved or involute. Flesh yellow. Tubes plane or 
subventricose, medium size, round with thin walls, adnate or sometimes 
depressed around the stem, yellow. Stem rather slender, subequal, 
viscid, glabrous, hollow, yellow, with a white mycelioid tomentum at 
the base. Spores elliptical, 13x6^. 

Pileus about i in. broad. Stem 2-'4 in. long, about 3 lines thick. 

Grassy woods. Auburn, Ala. July. Underwood. 

A small but pretty species of a yellow color throughout. It is re- 
markable for its hollow stem, which is suggestive of the specific name. 
It is referable to the tribe Viscipelles. Pefk, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 
Vol. 24, No. 3. 

B. sphseros'porus Pk. globose-spored. (Bulletin Torrey Botanical 
Club, Vol. XII.) Pileus at first hemispherical, then convex, glabrous, 
viscid, creamy-yellow, becoming reddish-brown or chestnut color with 
age. Flesh pale yellowish-brown. Tubes adnate or slightly decur- 
rent, large, angular, pale-yellow, becoming brown, sometimes tinged 
with green. Stem stout, equal, even or slightly reticulated at the top, 
the membranous anmilus persistent, sometimes partly adhering to the 
margin of the pileus. Spores globose or broadly elliptical, 8~9/* long. 

PileilS 3-8 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 6-12 lines thick. 

Low ravines and sandy places. Wisconsin, Trelease; Iowa, Me Bride. 

The spores easily serve to distinguish this species from its allies. The 



Boletus. European B. sphaerocephalus has ovoid spores, but its tube mouths are 
minute and rotund and its stem is densely squamose. Peck, Boleti of 

the U. S. 

B. lu'teus L. yellow. PileuS gibbous or convex, covered with a 
brownish separating gluten, becoming yellowish-brown and virgate- 
spotted. Flesh white. Tubes adnate, minute, simple, yellow, becom- 
ing darker with age. Stem stout, yellowish and dotted above the large 
membranous brownish-white annulus, brownish-white or yellowish below. 
Spores fusiform, yellowish-brown, 6 7x3 4/x.. 

PileuS 2-5 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 6-10 lines thick. 

Pine woods and groves. New York, Peck. 

B. luteus has an international reputation for edibility. I have found it 
at Waretown and Haddonfield, N. J. ; in Bartram's Garden, West Phila- 
delphia, always under pines. At Waretown it was gregarious. Pine 
needles, sand, anything through which it grows, adheres to the glutin- 
ous cap. It must be carefully cleaned before cooking. It is then of 
choice consistency and good flavor. 

(Plate CXVa.) 

B. Sllblu'teuS Pk. luteus, yellow. PileuS convex or nearly plane, 

viscid or glutinous when moist, often 
obscurely virgate-spotted, dingy -yel- 
lowish, inclining to rusty-brown. 
Flesh whitish, varying to dull-yel- 
lowish. Tubes plane or convex, ad- 
nate, small, subrotund, yellow be- 
coming ochraceous. Stem equal, 
slender, pallid or yellowish, dotted 
both above and below the ring with 
reddish or brownish glandules ; ring 
submembranous, glutinous > at first 
concealing the tubes, then generally 
collapsing and forming a narrow 
whitish or brownish band around the 
stem . Spores subf usiform , ochraceo- 

Pileus 1.5-3 in - broad. Stem 1.5-2.5 in. 


ferruginous, 8-10x4-5^. 
long, 2-4 lines thick. 



Sandy soil in pine woods. New York, Peck, Clinton; New England, 

The species is closely related to B. luteus, from which it differs in its 
smaller size, more slender stem and glutinous collapsing veil. Peck, 
Boleti of the U. S. 

Found at Waretown, N. J., 1887, under pines and in same locality 
as B. luteus, for which it can be readily mistaken. It is usually covered 
with adherent sand or pine needles. Its flesh is tender with a pleasant 
glutinosity. Flavor good. 

B. fla'vidllS Fr. light yellowish. PiletlS thin, gibbous, then plane, 
viscose, livid, yellowish. Flesh pallid. Tubes decurrent, with large 
angular compound months, dirty yellowish. Stem slender, subequal, 
pallid, sprinkled with fugacious glandules above the entirely viscose ring. 
Spores oblong-ellipsoid, straight, subhyaline, 8-10x3-4^1. 

PileilS 1-2 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Pine woods and swamps. Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; North Carolina, 
Curtis; New England, Frost; California, H. and M.; Rhode Island, 

Fries says that this species is more slender than its allies, and differs 
from them all in its merely glutinous veil. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Dr. Curtis, of North Carolina, places it among edible species. 

Many specimens were found by the writer near Waretown and Had- 
donfield, N. J., and a few at Mt. Gretna, Pa. The stems are thin and 
slightly spreading at the top. They are hard. The caps are excellent. 

B. America'llUS Pk. Pileus thin, convex or nearly plane, sometimes 
umbonate, soft, very viscid or glutinous when moist, slightly tomentose 
on the margin when young, soon glabrous or the margin sometimes 
remaining scaly, rarely scale-spotted from the drying of the gluten, 
yellow, becoming dingy or less bright with age, sometimes vaguely 
dotted or streaked with bright red. Flesh pale-yellow, less clear or 
pinkish-gray on exposure to the air. Tubes plane or convex, adnate, 
rather large, angular, pale-yellow, becoming sordid-ochraceous. Stem 
slender, equal or slightly tapering upward, firm, not at all annulate, 
yellow, often pallid or brownish toward the base, marked with numerous 
brown or reddish-brown persistent glandular dots, yellow within. Spores 
oblong or subfusiform, ochraceo-ferruginous, 91 1x4 5^. 


Boletus. Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-2.5 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Woods, swamps and open places, especially under or near pine trees. 
New York, Peck, Clinton; Minnesota, Arthur. 

A slight subacid odor is sometimes perceptible in our plant. It 
sometimes grows on much decayed wood. Its mycelium is white. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

The caps, only, are good. 

B. Sllbau'reus Pk. sub and aureus, golden. (Plate CXIV, fig. 2, 
p. 414.) Pileus convex or nearly plane, viscose, pale-yellow, some- 
times adorned with darker spots, the young margin slightly grayish- 
tomentose. Flesh pale-yellow. Tubes small or medium', somewhat 
angular, adnate or subdecurrent, pale-yellow becoming dingy-ochrace- 
ous. Stem equal, stout, glandular-dotted, yellow without and within. 
Spores oblong or subfusiform, ochraceo-ferruginous, 810x4/1.. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1.5-2.5 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Thin woods and open places. New York, Peck; North Carolina, C. 
J. Curtis; Massachusetts, Mississippi, G. Survey (Rep. 51). 

This plant might almost be considered a stout variety of the preced- 
ing, but in addition to its thicker pileus and stouter stem, it has smaller 
tubes of a clearer yellow color, and the exuding drops are yellow, not 
whitish, as in that species. In habit it appears more like B. granulatus, 
from which it is distinct in color. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

From early October, through heavy frosts and until long after No- 
vember snows I found this species at Mt. Gretna, Pa., in 18971898. 
Specimens were sent to Professor Peck and identified as this species. It 
grew in grass on borders of woods, or gravelly ground, sometimes 
among pine needles. Large troops of it were frequent, and tufts con- 
taining many individuals were common. 

I regard B. subaureus as among the most valuable of our food species. 
Its plentifulness, lateness, excellent quality will commend it to all My- 
cophagists. It can be cooked in any way. The tubes need not be re- 

B. hirtel'lus Pk. slightly hairy. Pileus broadly convex, soft, 
viscose, golden-yellow, adorned with small tufts of hairs or fibrils. 
Flesh pale-yellow. Tubes adnate, medium size, angular, becoming 



dingy-ochraceous. Stem subcespitose, equal, stout, glandular dotted, Boletus, 
yellow. Spores pale, ocJiraceous-brown, 910x4/4. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Sandy soil under pine trees. New York, Peck. 

This species is very rare and was formerly confused with the preced- 
ing from which it is separated by the hairy adornment of the pileus and 
the darker, more brown color of the spores. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. punc'tipes Pk. punctum, a dot; pes, a foot. Pileus convex or 
nearly plane, glutinous when moist, yellow, the thin margin at first 
minutely grayish-pulverulent, becoming recurved with age. Tubes 
short, nearly plane, adnate, small, subrotund, at first brownish, then 
sordid-ochraceous. Stem rather long, tapering ifpward, grandular- 
dotted, rhubarb-yellow. Spores 9 10x4-5;*. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3-5 lines thick. Mixed 
woods. New York, Peck. 

The rhubarb-colored stem and the brownish color of the young hy- 
menium a"e the distinguishing features of this species. The glandules 
occur also on the tubes. The species is rare. Peck, Boleti of the 
U. S. 

Not seen by Professor Peck since its discovery in 1878. 

Spores when first dropped are olive-green on white paper, but the 
green hue soon changes to brownish-ochraceous. Peck, 44th Rep. N. 
Y. State Bot. 

Ontario, Prof. Dearness (Lloyd, R. 4). 

B. al'btlS Pk. v/hite. Pileus convex, viscid when moist, white, 
Flesh white or yellowish. Tubes plane, small or medium, subrotund, 
adnate, whitish, becoming yellow or ochraceous. Stem equal or slightly 
tapering downward, both it and the tubes glandular-dotted, white, 
sometimes tinged with pink toward the base. Spores ochraceous, sub- 
fusiform, 8 9x4^. 

PileilS 1-5-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 in. lon g, 3~5 lines thick. 

Woods, especially of pine or hemlock. New York, Peck; New 
England, Frost. 

This species is easily known by its white pileus, but its color is lost 
in drying. Sometimes the fresh plant emits a peculiar fetid odor. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 



Boletus. B. granula'tllS granula, a granule. PileuS convex or nearly 
plane, very viscid or glutinous and rusty-brown when moist, yellowish 
when dry. Flesh pale-yellowish. Tubes short, adnate, yellowish, 
their mouths simple, granulated. Stem dotted with glandules above* 
pale-yellowish. Spores spindle-shaped, yellowish-orange, /.5-IOX2-3/X,. 

PileuS 1.5-4 m - broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Woods, especially of pine and in open places under or near pine 
trees. Very common. 

The plant is generally gregarious and sometimes grows in circles, 
whence the name B. circinans Pers. Occasionally it is cespitose. The pi- 
leus is very variable in color pinkish-gray, reddish-brown, yellowish- 
gray, tawny-ferruginous or brownish and is sometimes obscurely spot- 
ted by the drying gluten. The flesh is rather thick and often almost 
white, except near the tubes, where it is tinged with yellow. The tubes 
are small, at first almost white or very pale-yellow, but they become 
dingy-ochraceous with age. The stem is generally short, stout and 
firm, whitish-pallid or yellowish, and often dotted to the base, though 
the glandules are more numerous and distinct on the upper part. Peck, 
Boleti of the U. S. 

B. granulatus is of frequent and general occurrence. I have found it 
in the pine woods of New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia, and in West Virginia and Pennsylvania in mixed woods. 

It is a late-growing species, appearing in September and continuing 
until frost. 

All authors, with one exception (Gillet), give the species as edible. 
From frequent and copious testings, the writer vouches for its edibility 
and excellence. It bears favorable comparison with any of the late 

B, bre'vipes Pk. brevis, short; pes, foot. Pfleus thick, convex, 
covered with a thick, tough gluten when young or moist, dark chestnut 
color, sometimes fading to dingy-tawny, the margin inflexed. Flesh 
white or tinged with yellow. Tubes short, nearly plane, adnate or 
slightly depressed around the stem, small, subrotund, at first whitish 
becoming dingy-ochraceous. Stem whitish, not dotted or rarely with a 
few very minute inconspicuous dots at the apex, very short. Spores sub- 
fusiform, 7.5x3//.. 

PileuS 1.5-2.5 in. broad. Stem .5-1 in. long, 3-5 lines thick. 



Sandy soil in pine groves and woods. New England, Frost; New Boletus. 
York, Peck. 

The species is closely related to B. granulatus, from which it differs 
especially in its darker colored pileus, more copious gluten, shorter 
stem and the almost entire absence of granules from the tube mouths 
and stem. In the rare instances in which these are present they are ex- 
tremely minute and inconspicuous. The plant occurs very late in the 
season and the pileus appears as if enveloped in slime and resting stem- 
less on the ground. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Specimens found in pine woods of New Jersey, identified by Professor 
Peck. Lambertville, N. J., C. S. Ridgway; Haddonfield, N. J., T. 
J. Collins; Pleasantville, Isaac F. Shaner. 

B. brevipes is a disreputable, dirty, tramp-looking fungus, from which 
the collector would expect no good. Nevertheless, when it has had a 
good scrubbing it becomes respectable and is sweet, tender, good eat- 
ing. When other species abound, it does not pay for the cleansing. 

B. COllilli'tllS Fr. collino, to besmear. Pileus convex, even, becom- 
ing pale when the brown gluten separates. Flesh white. Tubes adnate, 
elongated, naked, the mouths two-parted, pallid, becoming yellow. 
Stem firm, often tapering downward, somewhat reticulate with appressed 
squamules, white, becoming brown. 

Woods of pine or fir. North Carolina, Curtis/ New England, Frost. 

I have seen no specimens of this apparently rare species. It is said 
to be solitary in its mode of growth and to resemble B. luteus in size 
and color, but to be distinct from it by its ringless, dotless stem. Dr*. 
Curtis records it as edible. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

I found three specimens at Haddonfield, N. J., October, 1897, under 
scrub pines. Cap 2;^ in. across, convex, gibbous; stem equal, 2% in. 
long, K in. in diameter, slightly tapering at base. The two-parted 
mouths to the tubes were very distinct. The stems were tough, but the 
caps, washed and fried, were good. 

B. di'chrous Ellis. Pileus convex, viscose, dull red. Flesh soft, 
dull, yellowish-white, changing to greenish-blue where wounded, finally 
yellow. Tubes subdepressed around the stem, large, unequal, straw- 
colored, changing color like the flesh where wounded. Stem thickened 

27 417 


Boletus, below, solid, covered with a red scaly coat, except at the yellow apex, 
yellow within. Spores elliptical, slightly bent at one end, 2/A long. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 3 in. long, 6 lines thick. 

Dry soil in oak and pine woods. New Jersey. Ellis. 

I have seen no specimens of this species. From the description, its 
affinities appear to be with B. bicolor, but it is placed here because of 
its viscose pileus. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. ba'dius Fr. bay-brown. Pileus convex, even, soft, viscose or 
glutinous, shining when dry, tawny-chestnut. Flesh whitish, tinged 
with yellow, bluish next the tubes. Tubes large, angular, long, adnate 
or sinuate-depressed, whitish-yellow, becoming tinged with green. 
Stem subequal, even, solid, paler, brown-pruinate . Spores fusoid- 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 3-5 lines thick. 

Woods, especially of pine. New York, Peck; Minnesota, Johnson; 
Wisconsin, Bundy; Nova Scotia, Somers. 

In the American plant the spores are 10-1 2x4-5^. 

Cordier classes it among the edible species. Peck, Boleti of the 
United States. 

B. mi'tis Krombh. mild. Pileus convex, then plane or depressed, 
firm, viscid, yellowish-flesh color, reddish-rust color when dry. Flesh 
pale, grayish-yellow. Tubes short, olivaceous or golden-yellow, their 
mouths compound, angular, unequal. Stem firm, short, even, narrbwed 
toward the base, colored like the pileus. Spores 1214x41*. 

Pileus 2-2*. 5 in. broad. Stem 2-2.5 in. long. 

Mixed woods. New England, Frost. 

This species is unknown to me and is recorded by Mr. Frost only. 
Peck, Bol.eti of the United States. 

B. uni'color Frost MS. Pileus broadly convex or nearly plane, vis- 
cid when moist, even, sometimes streaked as if with minute innate brown 
fibrils, pale-yellow. Flesh pale-yellow. Tubes adnate or slightly de- 
current, rather short, compound, lemon-yellow, becoming darker with 
age. Stem even, equal or narrowed toward the base, colored like the 
pileus. Spores reddish-yellow, 9-11x4^1. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad . Stem 2 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 



Pine woods and open sedgy places. New England, Frost. Boletus. 

Specimens not seen. The species seems too near B. bovinus, of 
which it may possibly be a variety, but its yellow flesh and the colors 
ascribed to the tubes and spores require its separation. Rev. C. J. 
Curtis sends notes of a species found by him in North Carolina, which 
agree with this in its characters so far as noted. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

B. ignora'tus Pk. PileuS convex, viscid, bright lemon-color, marked 
with wrinkled lines of orange color, which are distributed over the pi- 
leus, giving it a streaked appearance. Flesh white, solid, does not 
change color when cut or broken; taste slightly acid. Pores lemon- 
color, moderately large, free, connected with the stem by web-like fila- 
ments. Stem larger at the apex, somewhat tapering toward the base, 
yellow, smooth, solid. Spores 4.5xn/>t. 

This closely approaches Boletus unicolor Fr., from which it scarcely 
differs except in its white flesh and free tubes. Fungi of Maryland, 
Mary E. Banning. Peck, 44th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

B. bovi'nus bos, an ox. PileuS nearly plane, glabrous, viscid, pale 
yellow. Flesh white. Tubes very short, subdecurrent, their mouths 
compound, pale yellow or grayish, becoming rust-colored. Stem equal, 
even, colored like the pileus. Spores fusiform, dingy greenish-ocher, 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-2 in. long, sometimes cespitose. 

Pine woods. North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, 
Schweinitz; New England, Frost, Palmer, Bennett, Sprague, Farlow; 
California, H ' . and M . 

The shallow tubes, 2-3 lines long, are said to resemble the pores of 
Merulius lacrymans. The species is recorded edible by Curtis, Gillet 
and Palmer. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia mountains under hemlocks, 1882-1885, and near Had- 
donfield, N. J., under pines. Mcllvaine, 1892. Gregarious and in 
clusters. The pore surface was in some specimens broadly wrinkled. 

Smell and taste pleasant. Cooked, the quality is of the best in Boleti. 

B. rubinel'lus Pk. dim. of ruber, red. Pileus broadly conical or 
convex, viscid when moist, subtomentose or slightly pubescent when 
dry, red fading to yellow on the margin. Flesh whitish or yellowish, 



Boletus, taste mild. Tubes adnate or slightly depressed around the stem, dingy- 
reddish, becoming subferruginous. Stem equal, slender, even, colored 
like the tubes, yeflow witJiin, sometimes yellow at the base. Spores 
oblong-fusiform, ferruginous-brown, 12.5 1 5x4^. 

PileilS 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 1-3 lines thick. 
Mixed woods or under or near coniferous trees in open places. New 
York, Peck. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. pipera'tus Bull. piper, pepper. PileilS convex or nearly plane, 
glabrous, slightly viscid when moist, yellowish, cinnamon or siibferm- 
ginous. Flesh white or yellowish, taste acrid, peppery . Tubes rather 
long and large, angular, often unequal, plane or convex, adnate or sub- 
decurrent, reddish-rust color. Stem slender, subequal, tawny-yellow, 
bright yellow at the base. Spores subfusiform, ferruginous-brown, 
9-1 IX4/M. 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g, 2 ~4 l mes thick. 

Woods and open places. Common and variable. 

This species may easily be recognized by its peppery flavor. The 
pileus sometimes appears as if slightly tomentose, and both this and the 
preceding species recede from the character of the tribe by the slight 
viscidity of the pileus. This is sometimes cracked into areas and some- 
times the margin is very obtuse by the elongation of the tubes. Peck, 
Boleti of the U. S. 

Haddonfield, N. J., 1892. Mcllvaine. 

This fungus is reckoned poisonous by Stevenson. Massee gives its 
taste as very hot. The taste of the American plant is peppery but not 
offensively so. This pepperiness it loses in cooking. It has been eaten 
by the writer and his friends with enjoyment and without any discom- 

B. subsanguin'eus Pk. sub and sangttineus, bloody. (Plate CXVI, 
fig. 4, p. 420.) PileilS convex or slightly depressed in the center, gla- 
brous, viscid, bright-red or scarlet. Flesh thick, firm but flexible, white, 
slowly changing to a pale brownish-lilac on exposure to the air, taste 
slightly bitter. Tubes very short, 24 mm. long, adnate, but often sep- 
arating from the stem with the expansion of the pileus, reddish, the 
mouths minute, stuffed at first, pinkish, then brownish-yellow, changing 
to a light-brown where wounded. Stem short, thick, uneven, often 



t ! ''>:X ; ,v^ 


Grouped by F. I>. Briscoe Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 

New Species. 




3. BoLtTus FUIATS. 






tapering downward, streaked with red, pale-yellow at the top, white at Boletus, 
the base, marked at the top by the decurrent walls of the tubes. 

PileuS 2.5-10 cm. broad. Stem 2.5-5 cm - l n g> 2-4 cm. thick. 

Solitary, gregarious or cespitose. Under beech trees. West Phila- 
delphia, Pa. August. C. Mcllvaine. 

This is a very showy species, easily recognized by its bright-red vis- 
cid pileus and its short, thick and uneven or somewhat lacunose stem. 
It is closely related to the European B. sanguineus With., from which 
it is separated by its minute tubes, its uneven stem and the brownish 
hues assumed where wounded. 

The spore characters of this and the four succeeding species are un- 
known, but the other characters are quite distinctive and apparently 
sufficient for the recognition of the species. The descriptions have been 
derived from colored figures and other data furnished by Mr. Mcllvaine, 
who says all are edible. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, No. 27. 

When slowly stewed for thirty minutes, there is no better Boletus. 


Pileus clothed with a yellow dust or a yellow powdery down. Stem 
more or less yellow powdered, neither bulbous nor distinctly reticulated. 

The species which constitute this tribe are easily distinguished from 
all others by the sulphur-colored pulverulence which coats the pileus 
and stem like a universal veil. They appear thus far to be peculiar to 
this country. Though strongly resembling each other in the tribal 
character they are very diverse in other respects. One species, by its 
viscidity, connects with the preceding tribe; another by its differently 
colored tube mouths is related to the Luridi ; and the third is peculiar 
in its ligneous habitat. 

Plant growing on the ground I 

Plant growing on wood B. hemichrysus 

i . Tubes adnate, of one color B. Ravenelii 

i . Tubes free, with red mouths B. auriflammeus 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S., p. 103. 

B. hemicliry'sus B. and C. half-golden. Pileus convex, at length 
plane or irregularly depressed, floccose-squamulose, covered with a yel- 
low powder, sometimes cracked, bright golden-yellow. Flesh thick, 



Boletus, yellow. Tubes adnate or decurrent, yellow, becoming reddish-brown, 
the mouths large, angular. Stem short, irregular, narrowed below, 
sprinkled with a yellow dust, yellowish tinged with red ; mycelium yel- 
low. Spores oblong, minute, dingy-ochraceous. 

Var. muta bills. Flesh slightly changing to blue where wounded. 
Stem reddish, yellow within, sometimes eccentric. Spores oblong- 
elliptical, 7.5 9X3-4//.. 

Pileus 1.5-2.5 in. broad. Stem about I in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Roots of pine, Pinus palustris. The variety on stumps of Pinus 

South Carolina, Ravenel; North Carolina, Curtis; New York, Peck. 

The species is remarkable for its habitat, which is lignicolous. The 
New York variety grew on a stump of white pine. By its eccentric 
stem it connects this genus with Boletinus, through Boletinus porosus. 
According to the authors of this species it resembles Boletus variegatus. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. Kavenel'ii B. and C. after Ravenel. Pileus convex or nearly 
plane, slightly viscid when young or moist, covered with a sulphur-yel- 
low powdery down, becoming naked and dull-red on the disk. Flesh 
whitish. Tubes at first plane, adnate, pale-yellow, becoming yellowish- 
brown or umber, dingy-greenish where bruised, the mouths large or 
medium size, subrotund. Stem nearly equal, clothed and colored like 
the young pileus, yellow within, with a slight evanescent webby or 
tomentose ring. Spores ochraceous-brown, io-i2x5-6/M. 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1.5-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods and copses. South Carolina, Ravenel; North Carolina, Curtis; 
New York, Peck; New England, Frost. 

This is a very distinct and very beautiful species. Mr. Ravenel re- 
marks in his notes that "this plant is not infested by larvae and preserves 
more constant characters than any other Boletus with which I am ac- 
quainted." The webby powdered filaments constitute a universal veil 
which at first covers the whole plant and conceals the young tubes. As 
the pileus expands this generally disappears from the disk, and, sep- 
arating between the margin and the stem, a part adheres to each. The 
flesh is sometimes stained with yellow. The tubes in some instances be- 
come convex and slightly depressed around the stem. They are almost 
white when young, and often exhibit brownish hues where wounded. 



The plant is sometimes cespitose. I have observed a greenish tint to Boletus, 
the freshly shed spores, but it soon disappears. Boletus subchromeus 
Frost Ms. is this species. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. auriflam'meus B. and C. flaming yellow. Pileus convex, dry, 
powdered, bright golden-yellow. Flesh white, unchangeable. Tubes 
plane or convex, free, yellow, their broad angular mouths scarlet. Stem 
slightly tapering upward, powdered, colored like the pileus. Spores 

Pileus 8-12 lines broad. Stem 1-1.5 in. long. 

Woods. North Carolina, Curtis; New York, Peck. 

This is evidently a rare species and as beautiful as it is rare. The 
whole plant is bright-yellow except the tube mouths, and is sprinkled 
with yellow dust or minute yellow branny particles. In the New York 
specimen the scarlet color is wanting in the marginal tube mouths and 
the stem is marked with fine subreticulating elevated lines. In other 
respects it agrees well with the diagnosis of the species. Peck, Boleti 
of the U. S. 

SUBPRUINOSI sub, pruina, hoar frost. 

Pileus glabrous, but more often pruinose. Tubes adnate, yellowish. 
Stem equal, even, neither bulbous nor reticulated. 

The species of this tribe have the pileus neither viscid nor distinctly 
and permanently tomentose. Typically it is glabrous or merely pruinose, 
but Fries has admitted into the group one species with a pulverulent, 
and one with a silky pileus. The species are not sharply distinguished 
from those of the following tribes, and possibly some have been admitted 
here which might as well have been placed there. Some of the species 
are variable in color and their characters are not sufficiently well known. 

Tubes bright-yellow, golden or subochraceous i 

i . Tubes pale or whitish-yellow 6 

i . Tubes changing to blue where wounded 2 

i . Tubes not changing to blue 3 

2. Stem pallid, with a circumscribing red line at the top..B. glabellus 
2. Stem yellow, sometimes with red stains. . . .B. miniato-olivaceus 

2. Stem red, yellow at the top B. bicolor 

3. Stem viscid or glutinous when moist B. auriporus 



Boletus. 3 . Stem not viscid 4 

4. Plant growing on Scleroderma B. parasiticus 

4. Plant terrestrial 5 

5. Tubes greenish-yellow B. alutaceus 

5 . Tubes golden-yellow B. tenuiculus 

6. Pileus reticulated with subcutaneous brown lines. .B. dictyocephalus 

6. Pileus not reticulated 7 

7. Tubes changing to blue where wounded B. pallidus 

7. Tubes not changing to blue 8 

8. Stem uniformly colored B. subglabripes 

8. Stem yellowish, streaked with brown B. innixus 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. minia'tO-oliva'ceilS Frost olive-red. Pileus at first convex and 
firm, then nearly plane, soft and spongy, glabrous, vermilion, becom- 
ing olivaceous. Flesh pale-yellow, changing to blue where wounded. 
Tubes bright lemon-yellow, adnate or subdecurrent. Stem glabrous, 
enlarged at the top, pale-yellow, brighter within, sometimes lurid at the 
base. Spores 12.5x6^. 

Var. sensi'bilis (Boletus sensibilis Rep. 32, p. 33). 

Pileus at first pruinose-tomentose, red, becoming glabrous and ochra- 
ceous-red with age. Tubes bright-yellow tinged with green, becoming 
sordid-yellow. Stem lemon-yellow with red or rhubarb stains at the 
base, contracted at the top when young, subcespitose. Spores 10-12.5 

Pileus 2-6 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods and their borders. New England, Frost ; New York, Peck. 

Though the sensitive Boletus differs considerably in some respects 
from the olive-red Boletus, it is probably only a variety, and as such I 
have subjoined it here. In it every part of the plant quickly changes 
to blue where wounded, and even the pressure of the fingers in handling 
the fresh specimens is sufficient to induce this change of color. I have 
not found the typical plant in New York, but specimens received from 
Mr. Frost are not, in the dry state, distinguishable from the variety. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Indiana, H. I. Miller \ West Virginia. Haddonfield, N. J. Chelten- 
ham, Pa., Mcllvaine. 

Years ago I marked it edible and excellent when young. My friends 



c o 
r r 1 
K a 
H H 

- M 
f- 1 M 







have eaten it, and continue to do so. Yet Professor Peck (48th Rep., Boletus, 
p. 202) reports a case brought to his notice of an entire family being 
sickened by eating B. sensibilis. All recovered. It may, therefore, be 
one of those species which, while disagreeing with some persons, can 
be eaten by the majority. Clitocybe illudens, Lepiota Morgani and 
others of the Agaricaceae are such species. 

B. bi'color Pk. two-color. (Plate CXVII, figs. I, 2, p. 424.) Pi- 
leus convex, glabrous or merely pruinose-tomentose, dark-red, firm, be- 
coming soft, paler and sometimes spotted or stained with yellow when 
old. Flesh yellow, not at all or but slightly and slowly changing to 
blue where wounded. Tubes nearly plane, adnate, bright-yellow, be- 
coming ochraceous, slowly changing to blue where wounded, their 
mouths small, angular or subrotund. Stem subequal, firm, solid, red, 
generally yellow at the top,. Spores pale,- ochraceous-brown, 10 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Woods and open places. New York, Peck; Wisconsin, Bundy. 

The color of this plant is somewhat variable. In the typical form the 
pileus and stem are dark red, approaching Indian red, but when old the 
color of the pileus fades and is often intermingled with yellow. The 
surface sometimes cracks and becomes cracked in areas. From the 
European B. Barlae this species is separated by its solid stem; from B. 
versicolor by its small tube mouths and its red stem. Peck, Boleti of 
the U. S. 

Plentiful at Mt. Gretna, Pa., July, August, September, 1898, in 
mixed woods. Very variable in shape and color. Identified by Pro- 
fessor Peck from painting and description. 

Fine eating, one of the very best. 

B. glabel'lllS Pk. smooth. PileilS fleshy, thick, broadly convex or 
nearly plane, soft, dry, subglabrous, smoky-buff. Flesh white, both it 
and the tubes changing to blue where wounded. Tubes nearly plane, 
adnate, ochraceous, tinged with green, their mouths small, subrotund. 
Stem subequal, glabrous, even, reddish toward the base, pallid above, 
with a narrow reddish circumscribing zone or line at the top. Spores 
oblong, brownish-ochraceous, tinged with green when fresh, 10-12. 5x4^. 

PileilS 3-5 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 5-10 lines thick. 



Boletus. Grassy ground under oaks. New York, Peck. 

The species is well marked by the reddish band or line on the stem 
just below the tubes, but this disappears in drying. Peck, Boleti of 
the U. S. 

B. aluta'ceilS Morgan yellowish. PileuS cushion-shaped, glabrous, 
ahitaceous with a tinge of red. Flesh white, inclining to reddish. Tubes 
semifree, medium in size, unequal, angular, greenish-yellow. Stem 
nearly equal, striate, reticulate at the apex, colored like the pileus. 
Spores fusiform, brownish-olive, 12.5x5^. 

Pileus 3 in. broad. 

Rocky woods of oak and chestnut. Kentucky, Morgan. 

The general aspect of the figure of this species recalls some of the 
forms of Boletus subtomentosus. The tubes are nearly equal in length 
to the thickness of the flesh of the pileus. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Quite frequent at Mt. Gretna, Pa., in mixed woods, principally oak 
and chestnut. 

Stem should be removed, and tubes when old. It cooks well and is 
especially good. 

B. tenui'culus Frost thin. Pileus nearly plane, thin, lurid-red on 
a yellow ground. Flesh unchangeable. Tubes short, adnate, small, 
golden-yellow. Stem slender, equal, colored like the pileus. Spores 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 4-6 in. long. 

Woods. New England. Frost. 

The thin pileus and long slender stem readily distinguish this species. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. auri'porus Pk. golden-pore. Pileus convex or nearly plane, 
glabrous or merely pruinose-tomentose, grayish-brown, yellowish-brown, 
or reddish-brown. Flesh white, unchangeable. Tubes plane or slightly 
depressed around the stem, adnate or subdecurrent, bright golden-yel- 
low, retaining their color when dried. Stem equal or slightly thickened 
at the base, viscid or glutinous when moist, especially toward the base, 
colored like or a little paler than the pileus. Spores 7-5- IOX 4~5/*- 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 



Thin woods and shaded banks. New York, Peck; New England, Boletus. 

This species is remarkable for the rich yellow color of the tubes, 
which is retained unchanged in the dried specimens, and for the viscid 
stem. This character, however, is not noticeable in dry weather and 
was overlooked in the original specimens. 

Boletus glutinipes Frost Ms. is not distinct. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Hopkins' Woods, Haddonfield, N. J. Grassy oak woods. 1891 
1894. Mcllvaine. 

The caps are delicious. 

B. innix'us Frost. Pileus convex or nearly plane, glabrous, yellow- 
ish-brown, slightly cracked in areas when old, yellow in the interstices. 
Flesh white. Tubes adnate, lemon-yellow, unchangeable. Stem slen- 
der, short, much thickened at the base in large specimens, yellowish, 
streaked with brown, brownish within. Spores iOx5/x,. 

Grassy woods. New England. Frost. 

The whole plant often reclines as if for support, Peck, Boleti of the 
U. S. 

B. parasi'ticus Bull. a parasite. Pileus convex or nearly plane, dry, 
silky, becoming glabrous, soon tessellately cracked, grayish or dingy- 
yellow. Tubes decurrent, medium size, golden yellow. Stem equal, 
rigid, incurved, yellow without and within. Spores oblong-fusiform, 
pale-brown, 12.5-15x4^. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Parasitic on species of Scleroderma. New York, Gerard; New Eng- 
land, Sprague, Bennett. 

This species is very rare in this country. It is remarkable for its 
peculiar habitat. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

New York, Lydia M . Patchen; Westfield, on Scleroderma vulgare. 

I found many specimens of this rare species during August, 1897, 
growing on Scleroderma vulgare. 

Professor Peck, to whom I sent specimens, identified them as B. par- 
asiticus. The tubes were large, unequal, dissepiments thin, decurrent. 
The Sclerodermas frequently appear to be parasitic upon the Boletus. 
I have seen the host' plant thrown entirely free from the ground by the 


Boletus. B. parasiticus is edible, but it is not of agreeable flavor. 

B. dictyocepll'alus Pk. reticulate. Pileus convex, glabrous, reticu- 
late with brown lines beneatJi the thin separable cuticle , brownish-orange, 
darker in the center and there tinged with pink. Flesh white, un- 
changeable. Tubes nearly plane, slightly depressed around the stem, 
grayish-yellow, becoming brown where bruised. Stem equal or slightly 
tapering at the top, solid, rimose, dotted with scales, lemon-yellow, 
darker toward the base. Spores 15 2Ox6/u.. 

Pileus 2.5 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 5-6 lines thick. 

Mixed woods. North Carolina. C. J. Curtis. 

The description here given has been derived from a single dried speci- 
men and from the notes kindly sent by Mr. Curtis. The species is 
apparently well marked and very distinct by the peculiar reticulations of 
the pileus. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. subgla'bripes Pk. rather smooth. Pileus convex or nearly 
plane, glabrous, reddish inclining to chestnut color. Flesh white, un- 
changeable. Tubes adnate, nearly plane in the mass, pale yellow, be- 
coming convex and darker or greenish-yellow with age, the mouths 
small, subrotund. Stem equal, solid, scurfy, pale yellow. Spores 
oblong-fusiform, 12.5-15x4-5^. 

The smoothish-stemmed Boletus is well marked by its cylindric mi- 
nutely scurfy stem which is colored like the tubes. Its cap is smooth 
and nearly always some shade of red or L 'Specimens occur occa- 
sionally in which it approaches grayish-bro\,,i or ,y oc, 1-brown . The 
flesh is white and unchangeable when cut or bro! \, 

The tubes at first have a nearly plane surface, but this becomes some- 
what convex with age, and slightly depressed around the stem. The 
tube mouths are small and nearly round. The color of the tubes is at 
first a beautiful pale yellow, but it becomes darker or slightly greenish- 
yellow with age. 

The stem is colored very nearly like the tubes, but sometimes it has 
a slight reddish tint toward the base. Its peculiar feature consists of 
the minute, branny particles upon it. They are so small and pale that 
they are easily overlooked. 

There is a variety in which the cap is corrugated or irregularly pitted 
and wrinkled. Its name is Boletus subglabripes corrugis Pk. 



The cap is 1^-4 in. broad, the stem is 2-3 in. long and 4-8 lines Boletus, 
thick. The plants are found in woods in July and August. Peck, 5ist 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

B. pal'lidus Frost pale. (Plate CXVII, fig. 4, p. 424.) Pileus 
convex, becoming plane or centrally depressed, soft, glabrous, pallid or 
brownish-white, sometimes tinged with red. Flesh white. Tubes 
plane or slightly depressed around the stem, nearly adnate, very pale or 
whitish-yellow, becoming darker with age, changing to blue where 
wounded, the mouths small. Stem equal or slightly thickened toward 
the base, rather long, glabrous, often flexuous, whitish, sometimes 
streaked with brown, often tinged with red within. Spores pale ochra- 
ceous-brown, io-i2x5-6/x. 

PileilS 2-4 in. broad. Stem 3~5 lines long, 4-8 lines thick. 

Woods. New England, Frost; New York, Peck. 

The species is readily recognized by its dull pale color, rather long 
stem, and tubes changing to blue where wounded. Peck, Boleti of the 
U. S. 

Common in West Virginia mountains, Angora, West Philadelphia, 
Mt. Gretna, Pa. Solitary, on ground in mixed woods. 

The caps are tender and delicately flavored. 

B. rubropunc'tus Pk. red-dotted. (Plate CXVII, fig. 3, p. 424.) 
Pileus convex, glabrous, re 1 dish-brown. Flesh yellowish, unchange- 
able. Tubes nearl" i ' , depressed about the stem, their mouths 
small, round, LrigUt golden-yellow, not changing color where bruised. 
Stem firm, solid, tapering upward, yellow, punctate with reddish dots 
or squamules. Spores olive-green, 12.5x4-5^. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods. Port Jefferson. July. Cold Spring Harbor, H. C. Beardslee. 

This is a pretty Boletus, well marked by the red dots of the stem. 
It is apparently a very rare species. B. radicans is said to have the 
stem sprinkled with red particles, but that is a larger plant with the 
margin of the pileus persistently involute or incurved and with a radi- 
cating stem, characters which are not shown by our fungus. Peck, 5oth 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

I found my specimens at Mt. Gretna, Pa., August-September, 1898. 



Boletus. Identified for the writer by Professor Peck from painting and descrip- 

Taste and smell slight. Cooks well and is pleasant to the taste. The 
tubes should be removed. 

- SUBTOMENTO'SI sub, tomentosus, downy. 

PileilS when young villose or subtomentose, rarely becoming glabrous 
with age, destitute of a viscid pellicle. Tubes of one color, adnate. 
Stem at first extended, neither bulbous nor reticulated with veins, 
wrinkled or striated in some species. Flesh in some changing color 
where wounded. 

The tubes are generally yellow or greenish-yellow. In some species 
they are occasionally somewhat depressed around the stem, but they do 
not form a rounded free stratum, nor, with the exception of B. rubeus, 
are they stuffed when young as in most of the Edules. The species are 
scarcely separable from those of the preceding tribe except by the more 
evidently tomentose young pileus. 

Tubes brown, becoming cinnamon B. variegatus 

Tubes not having these colors I 

I . Flesh or tubes changing to blue where wounded 2 

I. Flesh or tubes not changing to blue 5 

2 . Stem glabrous 3 

2. Stem not glabrous 4 

3. Flesh yellow under the cuticle B. rubeus 

3. Flesh red under the cuticle B. chrysenteron 

4. Stem velvety at the base *. B. striaepes 

4. Stem with a reddish bloom or scurf B. radicans 

4. Stem with brown dot-like scales B. mutabilis 

5. Tubes whitish, becoming yellow B. Roxanae 

5 . Tubes yellow 6 

6. Tube mouths large and angular B. subtomentosus 

6. Tube mouths minute B. spadiceus 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. variega'tus Swartz. Pileus at first convex, then plane, obtuse, 
moist, sprinkled with superficial bundled hairy squamules, dark-yellow, 
the acute margin at first flocculose. Flesh yellow, here and there be- 



coming blue. Tubes adnate, unequal, minute, brown then cinnamon. Boletus. 
Stem firm, equal, even, dark-yellow, sometimes reddish. Spores ob- 
long-ellipsoid, hyaline or very pale-yellowish, 7.5-iox3-4/x.. 

Pileus 2-5 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 6 lines thick. 

Woods, especially of pine. North Carolina, Curtis, Scliweinitz; Cali- 
fornia, Harkness, Moore; Rhode Island, Bennett. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia mountains, 1882-1885. Haddonfield, N. J., Mcllvaine; 
Doylestown, Pa., PascJiall. Quite common on flat benches where hem- 
locks and spruces have grown. 

When the caps are cooked they are sweet, nutty, excellent. 

B. Roxa'nse Frost. Pileus broadly convex, at first subtomentose, 
then covered with red hairs in bundles, yellowish-brown. Flesh yel- 
lowish-white. Tubes at first whitish, then light-yellow, arcuate-adnate 
or slightly depressed around the stem, the mouths small. Stem en- 
larged toward the base, striate at the apex, yellowish or pale-cinnamon. 
Spores IOX4/A. 

Var. auricolor. Pileus and subequal stem bright-yellow, the to- 
mentum of the pileus yellow. 

Pileus 1.5-3 m - broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-5 lines thick. 

Borders of woods. New England, Frost; New York, Peck. 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. strise'pes Seer. striate stem. Pileus convex or plane, soft, silky, 
olivaceous, the cuticle rust-color within. Flesh white, yellow next the 
tubes, sparingly changing to blue. Tubes adnate, greenish, their 
mouths minute, angular, yellow. Stem firm, curved, marked with 
brownish-black striations, yellow, velvety and brownish-rufescent at the 
base. Spores lo-i 3x4/4. 

Pine and oak woods. Minnesota, Johnson. 

I have seen no specimens of this species, which is recorded from but 
one locality in our country. The character flesh sparingly changing 
to blue is given on the authority of Rev. M.J.Berkeley. Peck, Boleti 
of the U. S. 

B. chrysen'teron Fr. golden within. Pileus convex or plane, soft, 
floccose-squamulose, often cracked in areas, brown or brick-red. Flesh 
yellow, red beneath the ctiticle, often slightly changing to blue where 



Boletus, wounded. Tubes subadnate; greenish-yellow," changing to blue where 
wounded; their mouths rather large, angular, unequal. Stem subequal, 
rigid, fibrous-striate, red or pale-yellow. Spores fusiform, pale-brown, 

Pileus 1-3 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods and mossy banks. 

The species is common and very variable. The color of the pileus 
may be yellowish-brown, reddish-brown, brick-red, tawny or olivaceous. 
The subcutaneous reddish tint and the reddish chinks of the cracked 
pileus are distinguishing features. Wounds of the tubes sometimes 
become blue then greenish. Authors disagree concerning the edible 
qualities of this Boletus. Stevenson gives it as edible, but Cordier and 
Gillet say that it is regarded with suspicion. In one strongly marked 
form the tubes are decidedly depressed around the stem, in another the 
flesh is whitish tinged with red. It may be doubted whether these are 
varieties or distinct species. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

I have found, and eaten plentifully of this species in West Virginia, 
North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, from July until October. 
I have no hesitancy in recommending it in all of its varieties. Excepting 
from very young specimens the tubes and stems should be removed. 
The flesh is sweet, delicate and toothsome. 

B. fumo'sipes Pk. Pileus convex or nearly plane, minutely tomen- 
tose, sometimes minutely rivulose, dark olive-brown. Flesh whitish. 
Tubes at first nearly plane, becoming convex with age, their mouths 
whitish when young, becoming yellowish-brown, changing to bluish- 
black where bruised. Stem equal, solid, smoky-brown, minutely scurfy 
under a lens. Spores purplish-brown, 12.5-15x5-6^. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-4 lines thick. 

Woods. Port Jefferson. July. 

This species resembles small dark-colored forms of B. chrysenteron, 
and this resemblance is still more noticeable in those specimens in which 
the pileus cracks in areas, for in these the chinks become red as in that 
species. The different color of the stem and tubes will at once separate 
these species. Peck, 5oth Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

B. ru'beus Frost red. Pileus broadly convex, very finely appressed 
subtomentose, bright brick-red when young, becoming mottled with red 


and yellow, yellow under the cuticle, the thin margin at first inflexed, Boletus, 
then horizontal, curved upward when old. Flesh pale-yellow, chang- 
ing to blue where wounded. Tubes adnate or slightly depressed around 
the stem, lemon-yellow and stiiffed when young, becoming yellow and 
sometimes red at the mouths. Stem small, often flexuous, colored like 
the pileus, reddish within, white-tomentose at the base. Spores 9-12.5 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 1-3 in. long, 3-5 lines thick. 

Deep woods. Rare. New England, Frost. 

This is apparently too closely related to B. chrysenteron, and it also 
resembles B. bicolor. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. frater'nus Pk. Pileus convex, becoming plane or depressed, 
slightly tomentose, deep red when young, becoming dull red with age. 
Flesh yellow, slowly changing to greenish-blue where wounded. Tubes 
rather long, becoming ventricose, slightly depressed about the stem, 
their walls sometimes slightly decurrent, the mouths large, angular or 
irregular, sometimes compound, bright yellow, quickly changing to blue 
where wounded. Stem short, cespitose, often irregular, solid, sub- 
tomentose, slightly velvety at the base, pale reddish-yellow, paler above 
and below, yellow within, quickly changing to dark green where 
wounded. Spores 1 2. 5x6/1*. 

Pileus i-i-5 in. broad. Stem I-I-5 in. l n g, 3-6 lines thick. 

Shaded streets. Auburn, Alabama. July. Underwood. 

The species is apparently allied to B. rubeus, but is very distinct by 
its small size, cespitose habit, color of the flesh of the stem and by the 
peculiar hues assumed where wounded. When the pileus cracks the 
chinks become yellow as in B. subtomentosus. The species belongs to 
the tribe Subtomentosi. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3. 

B. subtomento'sus L. sub; tomentosus, downy. Pileus convex or 
nearly plane, soft, dry, villoso-tomentose , subolivaceous , concolorous be- 
neath the cuticle, often cracked in areas. Flesh white or pallid. Tubes 
adnate or somewhat depressed around the stem, yellow, their mouths 
large, angular. Stem stout, somewhat ribbed-sulcate, scabrous or 
scurfy with minute dots. Spores 1012.5x4-5^. 

Pileus 1-4 in. broad. Stem 1-2.5 m - long, 2-5 lines thick. 

Common and variable. The pileus is usually olivaceous or yellow- 
28 433 


Boletus, ish-brown, but it may be reddish-brown or taTvny-red. When it cracks 
the chinks become yellow. The species, as I understand it, may be 
distinguished from its near relative, B. chrysenteron, by its paler flesh, 
the clearer yellow tubes not changing to blue where wounded, and by 
the chinks of the pileus becoming yellow. The species is recorded 
edible by Cordier, Curtis and Palmer. Gillet says it is only medium in 
quality. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Found and eaten in West Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania. Specimens received from Indiana, Minnesota, Alabama. 
I have not seen any change of color in flesh or tubes. It is common 
in Woodland Cemetery and Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. If the 
tubes are not removed the dish is slimy. The B. chrysenteron also 
makes such a dish when stewed, but fried, and well done, both species 
are decidedly good. 

B. CSespito'sus Pk. cespitose. Pileus broadly convex or nearly 
plane, sometimes slightly concave by the elevation of the margin, even, 
brown or blackish-brown, the margin often a little paler or reddish- 
brown. Flesh slightly tinged with red. Tubes adnate or slightly de- 
current, yellow, their mouths rather large, angular, concolorous. Stem 
short, even, solid, glabrous, tapering upward, brown or reddish-brown. 
Spores oblong-elliptic, lOft long, 5/* broad. 
Pileus 1-2.5 cm - broad. Stem 2-2.5 cm. long, 4-6 mm. thick. 

Cespitose. Virginia. August. R. S. Phifer. 

A small species growing in tufts and referable to the tribe Subtomen- 
tosi. The tubes retain their bright yellow color in the dried specimens. 
Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, January 27, 1900. 

Edible qualities not stated. 

B. spadi'ceus Schaeff. nut brown. Pileus convex or plane, moder- 
ately compact, dry, tomentose, opaque, date-brown, irregularly cracked. 
Flesh white, unchangeable, brownish-red above. Tubes adnate, yellow, 
their mouths minute, subrotund. Stem firm, clavate, even, woolly-scaled, 
yellow or brownish, yellowish-white within. Spores 12x4/4. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. 

Woods. New England, Frost. 

This species is admitted on the authority of Mr. Frost who alone has 
recorded it in this country. But specimens received from him under 



this name do not in my opinion belong to it, and its occurrence here is Boletus, 
somewhat doubtful. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

In oak woods near Bartram's Garden, West Philadelphia, in 1887- 
1888, I found several Boleti answering the description, exactly, of B. 
spadiceus. They proved to be good eating. 

B. radi'cans Pers. radix, a root. Pileus convex, dry, subtomen- 
tose, olivaceous-cinereus, becoming pale-yellowish, the margin thin, in- 
volute. Flesh pale-yellow, instantly changing to dark blue, taste bit- 
terish. Tubes adnate, their mouths large, unequal, lemon-yellow. Stem 
even, tapering downward and radicating, flocculose with a reddish 
bloom, pale-yellow, becoming naked and dark with a touch. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2 in. long, 6 lines thick. 

Woods. Ohio, Morgan. 

Of the American plant Mr. Morgan says that the pileus is quite firm 
and dry, becomes reddish or brownish-yellow and nearly glabrous, 
that the flesh is pale-yellow, but that he has not observed any bluish 
tinge, and that the spores are olive, fusiform, 10 12.5x5;*. Those of the 
European plant have been described as very pale ocher, almost white, 
6ju, long, 3/x broad. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

Near Bryn Mawr, Pa. W. C. Alderson, 1894. 

Several specimens brought to me were eaten. The change in color 
of flesh was instantaneous upon exposure to the air. Taste strong and 
raw rather than bitterish. The caps alone were cooked, and dish marked 

B. muta'bilis Morg. changeable. Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Sci., Vol. 
VII. Pileus convex, then plane or depressed, compact, dry, sub- 
tomentose, brown. Flesh bright-yellow, promptly changing to blue 
where wounded. Tubes adnate or subdecurrent, their mouths large, 
angular, unequal, some of them compound, yellow changing to green- 
ish yellow and quickly becoming blue where wounded. Stem stout, 
solid, flexuous, subsulcate, yellowish beneath the brown dot-like scales, 
bright yellow within. Spores olive, fusiform, 12-13x5^. 

Pileus 2.5-4 m - broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 6 lines thick. 

Thick woods. Ohio, Morgan. 

A shade of yellow sometimes appears beneath the brown of the pileus, 
and as the plants grow old the pileus becomes blackish, glabrous and 



Boletus, shining. The stem increases in thickness above and downward. Peck, 
Boleti of the U. S. 

B. badi'ceps Pk. badius, bay and head. (Plate CXVI, p. 420.) 
Pileus firm, convex or somewhat centrally depressed when mature, dry, 
velvety, obliquely truncate on the margin, bay-red or dark-maroon 
color. Flesh white unchangeable, taste and odor mild, sweet, sug- 
gestive of molasses. Tubes plane, adnate, white or whitish, becoming 
dingy with age, the mouths minute. Stem equal or slightly swollen in 
the middle, radicating, glabrous, solid, brownish. 

Pileus 4-8 cm. broad. Stem 4-5 cm. long, 1.5-3 cm - thick. 

Oak woods. West Philadelphia, Pa. August and September. Charles 

The truncate or beveled margin of the pileus is a striking feature in 
this species. It is about 4 mm. broad and as even as if cut with a 
knife. Sometimes the surface of the stem ruptures transversely just be- 
low the top, the liberated shreds above curling upward against the tubes 
and those below curving outward and downward. In mature plants 
brownish spots appear in the flesh of the pileus. "When cooked it is 
of high flavor and tender as kidney," C. Mcllvaine. Peck, Bull. Tor- 
rey Bot. Club, January 27, 1900. 

LACERI'PEDES lacerated stem. 

Stem elongated, coarsely pitted or deeply and lacunosely reticulated 
in small hollows, the ridges somewhat intumescent in wet weather and 
more or less lacerated, giving a rough or shaggy appearance to the stem. 

The species of this tribe are few, very closely allied and so far as 
known are peculiar to this country. 

Pileus viscid I 

Pileus dry B . Russelli 

I. Stem red in the depressions, tubes tinged with green. . .B. Morgani 
I . Stem pale-yellow, tubes not greenish B. Betula 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. Rus'selli Frost Russell's Boletus. (Plate CXVIII, fig. 2, p. 436.) 
Pileus thick, hemispherical or convex, dry, covered with downy scales or 
bundles of red hairs, yellowish beneath the tomentum, often cracked in 



Grouped by F. D. Brlecoe - Studies by C. Mcllvaine. 









areas. Flesh yellowish, unchangeable. Tubes subadnate, often de- Boletus, 
pressed around the stem, rather large, dingy-yellow or yellowish-green. 
Stem very long, equal or tapering upward, roughened by the lacerated 
margins of the reticular depressions, red or brownisli-red. Spores olive- 
brown, 1822x8 i o/u,. 

PileilS 1.5-4 m - broad. Stem 3-7 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

This is distinguished from the other species by the dry squamulose 
pileus and the color of the stem. The latter is sometimes curved at the 
base. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

B. Russelli occurs in the West Virginia mountains, where I found 
and ate it in August, 1883. Though solitary in its method of growth, 
it is frequent in many parts of Pennsylvania, among leaves in mixed 
woods. August to October. 

Taste when raw, sweet, mild. Cooked it is rather soft, tasty. Tubes 
and stem should be removed. 

B. Mor'gani Pk. Pileus convex, soft, glabrous viscid, red or yel- 
low, or red fading to yellow on the margin. Flesh whitish tinged with 
red and yellow, unchangeable. Tubes convex, depressed around the 
stem, rather long and large, bright-yellow becoming greenish-yellow. 
Stem elongated, tapering upward, pitted with long, narrow depressions, 
yellow, red in the depressions, colored within like the flesh of the pileus. 
Spores olive-brown, 18-22/1. long, about half as broad. 

PileilS 1.5-2.5 in. broad. Stem 3-5 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Rocky hillsides in woods of deciduous trees. Kentucky, Morgan. 

In wet weather the anastomosing ridges of the stem swell and become 
broadly winged, thereby giving the stem a peculiar lacerated appear- 
ance. The glabrous viscid pileus and the coloration of the stem distin- 
guish the species. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. Morgani is found in like localities with B. Russelli. Excepting in 
its smooth, viscid cap and whitish flesh, it closely resembles the latter. 
The ridges in the stems of both species swell when moist. 

Its edible qualities are the same as B. Russelli. 

B. Be'tula Schw. birch. Pileus convex, viscose and shining in wet 
weather, tessellately cracked and reticulated, orange-fawn color, rather 
small. Flesh yellowish-white. Tubes separating, rather large, yellow, 
almost like those of B. subtomentosus but not greenisli. Stem long, 


Boletus, attenuated downward, everywhere covered with a deciduous reticulated 
bark two lines high and separating like the bark of birches, pale-yellow 
without and within. 

Pileus 1.5 in. broad. Stem 5-6 in. long. 

Ligneous earth. North Carolina, ScJiweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, 
Schweinitz. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

During several seasons I found B. Betula in Woodland Cemetery, 

Edible qualities good. 

CALO'PODES. Gr. beautiful; Gr. feet. 

Stem stout, at first bulbous, typically venose-reticulated with veins. 
Tubes adnate, their mouths not reddish. 

The reticulate stem and adnate tubes of one color distinguish the 
species of this tribe. In the Luridi the mouths of the tubes are differ- 
ently colored, and in the closely related Edules the tubes are more or 
less depressed around the stem or sub-free, and their pores are com- 
monly stuffed when young. Fries did not admit species with whitish 
tubes into this tribe, but we have done so in those cases in which this 
was the only character to exclude them. 

Tubes yellow or yellowish I 

Tubes white or whitish, at least when young 7 

I . Tubes or flesh changing to blue where wounded 2 

I . Tubes or flesh not changing to blue where wounded 5 

2. Pileus red, at least when young 3 

2. Pileus some other color 4 

3. Stem red B. Peckii 

3. Stem yellow or reddish only at the base B. speci'osus 

4. Tubes angular, pileus olivaceous B. calopus 

4. Tubes rotund, pileus not olivaceous B. pachypus 

5 . Pileus viscid B. Curtisii 

5. Pileus pulverulent, stems cespitose B. retipes 

5. Pileus neither viscid nor pulverulent 6 

6. Stem yellow B. ornatipes 

6. Stem brown B. modestus 

6. Stem yellowish-white B. rimosellus 

7. Pil-eus some shade of red 8 



7. Pileus some shade of brown or gray 9 Boletus. 

8. Stem pallid or yellowish B. rubignosus 

8. Stem dark-brown B. ferrugineus 

9. Pileus pale-brown, stem flexuous B. flexuosipes 

9. Pileus gray or grayish-black, stem straight B. griseus 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. specio'sus Frost handsome. Pileus at first very thick, subglo- 
bose, compact, then softer, convex, glabrous or nearly so, red. Flesh 
pale-yellow or bright lemon-yellow, changing to blue where wounded. 
Tubes adnate, small, subrotund, plane or but slightly depressed around 
the stem, bright lemon-yellow, becoming dingy-yellow with age, chang- 
ing to blue where wounded. Stem stout, subequal or somewhat bul- 
bous, reticulated, bright lemon-yellow without and within, sometimes 
reddish at the base. Spores oblong-fusiform, pale ochraceous-brown, 
10-1 2. 5x4-5/4. 

Pileus 3-7 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 10-24 lines thick. 

Thin woods. New England, Frost; New York, Peck. 

This is a very beautiful Boletus. When young the whole plant ex- 
cept the surface of the pileus is of a vivid lemon-yellow color. Wounds 
quickly change to green, then to blue. The color of the pileus ap- 
proaches closely to solferino. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

Caps of specimens found in mixed woods at Mt. Gretna, Pa., were 
minutely areolate when old. Stems yellow at top and with purplish red 
over the bright yellow toward the bulbous base, solid, bright yellow 

Stems and caps are edible and rank high in flavor and texture. 

B. illu'dens Pk. deceiving. (Plate CXVIII, fig. 3, p. 436.) Pileus 
convex, dry, subglabrous, yellowish-brown or grayish-brown, sometimes 
tinged with red, especially in the center. Flesh pallid or yellowish. 
Tubes bright yellow, plane or somewhat convex when old, adnate, their 
mouths angular or subrotund, often larger near the stem. Stem nearly 
equal, sometimes abruptly pointed at the base, glabrous, pallid or yel- 
lowish, coarsely reticulated either wholly or at the top only. Spores 
oblong or subfusiform, yellowish-brown tinged with green, 1 1 12.5x4 5/*. 

Pileus 1-5-3 m - broad. Stem 1.5-2.5 in. long, 3-5 lines thick. 



Boietns. Woods and copses. Port Jefferson. July. Peck, 5oth Rep. N. Y. 
State Bot. 

Found in plenty at Mt. Gretna, Pa., September, 1898. On ground 
and old stumps in mixed woods. Identified by Professor Peck. 

Taste and smell pleasant. Cooked as egg-plant it is one of the best. 
Remove tubes. 

B. Peck'ii Frost after C. H. Peck. PileilS convex, firm, dry, sub- 
glabrous, red, fading to yellowish-red or buff-brown with age, the margin 
usually retaining its red color longer than the disk. Tubes adnate or 
slightly decurrent, nearly plane, yellow, changing to blue where wounded. 
Stem equal or subventricose, reticulated, red, yellow at the top. Spores 
oblong, pale ochraceous-brown, 9-12x4-5^. 

Var. Ice'vipes. Stem reticulated above, even below. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods of frondose trees. New York, Peck. Peck, Boletiof theU. S. 

B. cal'DpllS Fr. Gr. beautiful ; Gr. foot: Pileus globose, then 
convex, unpolished, subtomentose , olivaceous. FlesJl pallid, slightly 
changing to blue when wounded. Tubes adnate, their mouths minute, 
angular, yellow. Stem firm, conical, then elongated and subequal, 
reticulated, wJiolly scarlet or at the apex only, sometimes colored like 
the pileus toward the base. Spores fusiform, yellowish-brown, /-8x 


Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem longer than the diameter of the pileus, 
Woods. North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, Schwein- 

itz; New England, Sprague, Bennett. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. oma'tipes Pk. ornate-stem. (Boletus retipes, Rep. 23.) Pileus 
convex, firm, dry, glabrous or very minutely tomentose, grayish-brown 
or yellowish-brown. Flesh yellow or pale-yellow. Tubes adnate, plane, 
or concave, rarely convex, the mouths small or medium size, clear-yel- 
low. Stem firm, subequal, distinctly and beautifully reticulated, yellow 
without and within. Spores oblong, ocliraceous-brown , 12-16x4-5/4. 

PileilS 2-5 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Thin woods and open places. New York, Peck. 

The color of the tubes becomes darker with age, but it does not 
change to blue where wounded. The species is related to the next fol* 



lowing one with which it has sometimes been confused, but from which Boletus, 
it is clearly distinct. The color of the spores is quite dark and ap- 
proaches snuff-brown. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 
Edible. Good. 

B. re'tipes B. and C. reticulate stem. PileilS convex, dry , powdered 
with yellow, sometimes rivulose or cracked in areas. Tubes adnate, 
yellow. Stem subequal, cespitose, reticulate to the base, pulverulent 
below. Spores grcenisJi-ocliraceous , 12-15x4-5^. 

Pileus 1.5-2 in. broad. Stem 2 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

The tufted mode of growth, pulverulent pileus and paler-colored 
spores separate this species from the preceding one. Peck, Boleti 
of the U. S. 

West Virginia, 1882-1885. Mt. Gretna, Pa. ; New Jersey, Mcllvaine. 

The caps, alone, of this species, are desirable, the stems not cooking 
well. Its way of bunching itself gratifies the collector, as do its flavor 
and quality. 

B. pacliypus Fr. Gr. thick-footed. Pileus convex, subtomentose,. 
brownish or pale tan-color. Flesh thick, whitish, changing slightly to 
blue. Tubes rather long, somewhat depressed around the stem, their 
mouths round, pale-yellow, at length tinged with green. Stem thick, 
firm, reticulated, at first ovate-bulbous, then elongated, equal, varie- 
gated with red and pale-yellow. Spores large, ovate, pale yellowish- 
ochraceous, 12.5-14x5-6^. 

Pileus 4-8 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long. 

Woods, either of pine or beech. 

This species is noted for its thick, stout stem, which sometimes at- 
tains a diameter of more than two inches. It approaches the Edules in 
habit, but according to Gillet it is poisonous, or at least to be suspect- 
ed, has a penetrating unpleasant odor and a somewhat nauseous flavor. 
He also describes the pores as at first whitish. The stem is sometimes 
intensely blood-red. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

A common species in West Virginia mountains, 18811885, in beech 
groves. August to frost. It is rare in the pines of New Jersey, though 
I have found it there. Like B. felleus, its size and attractiveness induce 
the finder to over and over again try cooking it, hoping the discovery of 
a successful way to rid it of its unpleasantness. I have never suc- 
ceeded It is not poisonous. 



Boletus. B. rimosel'lus Pk. cracked. PileilS broadly convex, flat or irregu- 
lar, glabrous, tessellately cracked, dark-brown. Flesh whitish. Tubes 
adnate or sinuately decurrent, somewhat depressed around the stem, 
pale-yellow, becoming darker or brownish with age. Stem tapering up- 
ward, broadly reticulated with brown veins, yellowish-white. Spores 
fusiform, I5-I7.5X5-6/*. 

Pileus 3-5 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 6-9 lines thick. 

Mixed woods. North Carolina, C. J . Ciirtis. 

I have described this species from the notes and a single dried speci- 
men sent me by Mr. Curtis. More extended observation may require 
some modification of the description. The color of the spores is de- 
scribed as brown. They are remarkable for their size. Peck, Boleti 
of the U. S. 

B. modes'tllS Pk. modest. Pileus convex or nearly plane, often 
irregular, firm, dry, very minutely tomentose, yellowish-brown. Flesh 
gray or pinkish-gray. Tubes nearly plane, adnate or subdecurrent, 
the mouths angular, pale-ochraceous. Stem equal, reticulated, brown. 
Spores elliptical, 10x5^. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Grassy ground in thin woods. New York, Peck. 

Miss Banning finds in Maryland what appears to be a form of this 
species in which the part of the hymenium near the stem consists of 
lamellae, the rest of tubes. The species needs further investigation. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. Cur'tisii Berk. after Dr. Curtis. Pileus hemispherical or con- 
vex, viscose, golden-yellow. Tubes depressed around the stem, nearly 
free, their mouths umber, at length tawny. Stem slender, attenuated 
upward, polished, reticulated, straw-colored. Spores ferruginous, sub- 
elliptical, slightly attenuated at each end. 

Pileus i in. or more broad. Stem 2 in. long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Pine woods. North and South Carolina, Curtis. 

In the original description the stem of this species is said to be hol- 
low. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. gri'seus Frost gray. Pileus broadly convex, firm, dry, sub- 
glabrous, gray or grayish-black . Flesh whitish or gray. Tubes adnate 



or slightly depressed around the stem, nearly plane, their mouths small, Boletus, 
subrotund, white or whitish. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, 
distinctly reticulated, whitish or yellowish, sometimes reddish toward 
the base. Spores ochraceous-brown, 1 0-14x4-5^. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Thin woods and open places. New York, Peck. 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. flexuos'ipes Pk. flexuous stem. Pileus convex or plane, even, 
subtomentose, pale-brown. Flesh white, unchangeable, the cuticle 
separable. Tubes long, convex, decurrent, white or whitish, becoming 
brownish with age. Stem flexuous, solid, reticulated, whitish or pallid, 
changing to brown where bruised. Spores 7.5-10x4^1. 

Pileus 3-4 in. broad. Stem 4-6 in. long, 8-15 lines thick. 

Mixed woods. North Carolina, C. J. Curtis. Peck, Boleti of the 
U. S. 

B. ferrugi'neus Frost rust color. Pileus convex, soft, subto- 
mentose, dark reddish-brown. Flesh white, unchangeable. Tubes 
generally adnate, dingy-white, their mouths stained brown by the spores. 
Stem short, reticulated, dark-brown. Spores 10-13x6/4. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. 

Borders of woods. New England, Frost. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Alabama, 1897. 

B. rubigino'sus Fr. rusty. Pileus convex, soft, pubescent, soon 
bare, brownish-rust color. Flesh subspongy, white, unchangeable. 
Tubes adnate, their mouths unequal, white. Stem firm, stout, reticu- 
lated, at first whitish or pallid, then yellowish, subcinereous or yellow- 
ish-olivaceous where touched. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, I in. thick. 

Woods. North Carolina, Curtis. 

Although apparently distinct, this and the two preceding species are 
not sufficiently well known. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. tabaci'nus Und. Pileus fleshy, convex or nearly plane, subgla- 
brous, often cracked in areas, tawny-brown. Flesh at maturity soft and 
similarly colored. Tubes concave or nearly plane, depressed around 



Boletus, the stem, their mouths small, angular, colored like the pileus. Stem 
subequal, solid, reticulated, concolorous. Spores oblong or sfibfusi- 
form, I2.5-I4X5//,. Pileus 2.5-5 in. broad. Stem 1.5-3 m - l n g, 6-10 
lines thick. 

Along road-sides. Alabama. May. Underwood. 
The species is referable to the section Calopodes, but the tubes are 
more or less depressed about the stem. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 
Vol. 23, No. 10. 

EDU'LES edulis, edible. 

Tubes subfree, rounded-depressed around the stem, their mouths not 
at first reddish, but commonly white-stuffed. Stem stout, bulbous as 
in the Luridi but not, with a few exceptions, reticulate nor dotted with 
pointed scales nor red. Flesh scarcely changeable. Taste pleasant. 

This tribe is not sharply limited but partakes to some extent of the 
characters of Calopodes and Luridi. From the former its nearly free 
and at first white-stuffed tubes and its generally even stem separate it, 
from the latter its tubes with concolorous mouths or at least with mouths 
not red or reddish when young will distinguish it. The species are gen- 
erally of large or medium size and noted for their esculent qualities. 

Stem brownish-lilac or chocolate color i 

Stem some other color 2 

I . Stem reticulated B. separans 

I. Stem not reticulated, furfuraceous B. eximius 

2. Pileus viscid B. limatulus 

2. Pileus not viscid 3 

3. Tubes yellow with no tinge of green 4 

3.. Tubes tinged with green or becoming green where bruised 6 

4. Pileus whitish B. aestivalis 

4. Pileus not whitish 5 

5 . Stem glabrous B. affinis 

5 . Stem pubescent B. impolitus 

6. Pileus becoming white-spotted where bruised B. leprosus 

6. Pileus not becoming spotted 7 

7. Pileus glabrous B. edulis 

7. Pileus not glabrous 8 

8. Stem reticulated, whitish or pallid B. variipes 

8. Stem even, brownish-red. . . . , B. decorus 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 



B. sep'arans Pk. (Plate CXVIII, fig. i, p. 436.) Pileus convex, Boletus, 
thick, glabrous, subshining, often pitted, pitted or corrugated, brownish- 
red or dull-lilac, sometimes fading to yellowish on the margin. Flesh 
white, unchangeable. Tubes at first nearly plane, adnate, white and 
stuffed, then convex, depressed around the stem, ochraceous-yellow or 
brownish-yellow and sometimes separating from the stem by the expan- 
sion of the pileus. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, reticulated 
either wholly or in the upper part only, colored like the pileus or a 
little paler, sometimes slightly furfuraceous. Sporessubfusiform, brown- 
ish-ochraceous, 12-1 5x5-6^. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 6-12 lines thick. 

Thin grassy woods. New York, Peck. Peck, Boleti of the U.' S. 

West Virginia. September, 1881. New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
October, 1887, Mcllvaine. Indiana, October, 1898. Dr.J.R. Weist, 
H. I. Miller. 

One of the handsomest of Boleti. It varies greatly in size and 
color, but traces of purple or lilac are always detectable. The reticu- 
lations upon the stem are often obscure, especially in young specimens. 

It is pleasant when raw, and quite equal to any Boletus when cooked. 

B. edu'lis Bull. edulis, edible. (Plate CXVIII, fig. 5, p. 436.) 

Pileus convex or nearly plane, gla- 

. (Plate CXIX.) 

brous, moist, at first compact, then 
soft, variable in color, grayish-red, 
brownish-red or tawny-brown, often 
paler on the margin. Flesh white 
or yellowish, reddish beneath the 
cuticle. Tubes convex, nearly free, 
long, minute, round, white, then y el- 

low and greenish. Stem short or 


long, straight or flexuous, subequal 2> 3> BOLETUS EDULIS. 

or bulbous, stout, more or less reticu- 
late, especially above, whitish, pallid or brownish. Spores oblong- 
fusiform, 12 i 5x4 5/u.. 

Var. cla'vipes. Plate CXIX. Stem tapering upward from an en- 
larged base, everywhere reticulated. 

Pileus 4-6 in. broad. Stem 2-6 in. long, ^-18 lines thick. 

Woods and open places. Not rare. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 



Boletus. Indiana, H. I. Miller, Dr. J. R. Weist; New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, Mcllvaine. 

Some species of fungi appear to have that prize of Fairyland the 
Wishing Cap and by its power be able to take on any form they please. 
Boletus edulis is one of them. Its variableness is puzzling. It is eaten 
everywhere where found and is a favorite. Carefully sliced, dried and 
kept where safe from mold it may be prepared for the table at any 

TJ. edulis Bull. Var. davipes Pk. (Plate CXIX, fig. i, p. 445.) 
Pileus fleshy, convex, glabrous, grayish-red, bay-red or chestnut-color. 
Flesh white, unchangeable. Tubes at first concave or nearly plane, 
white and stuffed, then convex, slightly depressed around the stem, 
ochraceous yellow. Stem mostly obclavate (inversely club-shaped) 
and reticulate to the base. Spores oblong-fusiform, 12-15x4-5^. 

The club-stemmed Boletus is so closely related to the edible Boletus 
and so closely connected by the intermediate forms that it seems to be 
only a variety of it, but one worthy of illustration. It differs in the 
more uniform color of the cap, in having the tubes less depressed 
around the stem and less tinted with green when mature, and in having 
the stem more club-shape and commonly reticulated to the base. The 
lower reticulations are usually coarser but less permanent than the up- 
per. The cap is more highly colored when young and is apt to become 
paler with age, but the margin does not become paler than the central 
part, as it so often does in the edible Boletus. Individuals sometimes 
occur in which the stem is nearly cylindric and reticulated only on the 
upper part. These connect so closely with the edible Boletus that we 
have considered this to be a mere variety of it. In size and in edible 
qualities it is very similar to that species. Peck, 5 Ist Rep. N. Y. State 

Same in quality as B. edulis. 

B. vari'ipes Pk. variable stem. Pileus convex or nearly plane, 
thick, soft, dry, scaly, pointed scaly or minutely tomentose, grayish or 
pale grayish-brown, sometimes tinged with yellow or ochraceous. Flesh 
white, unchangeable. Tubes convex or nearly plane, slightly depressed 
around the stem, at first white, then greenish-yellow, their mouths 
small, subrotund, ochraceous, stuffed when young. Stem firm, reticu- 



lated, whitish or pallid. Spores oblong-fusiform, ochraceous-brown Boletus, 
tinged with green, I2-1 5x5/A. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. August, 1898. Stem slightly reticulated at top, 
indistinctly striate below. 'Smell and taste strong, like B. felleus, but 
sweetish, not bitter. When tubes are removed and cap fried it is 

Var. al'bipes. Stem whitish, wholly reticulated, the reticulations 
coarser near the base. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. August, 1898. Taste slightly acrid, smell slight. 

Var. pallid 'ipes. Stem pallid, slightly furfuraceous, even or obscurely 
reticulated toward the base, distinctly reticulated above. Peck, Boleti 
of the U. S. 

Satiny, shining. Taste slightly acrid, smell slight. Excellent. 

Var. tenu'ipes. Stem slender, elongated. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. August, 1898, on decaying chestnut stump and on 
ground. Excellent. Mcllvaine. 

This species, with its varieties, grows in mixed woods, the density of 
which has much to do with its general appearance. Individuals grow- 
ing where the sun plays upon them, show the reticulations plainer than 
those maturing in the shade. The tubes should be removed before 
cooking. The caps are best fried. 

B. exi'mius Pk. select. PileuS at first very compact, subglobose 
or hemispherical, subpruinose, purplish-brown or chocolate color, some- 
times with a faint tinge of lilac, becoming convex, soft, smoky-red or 
pale-chestnut. Flesh grayish or reddish-white. Tubes at first con- 
cave or nearly plane, stuffed, colored nearly like the pileus, becoming 
paler with age and depressed around the stem, their mouths minute, 
rotund. Stem stout, generally short, equal or tapering upward, ab- 
ruptly narrowed at the base, minutely branny, colored like or a little 
paler than the pileus, purplish-gray within. Spores subferruginous, 
1 2.5-15x5-6^. 

Pileus 3-10 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 6-12 lines thick. 

Woods and their borders. New England, Frost; New York, Peck. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

In mixed woods and in new clearings near Bartram's Garden, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Mcllvaine. 


Boletus. A patch of it is treasure trove. 

B. lepro'sus Pk. leprous. PileilS very convex, glabrous, soft like 
kid, cinereous-yellowish-drab or pale-brown, slowly changing to whit- 
ish where bruised, the cuticle separable. Flesh white, changing to yel- 
lowish. Tubes yellow or brownish-yellow, changing to greenish where 
wounded, plane, depressed around the stem, short, small, stuffed when 
young. Stem solid, enlarged at the top, lemon-yellow. Spores oblong- 
fusiform, 12.5-15x5/4. 

Pileus 4-6 in. broad. Stem 2 in. long, I in. thick. 

Mixed woods. North Carolina, C. J. Curtis>. 

This plant is remarkable for the whitish or leprous spots which the 
pileus assumes, even from being handled, and for the change in the 
color of the flesh and tubes. The stem is very thick at the top but 
tapers downward. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. affi'nis Pk. related. PileilS convex above or nearly plane, 

subglabrous, reddish-brown or chest- 
Piate CXX,) 

to tawny or dingy- 
ochraceous with age. Flesh white. 
Tubes plane or convex, adnate or 
slightly depressed around the stem, 
at first white and stuffed, then glau- 
cous-yellow or subochraceous, chang- 
ing to rusty-ochraceous where wound- 
ed. Stem subequal, even, glabrous, 
colored like or paler than the pileus. 
Spores rusty-ochraceous, 9-12x4-5^. 
The Related boletus belongs to the 
tribe of Boleti known as Edules be- 

cause of their especially esculent character, but it differs from the gen- 
eral character of the tribe in having its tubes not at all or but slightly 
shortened around the stem and in its stem not being thickened or bulb- 
ous at the base. The species is quite variable in the color of the cap, 
which is generally darker in young plants, paler in old ones. It may 
be brown, reddish-brown or btackish-brown when young, but is more or 
less tinged with tawny or ochraceous when old. It is smooth and even 
or minutely tomentose and sometimes slightly rugose. In wet weather 



the margin of the cap sometimes curves upward, giving a very convex Boletus, 
surface to the tubes. Sometimes the wounded flesh slowly assumes a 
yellowish hue. The peculiar rusty-ochraceous hue of the spores is also 
seen sometimes in the tubes of old specimens. As in many species, the 
flesh of old plants is more soft than that of young ones. The stem is 
quite variable and is often narrowed downward. It is sometimes very 
obscurely reticulated at the top. 

The cap is generally 2-4 in. broad, the stem 1.5-3 m - l n g 4-8 lines 
thick. The plants are found in thin woods or in bushy places in July 
and August. 

Var. maculo ' sus Pk. differs from the type simply in having a few 
yellowish spots scattered over the cap. 

While not as high flavored as some Boleti this is, nevertheless, a 
fairly good and perfectly safe one. Peck, 49th Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Very open timber in Woodlands Cemetery, Philadelphia. August, 
1898. Mcllvaine. 

A solitary species which does not appear to be plentiful. The whole 
fungus is edible, but the stems and tubes are of different texture from 
the caps and do not cook well with them. 

B. sestiva'lis Fr. pertaining to summer. PileuS convex or nearly 
plane, even, glabrous, whitish, granulose in dry weather. Flesh yel- 
low below, white above. Tubes nearly free, the mouths minute, equal, 
yellow. Stem very thick, bulbous, even, glabrous, pale yellow, red- 
dish within at the base. Spores elongated-oval, greenish-brown, rather 
dark, 1 1x4 5/x,. 

Pilens 4-6 in. broad. Stem 4-5 in. long. 

Woods and woodland pastures. Minnesota, Johnson; California, H. 
and M. 

A large species, recorded as edible and said to be pleasant and deli- 
cate in flavor. I have seen no specimens of this. Peck, Boleti of the 
United States. 

West Virginia mountains, 1882, Haddonfield, N. J., 1894, Mcllvaine, 
on grassy margin of woods. 

The flesh is sweet, nutty. Remove stems and tubes when old. 


B. impoli'tllS Fr. unpolished. PileuS convex, dilated, flocculose, 
at length grained in lines, unpolished, tawny-brown. Flesh white or 
29 449 


Boletus, whitish, unchangeable, yellowish under the cuticle. Tubes free, their 
mouths minute, yellow. Stem stout, subbulbous, even, pubescent, pale- 
yellow, sometimes with a reddish zone near the top. Spores oval or 
fusiform, pale greenish-brown, 7.5-10x5^. 

Pileus 4-6 in. broad. Stem 2 in. long. 

Oak woods. California, Harkness and Moore. 

This species is recorded as edible and said to be among the most de- 
licious, It is evidently rare in this country. According to Quelet the 
spores are ellipsoid, papillate, i5-i8/x long. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Near Bartram's Garden, West Philadelphia, Pa., 1885. Thin mixed 
woods. Mcllvaine. 

That this species is edible and delicious is vouched for by many. I 
can add my own pleasurable experience. 

B.deco'rus Frost. decorous. Pileus convex, rather firm, tomentose, 
brownish tinged with red, the margin often darker colored. Flesh 
white, unchangeable. Tubes becoming free, yellow, changing to green 
where wounded. Stem bulbous, minutely branny, brownish-red', the 
bulb sometimes white and attenuated at the base. Spores 13x5^. 

Rich woods. New England, Frost. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

Leominster, Mass., C. F. Nixon, August, 1897; Woodland Ceme- 
tery, Philadelphia, Pa., August, 1897, Mcllvaine. 

Cap 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-2 % in. high, but variable in size. Its 
edible qualities are excellent. 

B. lima'tulus Frost polished. Pileus nearly flat, thin, glabrous, 
viscid when moist, somewhat polished and shining when dry, rich yel- 
lowish-brown. Flesh reddish in the pileus, darker in the stem. Tubes 
depressed around the stem, greenish-yellow, their mouths yellowish- 
brown. Stem small, subbulbous, colored like the pileus. Spores 12- 

Pileus 1-2.5 in. broad. 

Woods. New England, Frost. 

By the differently-colored tube mouths, this species approaches those 
of the next following tribe, but it is placed here because these are not 
red or reddish. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

B. au'ripes Pk. yellow-stem. Pileus convex, subglabrous, yellow- 
ish-brown, sometimes cracking in areas when old. Flesh yellow, fading 



to whitish with age. Tubes nearly plane, their mouths small, subro- Boletus, 
tund, at first stuffed, yellow. Stem nearly equal, solid, even or slightly 
reticulated at the top, bright yellow, a little paler within. Spores 
ochraceous-brown tinged with green, I2x5/u.. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 3-5 in. long, 8-12 lines thick. 

Under mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia. Port Jefferson. July. 

The whole plant, except the upper surface of the pileus, is of a beau- 
tiful yellow color. The stem is sometimes more highly colored than 
the tubes. The species is referable to the tribe Edules. Peck, 5Oth 
Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. August, September, 1898. Mcllvaine. 

In mixed woods in which Kalmia latifolia is plentiful. The speci- 
mens found were in its vicinity. The caps are excellent. 

B. leptocepll'alus Pk. Gr. thin; Gr. head. Pileus thin, broadly 
convex or nearly plane, dry, minutely cracked, especially near the 
margin, light tawny-brown, sometimes tinged with reddish-brown. 
Flesh yellowish-white, taste at first mild, then slightly acrid. Tubes 
subventricose, depressed about the stem, nearly free, dingy olive-yellow, 
the mouths small, subrotund. Stem nearly equal, enlarged at the top, 
solid, glabrous or slightly pruinose-mealy, reticulated above, colored 
like the pileus, white within, with a white mycelium at the base. Spores 
greenish-olivaceous, fusiform, 12.5-17.5^ long, 5-61* broad. 

Pileus 10-12.5 cm. broad. Stem 10-12.5 cm. long, 1.2-1.6 cm. 

Dry, open woods. July. Earle. 

The reticulation of the upper part of the stem appears to be formed 
by the decurrent walls of the tubes. The species belongs to the tribe 
Edules. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 25. 


B. fra'grans Vitt. fragrant. Fasciculate or solitary. Pileus 1-4 in. 
across, convex, dark-brown or umber-brown, often wavy, slightly to- 
mentose, margin incurved. Flesh very thick, yellowish, sometimes un- 
changeable, at others changing to green or blue, and finally becoming 
reddish when broken. Tubes shortened around the stem and almost 
free, % in. or more long, openings small, roundish, yellow then green- 
ish. Stem at first stout, ovate, usually tapering at the base, then length- 



Boletus., ening and becoming thinner upward, even, variegated with yellow and 
red, solid. Spores pale-olive, elongato-fusiform, 10 1 2x4/4. 

In woods, under oaks, etc. Pileus bronze-brown, sometimes with 
purple shades. Often grows in dense clusters, and in this particular 
differing from any other British species. Very good for eating. Massee. 

Haddonfield, N. J. Oak woods. August to September, 1894. Mt. 
Gretna, Pa., 1898. Mcllvaine. 

Solitary. A handsome valuable species which appears to be rare in 
the United States. Shade a beautiful bronze. Cap 3-4 in. across. A 
dozen or more individuals were found and eaten. Excellent. 

B. frustulo'sus Pk. frusttihim, a small bit. Pileus thick, convex 
or nearly plane, subglabrous, cracked in areas, white or whitish. Flesh 
whitish. Tubes equal to or a little longer than the thickness of the 
flesh of the pileus, depressed about the stem, whitish, becoming pale 
brown. -Stem equal, solid, whitish, reticulated above. Spores 15- 

Pileus 3-5 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 6-IO lines thick. 

Open grounds and clay banks. Ocean Springs, Mississippi and 
Akron, Alabama. May and June. Underwood. 

The deeply cracked surface of the pileus is the most notable feature 
of this species. This sometimes is seen even in quite young plants. 
The cracked areas are quite unequal in size. The deep chinks with 
sloping sides cause them to appear like frusta of polygonal pyramids. 
In some specimens the reticulations of the stem extend nearly or quite 
to its base, and make the place of the species ambiguous between the 
Calopodes and Edules. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa., September, 1898, on soil over red conglomerate 
and on road-sides. Mcllvaine. 

The deep cracks in the cap readily distinguish this species. After 
rains the caps are frequently slightly dished and widely cracked at 
margin. The exposed flesh dries with a fine silky gloss. The caps 
are excellent. The tubes and stem should be removed. 

B. cras'sipes Pk. thick-footed. (Plate CXVI, fig. 5, p. 420.) 
Pileus convex or centrally depressed, firm, dry, velvety, brown tinged 
with yellow, the wavy or lobed involute margin extending beyond the 
tubes. Flesh lemon-yellow, unchangeable, taste sweet, odor like that 



of yeast. Tubes rather short, depressed around the stem, almost free, Boletus, 
yellowish mottled with brown, the mouths minute, stuffed when young. 
Stem stout, thick, sometimes swollen in the middle and sometimes bulb- 
ous, beautifully reticulated but the reticulations sometimes disappear- 
ing with age, orange-yellow tinged with brown. Flesh of a brighter 
yellow than that of the pileus. 

Pileus 5-10 cm. broad. Stem 6-8 cm. long, 2.5-3.5 cm. thick. 

Oak woods. Mt. Gretna, Pa. August and September. Mcllvaine. 

The thick, beautifully reticulated stem, the deep velvety brown color 
of the pileus and the yellow color of the flesh serve to distinguish this 
species. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 27, January, 1900. 

It is one of the best edible mushrooms. I have also found it in New 


Stratum of tubes rounded toward the stem and free, their mouths at 
first closed and red. Pileus compact, then soft, cushion-shaped, the 
flesh juicy, changeable. Stem stout, at first short, bulbiform, then 
elongated and subequal, subreticulated or dotted. 

Growing especially in frondose woods. Very poisonous. 
In this tribe the tubes and their mouths are differently colored, the 
latter being red or some shade of red. By this character the species 
are easily distinguished from those of other tribes. 

Flesh distinctly changing color where wounded I 

Flesh not at all or scarcely changing color where wounded 7 

I . Flesh white or whitish 2 

I . Flesh yellow or yellowish 5 

2. Flesh changing to red or violet B. Satanus 

2. Flesh changing to blue 3 

3. Stem roughened B. alveolatus 

3 . Stem even 4 

4. Stem hairy at the base - B. subvelutipes 

4. Stem not hairy at the base B. vermiculosus 

5 . Stem red " B . luridus 

5 . Stem yellow or reddish only at the base 6 

6. Pileus purplish-red B. purpureus 

6. Pileus gray B. firmus 

6. Pileus yellow or yellowish B. magnisporus 



Boletus. 7 . Pileus blood-red , . . B. Frostii 

7. Pileus reddish-tawny or brown B. Sullivantii 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

All authors, up to this date, agree in stating that the species within 
this series are poisonous. Experiments made by Smiedeberg and 
Koppe with Boletus Satanus developed symptoms closely resembling 
poisoning by Amanitae. Kobert, who made analysis of B. luridus, 
shows that it contains muscarine, which is one of the most deadly poisons. 
Such a mass of evidence commands respect. It is urged upon finders 
of these species to either leave them alone or test them in minute 
quantities until they have established their ability to eat them without 

I have taken special pains to establish the edibility of B. Satanus and 
B. luridus. For fifteen years I have eaten them in quantity when 
opportunity afforded, in West Virginia, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
My family, and my friends in widely separated localities, have partaken 
freely of them many times and without discomfort. They are remark- 
ably fine eating. The same can be said of B. alveolatus, B. purpureus, 
B. subvelutipes. I have not seen the other species of this tribe. 

I have determined so many of the reputed poisonous species to be 
edible, that unless positively authenticated, I do not accept repute as 
truth, but carefully test suspicious species upon myself. When sure 
there is no danger, I as carefully have them tested by my numerous 
under-tasters male and female. 

B. Sa'tanus Lenz. Satanic. Pileus convex, glabrous, somewhat 
gluey, brownish-yellow or whitish. Flesh whitish, becoming reddish or 
violaceous where wounded. Tubes free, yellow, their mouths bright 
red becoming orange-colored with age. Stem thick, ovate- ventricose, 
marked above with red reticulations. Spores I2x5/*. 

Pileus 3-8 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long. 

W T oods. Rare. North Carolina, Curtis; New York, Peck; Califor- 
nia, H. and M., 'N. 7. Ellis. 

Though mild to the taste, this Boletus is said to be very poisonous, 
a character suggestive of the specific name. Fries describes the color 
of the spores as earthy-yellow; Smith as rich brown. Peck, Boleti of 
the U. S. 



West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. Boletus. 

Boletus Satanus is sometimes plentiful in spots. Where it luxuriates 
it is a rich decoration to the ground, and earth upon upturned-roots 
upon which it often grows. It does not live long after reaching ma- 
turity, but decomposes into a putrescent mass. 

Its reputation rivals that of the original possessor of its name. But 
old proverb sayeth that even "The Devil is not as black as he is 
painted." See remarks heading Luridi. 

B. alveola'tllS B. and C. Pileus convex, glabrous, shining, bright 
crimson or maroon-color, sometimes paler and varied with patches of 
yellow. Flesh firm, white, changing to blue where wounded. Tubes 
adnate, subdecurrent, yellow with maroon-colored mouths, the hymenial 
surface uneven with irregular alveolar depressions. Stem very rough 
with the margins of rather coarse subreticular depressions, the reticula- 
tions bright-red above with yellow stains. Spores yellowish-brown, 
1 2. 5^1 5x4-5/1. 

Pileus 3-6 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 9 lines thick. 

Damp woods. New England, Frost. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia mountains, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, in mixed woods 
and on banks of streams. Mcllvaine. 

B. alveolatus appears to be more generally distributed than B. Satanus. 
It is not as clannish, though occasionally three or four are found grow- 
ing together. When growing from the banks of creeks, or between the 
roots of beech and other trees in low places, it is often deformed in cap 
and stem. The texture is firm, close and the taste is very pleasant. It 
botanically takes its place in this suspected series. I consider it one of 
the best Boleti. See remarks heading Luridi. 

B. lu'ridus Schaeff. lurid in color. Pileus convex, tomentose, 
brown-olivaceous, then somewhat viscose, sooty. Flesh yellow, chang- 
ing to blue where wounded. Tubes free, yellow, becoming greenish, 
their mouths round, vermilion, becoming orange. Stem stout, vermilion, 
somewhat orange at the top, reticulate or punctate. Spores greenish- 
gray, 15x9. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long. 

The lurid Boletus, though pleasant to the taste, is reputed very poison- 
ous. Boletus rubeolarius Pers., having a short bulbous scarcely reticu- 



Boletus, lated stem, is regarded as a variety of this species. The red-stemmed 
Boletus, B. erythropus Pers., is also indicated as a variety of it by 
Fries. It is smaller than B. luridus, has a brown or reddish-brown 
pileus and a slender cylindrical stem, not reticulated, but dotted with 
squamules. It has been reported from California by Harkness and 
Moore. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Var. erytliropus received from Dr. J. W. Harshberger, Philadelphia, 
May, 1896. 

Often shining as if varnished and very handsome. I frequently found 
it in West Virginia, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in mixed woods 
among leaves. Its reputation is bad. It is undoubtedly edible by 
many, and is delicious. The caution heading Luridi should be carefully 

B. purpu'reilS Fr. purple. Pileus convex, opaque, dry, somewhat 
velvety, purplish-red. Flesh in the young plant only becoming blue, 
then dark-yellow. Tubes nearly free, yellow or greenish-yellow, their 
mouths minute, purple-orange, changing to blue where wounded. Stem 
stout, firm, adorned with purple veins or dots, sometimes reticulated at 
the apex only, yellow, reddish within, especially at the base. Spores 
greenish-brown, 1012x56/1.. 

Pileus 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 6-8 lines thick. 

Woods. North Carolina, Curtis; New York, Peck; Minnesota, Jolm- 
son. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia, Mt. Gretna, Pa., Mcllvaine. 

At Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1897-1898, B. purpureus was common in oak 
and chestnut woods. It is a showy species, easily distinguished by its 
velvety cap. In young specimens the stem is robust, then tapering 
upward. When old the cap loses its rich color toward the margin, 
becoming yellowish. The flesh is thick, firm and of excellent flavor. 
It undoubtedly proved itself delicious and harmless to many eating it. 

B. vermiculo'sus Pk. wormy. Pileus broadly convex, thick, firm, 
dry, glabrous, or very minutely tomentose, brown, yellowish-brown or 
grayish-brown, sometimes tinged with red. Flesh white or whitish, 
quickly changing to blue where wounded. Tubes plane or slightly 
convex, nearly free, yellow, their mouths small, round, brownish-orange, 
becoming darker or blackish with age, changing promptly to blue 



where wounded. Stem subequal, firm, even, paler than the pileus. Boletus. 
Spores ochraceous-brown, 10-1 2x4-5^. 

Var. Spraguei. (Boletus Spraguei Frost, Bull. Buff. Soc., p. IO2.) 
Stem yellow above, minutely velvety below. 

PiletlS 3-5 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 4-10 lines thick. 

Woods. New York, Peck; Ohio, Morgan; New England, Frost. 

The species is separated from B. luridus by its dry pileus, white 
flesh, even stem, which is neither reticulated nor dotted, and by its 
smaller spores. I can not distinguish specimens of B. Spraguei received 
from Mr. Frost, from this species. The name is scarcely appropriate, 
for specimens are not always infested by larvae. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

I have not seen this species, therefore, have not tested it. CAUTION . 

B. subvelu'tipes Pk. velvety-stem. Pileus convex, firm, subgla- 
brous, yellowish-brown or reddish-brown. Flesh whitish, both it and 
the tubes changing to blue where wounded. Tubes plane or slightly 
convex, nearly free, yellowish, their mouths small, brownish-red. Stem 
equal or slightly tapering upward, firm, even, somewhat pruinose above, 
velvety with a hairy tomentum toward the base, yellow at the top, red- 
dish-brown below, varied with red and yellow within. Spores I5~i8x 


Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 2-3 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Woods. New York, Peck. 

This species resembles the preceding one in general appearance, but 
it is very distinct by its much longer spores and by the velvety hairiness 
toward the base of the stem. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Boletus subvelutipes is common in some localities in Pennsylvania, 
especially on the Springton Hills, in chestnut and oak woods. I have 
frequently eaten it and found it excellent. Others should carefully 
test it. 

B. fir'mus Frost firm. Pileus convex, very firm, slightly tomen- 
tose, gray, often pitted. Flesh yellowish or deep-yellow, changing to 
blue where wounded. Tubes adnate, deeply arcuate, unequal, yellow, 
their mouths tinged with red. Stem solid, hard, very finely reticulated, 
yellowish, reddish at the base. Spores 13x3^. 

Pileus 2.5-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long. 

Rich moist wood. New England, Frost. 



Boletus. Apparently a well-marked and very distinct species. According to 
the author, it is readily distinguished by its tenacity and generally dis- 
torted growth. I have not seen it nor the next. Peck, Boleti of the 
U. S. 

Professor Peck's measurement of spores, 5oth Report, New York State 
Botanist, is 13/x. long, 6/* wide. 

B. magnis'porus Frost. PileilS convex, firm, tomentose, golden- 
yellow; tubes scarcely adnate, even, greenish-yellow, their mouths light 
cinnabar-red. Stem long, slender, yellow above, red below. Spores 

Pileus 2.5 to 3.5 in. broad. 

Woods and thickets. New England, Frost; Ohio, Morgan. Peck, 
Boleti of the U. S. 

I have not recognized it. CAUTION. 

B. Fros'tii Russell. Pileus convex, polished, shining, blood-red, the 
margin thin. Flesh scarcely changing to blue. Tubes nearly free, 
greenish-yellow, becoming yellowish-brown with age, their mouths 
blood-red or cinnabar. Stem equal or tapering upward, distinctly 
reticulated, firm, blood-red. Spores 12.5-15x5^. 

Pileus 3-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Grassy places under trees or in thin woods. New England, Frost; 
New York, Peck; New Jersey, Ellis. 

This is a highly colored, beautiful Boletus, but it is not common. 
The stem sometimes fades with age, and both it and the tubes are apt to 
lose their color in drying. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

I have not recognized it. CAUTION. 

B. Sullivan' tii B. and M. Pileus hemispherical, glabrous, reddish- 
tawny or brown, brownish when dry, cracked in squares. Tubes free, 
convex, medium size, angular, longer toward the margin, their mouths 
reddish. Stem solid, violaceous at the thickened base, red-reticulated 
at the apex, expanded into the pileus. Spores pallid ochraceous, 
oblong-fusiform, io-2O/u- long. 

Pileus 3-4 in- broad. Stem i.5~3 in - lon S- 

Compact soil. Ohio. Sttllivant. 

The species is said to be intermediate between Boletus scaber and B. 



edulis. From the former it differs in its reticulated stem, from the Boletus, 
latter, in its larger tubes and from both in its stratum of tubes being 
remote from the stem. I have not seen it. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

B. Un'dei'WOOdii Pk. PileilS rather thin, convex, becoming nearly 
plane, slightly velvety, bright brownish-red, becoming paler with age. 
Flesh yellow, changing to greenish-blue where wounded. Tubes ad- 
nate or slightly decurrent, greenish-yellow, becoming bluish where 
wounded, their mouths very small, round, cinnabar red, becoming 
brownish-orange. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, somewhat 
irregular, solid, yellow without and within. Spores io-i2x5/x,. 

PileuS 2-3 in. broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Grassy woods. Auburn, Alabama. July. Underwood. 

This species is remarkable for its adnate or subdecurrent tubes, in 
which it departs from the character of the tribe to which it belongs ac- 
cording to the colors of the tubes. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 
Vol. 24, No. 3. 

B. par'vilS Pk. parvus, small. PileuS convex, becoming plane, 
often slightly umbonate, subtomentose, reddish. Flesh yellowish- white, 
slowly changing to pinkish where wounded. Tubes nearly plane, ad- 
nate, their mouths rather large, angular, at first bright red, becoming 
reddish-brown. Stem equal or slightly thickened below, red. Spores 
oblong, I2.5X4/A. PileuS 12 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 2-3 lines 

Grassy woods. Auburn, Ala. July. Underwood. Peck, Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3. 

VERSIPEL'LES verto, to change ; pellis, a skin. 

Tubes at first white or whitish, minute, round, equal, forming a con- 
vex stratum free from the stem. 

Stem black B. alboater 

Stem some other color I 

I . Stem yellow at the base B. chromapes 

I . Stem not yellow at the base 2 

2. Margin of the pileus appendiculate B. versipellis 

2 . Margin not appendiculate 3 



Boletus. 3. Stem scabrous or punctate-squamulose B. scaber 

3 . Stem even 4 

4. Pileus white or whitish B. albellus 

4. Pileus dark-brown B. sordidus 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. alboa'ter Schw. black and white. Pileus convex, subtomentose- 
velvety, black. Tubes free, their mouths rather small, white. Stem 

Pileus 3 in. broad. Stem 2 in. long. 

Moist woods. Frequent. North Carolina and Pennsylvania, Schwei' 

In Epicrisis, p. 424, Fries adds to the description here quoted, that 
the stem is flocculose-veiled. He subjoins to this as a subspecies, 
Boletus floccosus Schw.; but in Syn. N. A. Fung., Schweinitz makes 
this a synonym of Boletus floccopus. The species does not appear to 
have been recognized by recent collectors, which seems strange unless 
there is some error concerning it. Can it be a black variety of Boletus 
scaber? Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Gravelly woods. Mcllvaine. 

Cap 1/^4 in. across, convex, slightly depressed, margin involute 
when young, black, densely velvety in youth and age beautifully so. 
Flesh firm, thick, solid, white changing to grayish. Tubes white, 
stuffed, sometimes blackish when young, excepting a grayish-white 
circle around stem, becoming yellowish-white when matured, rotund, 
minute, up to % in. long, plane when young; when caps expand tubes 
draw away from stem leaving a deep white depression. This drawing 
away apparently elongates many dissepiments, creating a gill-like effect, 
decurrent upon stem. Stem 2-3 in. long, swollen toward base when 
young, equal, expanding into cap and tapering to a point at base; % 
I in. thick, slightly compressible, hard, sooty-black, velvety near base, 
satiny and glossy upward, has the appearance of having been blackened 
with burnt cork, usually with narrow white band next to the tubes, no 
trace of veil, composed of rather hard waved fibers, white when split, 
but changing to sooty black toward base, lighter upward. 

Smell like common mushroom ; taste nutty. 

Gregarious in sandy-conglomerate soil in mixed woods, among moss 
and leaves. Mt. Gretna, Pa. 



Differs from B. alboater Schw., in having densely tomentose cap, Boletus, 
tubes widely separated from stem in age. 

A young specimen of apparently same species in same patch had 
very short, decurrent tubes (not over I line) which were sooty-black. 


B. SOr'didllS Frost sordid. PileuS convex, subtomentose, dirty 
dark-brown. Flesh white, slightly tinged with green. Tubes long, 
nearly free, at first white, changing to bluish-green. Stem smaller at 
the top, brownish, marked with darker streaks, generally greenish 
above. Spores 10-13x5*1. 

PileuS about 2 in. broad. 

Recent excavations in woods. New England, Frost; Ohio, Morgan. 

The Ohio plant occurs in damp woods, has the flesh sometimes tinged 
with red and green, the tubes white, then sordid, but changing to bluish- 
green when bruised, their mouths large and angular, the stem somewhat 
flexuous and striate and the spores fusiform and dirty-brown Peck, 
Boleti of the U. S. 

B. versipel'lis Fr. PileuS convex, dry, at first compact and mi- 
nutely tomentose, then squamose or smooth, reddish or orange-red, the 
margin appendiculate with the inflexed remains of the membranous veil. 
Flesh white or grayish. Tubes at first concave or nearly plane, almost 
or quite free, minute, sordid-white, their mouths gray. Stem equal 
or tapering upward, solid, wrinkled-scaly, whitish or pallid. Spores 
oblong-fusiform, 1418x46/1,. 

PileuS 2-6 in. broad. Stem 3~5 in. long, 4-10 lines thick. 

Woods and open places, especially in sandy soil. North Carolina, 
Curtis; New England, Frost; New York, Peck; California, H. and M. 
Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Mcllvaine. 

The caps are good cooked in any way. 

B. SCa'ber Fr. scaber, rough. (Plate CXVIII, fig. 4, p. 436.) 
PileuS convex, glabrous, viscid when moist, at length wrinkled or lined. 
Tubes free, convex, white, then sordid, their mouths minute, rotund. 
Stem solid, attenuated above, roughened with fibrous scales. Spores 
oblong-fusiform, snuff-brown, 14 18x4 6//.. 



Boletus. Pileus 1-5 in. broad. Stem 3-5 in- long. 3-8 lines thick. 

Woods, swamps and open places. 
(Plate CXXI.) . 

Very common and appearing through 

summer and autumn. 

This may fairly be called our most 
common and variable species. It is 
recorded in nearly every local list of 
fungi. The pileus is convex, hemis- 
pherical or even subconical. It may be 
glabrous, minutely tomentose, subvel- 
vety or squamulose. The flesh is white 
or whitish and sometimes slightly change- 
able where wounded. The tubes are gen- 
erally rather long and with a rounded or 
convex surface. The stem is distinctly 
scabrous or roughened with small black- 
ish-brown or reddish dots or scales, the 
ground color generally being whitish, 
grayish or pallid. The spores have 
been described as pale-brown and light- 
yellowish. When caught in a mass on white paper they appear 
to me to approach snuff-brown. The viscidity of the pileus is not 
always clearly discernible. Indeed the pileus is often quite as dry as in 
B. versipellis. When moistened by heavy rains it sometimes is smooth 
and clammy to the touch but scarcely viscid. Several varieties have 
been indicated which are expressive of the variations in the color of the 

Var. testa ceus. Pileus brick-red. 
Var. auranti'acus. Pileus orange or orange-red. 
These appear to connect this species and B. versipellis. 
Var. aluta'ceus. Pileus yellowish-tan color. 
Var. fuligin'eus. Pileus fuliginous or cinereous-fuliginous. 
Var. ftis'cus. Pileus brown or dark-brown. 
Var. oliva'ceus. Pileus olivaceous. 

Var. ni'veus. Pileus white, when old sometimes stained with blue or 

To these might be added : 

One-half natural size. 



Var. areoldtus. Pileus rimose-areolate. (Plate CXVIII, fig. 4, Boletus. 

P- 436.) 

Var. mtitab'ilis. Flesh changing slightly to brown or pinkish where 

Var. graci'lipes. Stem very slender, 2-3 in. long, 2-3 lines thick. 
Pileus thin, translucent when held toward the light. 

This Boletus is classed among the edible species, but it is said to be 
less agreeable than B. edulis. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mcllvaine. 

The numerous varieties with their peculiarities here given by Professor 
Peck will enable the finder of a Boletus with a distinctly scabrous stern 
roughened with scales, not reticulate to select its name. For the 
mycophagist it is enough to know that he has Boletus scaber. In all of 
its varieties it is edible. The stems, often the tubes, unless young, 
should be discarded, as they do not cook in the same time as the caps. 
The comparative excellence of the species rests with the devourer. It 
deserves a high place. 

B. scaber, var. areolatus, Plate CXVIII, fig. 4, has slight flavor, 
but is of pleasing consistency. 

B. -durius'culus Schulz somewhat hard. Pileus 2-5 in. across, 
hemispherical, minutely velvety, viscid when moist, varying in color 
from pale-brown, through dingy-chestnut, to umber-brown, often be- 
coming cracked in areas when dry, interstices paler. Flesh thick, white 
or tinged yellow, when cut becoming reddish copper-color. Tubes % 
% in. long, shortened round the stem and free, openings about %mm. 
across, often compound, irregularly angular, bright-yellow. Stem 4-7 
in. long, fusiform, thickest part 1)22 in. across, situated below the 
middle, yellowish, rough with blackish points, which are sometimes ar- 
ranged in a subreticulate manner, apex sometimes more or less grooved, 
solid, flesh of upper part becoming coppery like the pileus. Spores 
elongate-cylindrical, pale-umber, i4-:6x5-6/x. 

In woods. Esculent and very delicious. Allied to Boletus scaber, 
but distinguished by the bright-yellow tubes and the very firm flesh, 
which turns coppery-red when exposed to the air ; this color eventually 
changes to a dingy grayish-violet. Also allied to Boletus porphyro- 
sporus. Massee. 



Boletus. Snow Hill, N. J. Gravelly soil, mixed woods, 1892. Mcllvaine. 
The stem and tubes should be removed. The caps are very fine. 

B. albel'lllS Pk. whitish. PileilS convex or gibbous, soft, glabrous, 
whitish. Flesh white, unchangeable. Tubes convex, free, or nearly 
so, small, subrotund, whitish, unchangeable. Stem glabrous or minutely 
branny, substriate, bulbous or thickened at the base, whitish. Spores 
brownish-ochraceous, 1 4-16x5-6^. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 1-2 in. long, 3-6 lines thick. 

Woods. New York, Peck. 

This is closely related to B. scaber, of which it may possibly prove 
to be a dwarf form ; but it is easily distinguished by its smooth or only 
slightly scurfy and subbulbous stem. It presents no appearance of the 
colored dot-like squamules which are a constant and characteristic 
feature of that species. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia. Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia. Mcllvaine. 

Specimens found at Mt. Gretna, Pa., had a satiny, glossy stem, 
beautifully furfuraceous, and stem not thickened at base. Professor 
Peck, to whom specimens were sent, writes: "Stem is a little more 
furfuraceous, and not thickened at the base, otherwise the agreement is 
very good." It is good fried. 

B. chro'mapes Frost. Pileus convex or nearly plane, slightly and 
sometimes fasciculately tomentose, pale-red. Flesh white, unchangeable. 
Tubes subadnate, more or less depressed around the stem, white or 
whitish, becoming brown. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, 
rough-spotted, whitish or pallid, chrome-yellow at the base both without 
and within, sometimes reddish above. Spores oblong, 12-14x4-5. 

PileilS 2-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Woods. New England, Frost; New York, Peck. 

The yellow base of the stem appears to be a peculiar and constant 
character by which the species may easily be recognized. It imitates 
Boletus piperatus in this respect, but in everything els.e it is very dis- 
tinct from that plant. Sometimes the stem' is so badly infested by 
larvae that it is difficult to procure a sound specimen. The spores have 
a subferruginous color with a slight incarnate tint, but the rough-dotted 
stem indicates a relationship with B. scaber. Through this species, Bo- 
letus conicus and B. gracilis, the Versipelles and the Hyporhodii ap- 



pear to run together. In the Catalogue of Plants of Amherst the spe- Boletus, 
cific name is " chromapus." It would be more in accordance with 
present custom to write it "chromopus." Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

A dozen or more specimens referable to this species were found by 
me at Mt. Gretna, Pa., August, 1897, in mixed woods. The caps were 
eaten and were excellent. 

B. neblllo'sus Pk. PileilS convex, dry, snuff-brown or smoky-brown. 
Flesh white, unchangeable. Tubes convex, depressed around the stem, 
pallid or brownish, becoming purplish-brown where wounded, the 
mouths small, rotund. Stem enlarged toward the base, solid, scurfy, 
colored like the pileus. Spores 12.5-15x6;*. 

PileilS 2-4 in= broad. Stem 3-4 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Shaded banks by road-side. Raybrook. August. 

No young or immature specimens were seen, and the description is 
to that extent incomplete. Peck, 5ist Rep. N. Y. State Bot. 

By a painting made by the writer September, 1885, Professor Peck 
identified the species of which it is a picture as B. nebulosus Pk. The 
following notes accompany it, which have been verified many times 
since their writing : 

Oak woods. West Philadelphia, Pa., September. Mt. Gretna, Pa., 

Pileus chestnut-brown and darker, covered with small, low, black 
spots; convex, often depressed in center, sharp on margin. Flesh 
white, thick, solid, unchangeable. Tubes very small, and light pink- 
ish-brown. When touched they change to a deeper hue. Stem same 
color as pileus, but a shade lighter, solid, scurfy, having a striate ap- 
pearance, enlarging toward base. 

Taste sweet and pleasant. Cooked it is juicy, meaty and very fine. 

B. ful'vus Pk. brownish-yellow. (Plate CXVI, fig. 3, p. 420.) 
Pileus thick, convex or subcampanulate, dry, glabrous, rimose-areolate, 
tawny-yellow, the extreme margin dark-brown. Flesh spongy, tough, 
white, slowly assuming a reddish tint upon exposure to the air. Tubes 
rather long, ventricose, depressed around the stem and free or nearly 
so, greenish-yellow, the mouths small, tawny-yellow. Stem rather long, 
often narrowed and striate at the top, dotted with brownish-orange gran- 

30 465 


Boletus, ules or points, radicating, tough, stuffed with greenish-yellow fiDe v 
colored like the pileus. Spores unknown. 

Pileus 2-3 in. broad. Stem 4-5 in. long, 4-8 lines thick. 

Cespitose on decaying stumps. West Philadelphia, Pa. August. 

Mr. Mcllvaine says that there were between twenty and thirty speci- 
mens on and about an old stump and that they were as attractive to the 
eye as a cluster of Clitocybe illudens. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 
27, January, 1900. 

Excellent in flavor, rather spongy, but fine. 

HYPORHO'DII. Gr. somewhat rose-colored. 

Tubes adnate to the stem, whitish, then white-incarnate from the 
rosy spores. 

In this tribe the tubes are at first whitish, but with the development 
of the spores they usually assume a pinkish or flesh-colored hue. 
Wounds of the tubes in some species cause a change in color but not to 
blue, nor are the tube mouths differently colored as in the Luridi. The 
stem in some is more or less reticulated but this is scarcely a constant 
or reliable character in these species. Typically the spores are rosy or 
flesh-colored, but I have admitted species in which they incline to rust- 
colored, giving more weight to the color of the tubes than to that of 
the spores. 

Pileus black or blackish .B. nigrellus 

Pileus some other color , .... ......... i 

I . Stem more than four lines thick , 2 

I. Stem slender, generally less than four lines thick , .B. gracilis 

2 . Stem not reticulated 3 

2 . Stem more or less reticulated. . . . . , 4 

3 . Tubes angular, flesh-colored B. conicus 

3. Tubes round, white .B. alutarius 

4. Taste mild B. indecisus 

4. Taste bitter B. felleus 

Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

B. COIUCUS Rav. conical. Pileus convex or sttbconical, clothed 
with bundled appressed yellowish flocci. Flesh white, unchangeable, 



tasteless. Tubes ventricose, flesh-colored, becoming darker from the Boletus, 
spores, the mouths small, angular, slightly fringed. Stem glabrous, 
tapering upward, pale-yellow. Spores fusiform, subferruginous. 

Pileus 1-2 in. broad. Stem 2 in. long, 6 lines thick. 

Damp pine woods. South Carolina, Ravenel, 

The species is compared to Boletus scaber, from which it differs in its 
smaller tubes and smooth stem, and from both this and B. albellus it 
differs in the color of the tubes and in the yellowish flocci of the pileus. 
I have seen no specimens, but on account of the color of the tubes I 
have placed the species with the Hyporhodii. Peck, Boleti of the U.S. 

B. gracilis Pk. slender. (Plate CXIV, fig. i, p. 414.) Pileus 
convex, glabrous or minutely tomentose, rarely squamulose, ochraceous- 
brown, tawny-brown or reddish-brown. Flesh white. Tubes plane or 
convex, depressed around the stem, nearly free, whitish, becoming pale 
flesh-colored, their mouths subrotund. Stem long, slender, equal or 
slightly tapering upward, pruinose or minutely branny, even or marked 
by slender elevated anastomosing lines which form long narrow reticu- 
lations. Spores subferruginous, 12.5-17.5x5-6/4. 

Var. Ice'vipes. Stem even. 

Pileus 1-2 in = broad. Stem 3-5 in. long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Woods. New York, Peck; New England, Frost; Ohio, Morgan. 

The slender habit separates this species from all the others here in- 
cluded in this tribe. Its spores are not a clear incarnate in color, but 
incline to dull-ferruginous, and by this character this and the preceding 
species connect this tribe with Versipelles. In color B. gracilis resem- 
bles some forms of B. felleus, but in size, habit and color of spores it 
is easily distinct. The tomentum of the pileus sometimes breaks into 
tufts or squamules. This is Boletus vinaceus, Frost MS. Peck, Boleti 
of the U. S. 

B. gracilis, var. laevipes, was found by the writer in Woodland Ceme- 
tery, West Philadelphia, August, 1897, an d at Mt. Gretna, Pa., Sep- 
tember, 1898. The stem of some specimens spreads at the top. The 
pileus is often cracked on the margin, and the upturning of the margin 
often exposes the tubes. Painting, as of this species, identified by 
Professor Peck. 

The taste is at first sweet, then bitter. The bitterness is lost in cook- 
ing. Edible, good. 



Boletus. B. indeci'sus Pk. undecided. (Plate CXXII, fig. i, p. 468.) Pi- 

leus convex or nearly plane, dry, slightly tomentose, ochraceous-brown, 
often wavy or irregular on the margin. Flesh white, unchangeable; 
taste mild. Tubes nearly plane or convex, adnate, grayish becoming 
tinged with flesh color when mature, changing to brownish where 
wounded, their mouths small, subrotund. Stem minutely f urf uraceous, 
straight, or flexuous, reticulated above, pallid without and within. 
Spores oblong, brownish flesh color, 12.5 I5x4/x. 

Pileus 3-4 in. broad. Stem 2-4 in. long, 4-6 lines thick. 

Thin oak wt>ods. New York, Peck. 

The mild taste and darker colored spores will separate this Boletus 
from any form of B. felleus. Its stem reticulated above distinguishes it 
from B. alutarius. It resembles B. modestus in some respects, but its 
tubes are not at all yellow. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

Kentucky, Lloyd, Rep. 4. 

Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia, July, 1897, Mcllvaine; Trenton, 
N. J., August, 1897, Sterling. In open mixed woods. 

Boletus indecisus so closely resembles B. felleus in some of its forms 
that until the color of the spores is ascertained, the sweet taste, without 
trace of bitter, is the only thing that will enable the finder to discrimi- 
nate between them. Young B. felleus are at first pleasant to the taste 
and do not, at once, develop their intense bitter in the mouth. They 
m*ay readily be taken for B. indecisus. If, by mistake, a single B. fel- 
leus is cooked with mild species, the dish will be spoiled. Specimens be- 
lieved to be B. indecisus should be tested. A minute will perfectly sat- 
isfy anyone. 

The B. indecisus is delicious. 

B. aluta'rius Fr. aluta, tanned leather. Pileus convex, then nearly 
plane, soft, velvety, becoming glabrous, brownish tan color. Flesh al- 
most unchangeable, taste mild, watery. Tubes depressed around the 
stem, plane, short, round, white, becoming brownish where wounded. 
8tem solid, bulbous, nearly even, small, irregular prominences at the 
top. Spores 1 4x4/4. 

Pileus 3-4 in - broad. Stem 4-5 in. long. 

Grassy woods. Minnesota, Johnson. Peck, Boleti of the U. S. 

West Virginia mountains, 1882-1885. Margins of woods. Chelten- 



*j 4 

'Q o 




ham, Pa. Margins of woods, 1888-1889, grassy woods and margins. Boletus. 

Common in West Virginia mountains where it grows with B. felleus, 
from which it is impossible to distinguish it without tasting. It is de- 
licious when cooked. But I long ago ceased collecting for the table 
any Boletus questionable for B. felleus. I have been deceived so many 
times taken the bitter for the sweet that, preferring the sweet, I take 
no chances for the bitter. 

B. felleus Bull./*/, gall. Bitter. (Plate CXXII, fig. 2, 3, 4, 
p. 468.) Pileus convex or nearly plane, firm, becoming soft, glabrous, 
even, variable in color, pale-yellowish, grayish-brown, yellowish-brown, 
reddish-brown or chestnut. Flesh white, often changing to flesh color 
where wounded, taste bitter. Tubes adnate, long, convex, depressed 
around the stem, their mouths angular, white, becoming tinged with 
flesh-color. Stem variable, equal or tapering upward, short or long, 
sometimes bulbous or enlarged at the base, subglabrous, generally 
reticulated above, colored like or a little paler than the pile